Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics and modes of employment". Special forces emerged in the early 20th century, with a significant growth in the field during the Second World War, when "every major army involved in the fighting" created formations devoted to special operations behind enemy lines. Depending on the country, special forces may perform functions including airborne operations, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, covert ops, direct action, hostage rescue, high-value targets/manhunting, intelligence operations, mobility operations, unconventional warfare. In Russian-speaking countries special forces of any country are called spetsnaz, an acronym for "special purpose". In the United States the term special forces refers to the US Army's Special Forces, while the term special operations forces is used more broadly for these types of unit.
Special forces capabilities include the following: Special reconnaissance and surveillance in hostile environments Foreign internal defense:Training and development of other states' military and security forces Offensive action Support to counter-insurgency through population engagement and support Counter-terrorism operations Sabotage and demolition Hostage rescueOther capabilities can include bodyguarding. Special forces have played an important role throughout the history of warfare, whenever the aim was to achieve disruption by "hit and run" and sabotage, rather than more traditional conventional combat. Other significant roles lay in reconnaissance, providing essential intelligence from near or among the enemy and in combating irregular forces, their infrastructure and activities. Chinese strategist Jiang Ziya, in his Six Secret Teachings, described recruiting talented and motivated men into specialized elite units with functions such as commanding heights and making rapid long-distance advances.
Hamilcar Barca in Sicily had specialized troops trained to launch several offensives per day. In the late Roman or early Byzantine period, Roman fleets used small, camouflaged ships crewed by selected men for scouting and commando missions. Muslim forces had naval special operations units, including one that used camouflaged ships to gather intelligence and launch raids and another of soldiers who could pass for Crusaders who would use ruses to board enemy ships and capture and destroy them. In Japan, ninjas were used for reconnaissance, espionage and as assassins, bodyguards or fortress guards, or otherwise fought alongside conventional soldiers. During the Napoleonic wars and sapper units were formed that held specialised roles in reconnaissance and skirmishing and were not committed to the formal battle lines; the British Indian Army deployed two special forces during their border wars: the Corps of Guides formed in 1846 and the Gurkha Scouts. During the Second Boer War the British Army felt the need for more specialised units became most apparent.
Scouting units such as the Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment made up of exceptional woodsmen outfitted in ghillie suits and well practised in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, military tactics filled this role. This unit was formed in 1900 by Lord Lovat and early on reported to an American, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts. After the war, Lovat's Scouts went on to formally become the British Army's first sniper unit. Additionally, the Bushveldt Carbineers, formed in 1901, can be seen as an early unconventional warfare unit; the German Stormtroopers and the Italian Arditi were the first modern shock troops. They were both elite assault units trained to a much higher level than that of average troops and tasked to carry out daring attacks and bold raids against enemy defenses. Unlike Stormtroopers, Arditi were not units within infantry divisions, but were considered a separate combat arm. Modern special forces emerged during the Second World War.
In 1940, the British Commandos were formed following Winston Churchill's call for "specially trained troops of the hunter class, who can develop a reign of terror down the enemy coast." A staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Dudley Clarke, had submitted such a proposal to General Sir John Dill, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Dill, aware of Churchill's intentions, approved Clarke's proposal and on 23 June 1940, the first Commando raid took place. By the autumn of 1940 more than 2,000 men had volunteered and in November 1940 these new units were organised into a Special Service Brigade consisting of four battalions under the command of Brigadier J. C. Haydon; the Special Service Brigade was expanded to 12 units which became known as Commandos. Each Commando numbered around 450 men. In December 1940 a Middle East Commando depot was formed with the responsibility of training and supplying reinforcements for the Commando units in that theatre. In February 1942 the Commando training depot at Achnacarry in the Scottish Highlands was established by Brigadier Charles Haydon.
Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Vaughan, the Commando depot was responsible for training complete units and indivi
Council on Foreign Relations
The Council on Foreign Relations, founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U. S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D. C, its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, lawyers and senior media figures. The CFR meetings convene government officials, global business leaders and prominent members of the intelligence and foreign-policy community to discuss international issues. CFR publishes the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs, runs the David Rockefeller Studies Program, which influences foreign policy by making recommendations to the presidential administration and diplomatic community, testifying before Congress, interacting with the media, publishing on foreign policy issues. Towards the end of World War I, a working fellowship of about 150 scholars called "The Inquiry" was tasked to brief President Woodrow Wilson about options for the postwar world when Germany was defeated.
This academic band, including Wilson's closest adviser and long-time friend "Colonel" Edward M. House, as well as Walter Lippmann, met to assemble the strategy for the postwar world; the team produced more than 2,000 documents detailing and analyzing the political and social facts globally that would be helpful for Wilson in the peace talks. Their reports formed the basis for the Fourteen Points, which outlined Wilson's strategy for peace after war's end; these scholars traveled to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and participated in the discussions there. As a result of discussions at the Peace Conference, a small group of British and American diplomats and scholars met on May 30, 1919 at the Hotel Majestic in Paris and decided to create an Anglo-American organization called "The Institute of International Affairs", which would have offices in London and New York. Due to the isolationist views prevalent in American society at the time, the scholars had difficulty gaining traction with their plan, turned their focus instead to a set of discreet meetings, taking place since June 1918 in New York City, under the name "Council on Foreign Relations."
The meetings were headed by the corporate lawyer Elihu Root, who had served as Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt, attended by 108 “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” The members were proponents of Wilson's internationalism, but were concerned about "the effect that the war and the treaty of peace might have on postwar business." The scholars from the inquiry saw an opportunity here to create an organization that brought diplomats, high-level government officials and academics together with lawyers and industrialists to engineer government policy. On July 29, 1921 they filed a certification of incorporation forming the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1922 Edwin F. Gay, former dean of the Harvard Business School and director of the Shipping Board during the war, spearheaded the Council's efforts to begin publication of a magazine that would be the "authoritative" source on foreign policy, he gathered $125,000 from the wealthy members on the council, via sending letters soliciting funds to "the thousand richest Americans".
Using these funds, the first issue of Foreign Affairs was published in September 1922, within a few years had gained a reputation as the "most authoritative American review dealing with international relations". In the late 1930s, the Ford Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation began contributing large amounts of money to the Council. In 1938 they created various Committees on Foreign Relations, which became governed by the American Committees on Foreign Relations in Washington, D. C. throughout the country, funded by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. Influential men were to be chosen in a number of cities, would be brought together for discussions in their own communities as well as participating in an annual conference in New York; these local committees served to influence local leaders and shape public opinion to build support for the Council's policies, while acting as "useful listening posts" through which the Council and U. S. government could "sense the mood of the country". Beginning in 1939 and lasting for five years, the Council achieved much greater prominence within the government and the State Department, when it established the confidential War and Peace Studies, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.
The secrecy surrounding this group was such that the Council members who were not involved in its deliberations were unaware of the study group's existence. It was divided into four functional topic groups: economic and financial and armaments, political; the security and armaments group was headed by Allen Welsh Dulles who became a pivotal figure in the CIA's predecessor, the Office of Strategic Services. The CFR produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the appropriate government departments. A critical study found that of 502 government officials surveyed from 1945 to 1972, more than half were members of the Council. During the Eisenhower administration 40% of the top U. S. foreign policy officials were CFR members. During the Kennedy administration, this number rose to 51%, peaked at 57% under the Johnson administration. In an anonymous piece called "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" that appeared in Foreign Affairs in 1947, CFR study group member George Kennan coined the term "containment".
Abbottabad is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is about 120 kilometres north of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, 150 kilometres east of Peshawar, at an altitude of 1,260 metres. Kashmir lies to the east; the city is well known throughout Pakistan for its pleasant weather, high-standard educational institutions and for hosting the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul. It remains a popular hill station attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists every year. Outside of Pakistan, it is best known as the place. Abbottabad was founded and named after Major James Abbott in January 1853 as the headquarters of Hazara District during the British Raj after the annexation of Punjab, he remained the first Deputy Commissioner of the Hazara district from 1849 until April 1853. Major Abbott is noted for having written a poem titled "Abbottabad", before his return to Britain, in which he wrote of his fondness for the town and his sadness at having to leave it.
In the early 20th century, Abbottabad became an important military cantonment and sanatorium, serving as the headquarters of a brigade in the Second Division of the Northern Army Corps. The garrison consisted of four battalions of native infantry, of the Frontier Force and two native mountain batteries. In 1901, the population of the town and cantonment was 7,764 with an average income of Rs. 14,900. This increased to Rs. 22,300 in 1903, chiefly derived from octroi. During this time chief public institutions were built such as the Albert Victor Unaided Anglo-Vernacular High School, the Municipal Anglo-Vernacular High School and the government dispensary. In 1911, the population had risen to 11,506 and the town contained four battalions of Gurkhas. In June 1948, the British Red Cross opened a hospital in Abbottabad to deal with thousands of injured being brought in from Kashmir. In October 2005 Abbottabad was devastated by the Kashmir earthquake. Although most of Abbottabad survived, many older buildings were destroyed or damaged.
On 25 January 2011, Indonesian terrorist Umar Patek was arrested in Abbotobad. Patek, a member of the Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist group, was wanted in connection with a deadly series of church bombings in Indonesia in 2000, three attacks that killed 202 people in tourist districts of Indonesia in what became known as the Bali bombings. On 2 May 2011, Abbottabad gained worldwide attention when U. S. President Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden had been killed in his compound in the city. In February 2012, nine months after bin Laden was killed, Pakistani authorities demolished the compound where Osama bin Laden had lived for years; the city is bounded at all four sides by the Sarban hills, from which residents and tourists can view the region and city. The location of the city and the hills allows Abbottabad to experience pleasant weather in the summer and cold winters; the Dor river flows south of Abbottabad through the town of Harnol reaching Tarbela Dam, west of Abbottabad. Neighbouring districts are Mansehra to the north, Muzaffarabad to the east, Haripur to the west and Islamabad Capital Territory to the south.
Abbottabad is in the Orash Valley lying between 34°92′N latitude and 73°13′E longitude at an altitude of 4,120 feet. To the north is the picturesque Kaghan Valley. Abbottabad has a humid subtropical climate, with mild to warm temperatures during the spring and autumn months, hot temperatures during June and July, cool to mild temperatures during the winter; the temperature can rise as high as 38 °C during the mid-summer months and drop below −5 °C during the extreme cold waves. Snowfall occurs in December and January, though it is sparse, while heavy rainfall occurs during the monsoon season stretching from July to September that cause flooding in lower lying parts of the city. Abbottabad is the headquarters of Abbottabad District; the District Nazim, Deputy Inspector General of police and Forest Conservator, all reside in Abbottabad. The city is divided into localities, towns and neighbourhoods. In addition to the civil administration, the town is the regimental headquarters for the Frontier Force Regiment, the Baloch Regiment and Pakistan Army Medical Corps and Kakul Military Academy is located in Abbottabad.
Abbottabad's economy is based on tourism. It is known for its shady gardens, church bells and wide streets in the Old Cantonment which evoke the British colonial era. Abbottabad has been attracting tourists to the city since the colonial era, as it is a major transit point to all major tourist regions of Pakistan such as Nathiagali and Naran. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, "the town is picturesquely situated at the southern corner of the Rash plain, 4,120 feet above the sea". Like much of the mountainous Northern Areas, tourism is an important source of income in Abbottabad. In the summer when temperatures rise to around 45 degrees Celsius in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a large number of tourists travel to Abbottabad; the Karakoram Highway, which traces one of the paths of the ancient Silk Road, starts from Hasan Abdal on the N5 and heads north passing through the city reaching Khunjerab Pass. The Karakorum Highway is a major attraction itself for its views; the Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges can be approached from Abbottabad, it continues to be a transit city for tourists, serving as a base for visiting nearby places, such as Hunza, Gilgit and Indus Kohistan, of the Karakoram Range.
Abbottabad is popular with those looking to relocate. Its weather, peaceful reput
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden rendered Usama bin Ladin, was a founder of the pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda. He was a Saudi Arabian until 1994, a member of the wealthy bin Laden family, an ethnic Yemeni Kindite. Bin Laden's father was Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire from Hadhramaut and the founder of the construction company, Saudi Binladin Group, his mother, Alia Ghanem, was from a secular middle-class family based in Syria. He was born in Saudi Arabia and studied at university in the country until 1979, when he joined Mujahideen forces in Pakistan fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, he helped to fund the Mujahideen by funneling arms and fighters from the Arab world into Afghanistan, gained popularity among many Arabs. In 1988, he formed al-Qaeda, he was banished from Saudi Arabia in 1992, shifted his base to Sudan, until U. S. pressure forced him to leave Sudan in 1996. After establishing a new base in Afghanistan, he declared a war against the United States, initiating a series of bombings and related attacks.
Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings. From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the United States, as the FBI offered a $25 million bounty in their search for him. On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed by United States Navy SEALs inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, where he lived with a local family from Waziristan, during a covert operation conducted by members of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group and Central Intelligence Agency SAD/SOG operators on the orders of U. S. President Barack Obama. One of the most controversial, influential figures in the 20th and 21st centuries, bin Laden was described as a spiritual leader for al-Qaeda organization, he became one of the most symbolic figures in the Arab world following the Soviet withdrawal. Under his leadership, the al-Qaeda organization was responsible for the mass murder of 2,977 victims of the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
There is no universally accepted standard for transliterating Arabic words and Arabic names into English. The FBI and Central Intelligence Agency, as well as other U. S. governmental agencies, have used either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin". Less common renderings include "Ussamah bin Ladin" and, in the French-language media, "Oussama ben Laden". Other spellings include "Binladen" or, as used by his family in the West, "Binladin"; the decapitalization of bin is based on the convention of leaving short prepositions and patronymics uncapitalized in surnames. The spellings with o and e come from a Persian-influenced pronunciation used in Afghanistan, where bin Laden spent many years. Osama bin Laden's full name, Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of Awad, son of Laden". "Mohammed" refers to bin Laden's father Mohammed bin Laden. The Arabic linguistic convention would be to refer to him as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden" alone, as "bin Laden" is a patronymic, not a surname in the Western manner.
According to bin Laden's son Omar bin Laden, the family's hereditary surname is "al-Qahtani", but bin Laden's father, Mohammed bin Laden, never registered the name. Osama bin Laden had assumed the kunyah "Abū'Abdāllāh", his admirers have referred to him by several nicknames, including the "Prince" or "Emir", the "Sheik", the "Jihadist Sheik" or "Sheik al-Mujahid", "Hajj", the "Director". The word usāmah means "lion", earning him the nicknames "Lion" and "Lion Sheik". Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a son of Yemeni Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a millionaire construction magnate with close ties to the Saudi royal family, Mohammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Syrian Hamida al-Attas. In a 1998 interview, bin Laden gave his birth date as March 10, 1957. Mohammed bin Laden divorced Hamida. Mohammed recommended Hamida to an associate. Al-Attas married Hamida in the late 1950s or early 1960s, they are still together; the couple had four children, bin Laden lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.
The bin Laden family made $5 billion in the construction industry, of which Osama inherited around $25–30 million. Bin Laden was raised as a devout Sunni Muslim. From 1968 to 1976, he attended the élite secular Al-Thager Model School, he studied economics and business administration at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest he earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979, or a degree in public administration in 1981. One source described him as "hard working". At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work. Other interests included writing poetry.
Long-range reconnaissance patrol
A long-range reconnaissance patrol, or LRRP, is a small armed reconnaissance team that patrols deep in enemy-held territory. The concept of scouts date back to the origins of warfare itself. However, in modern times these specialized units evolved from examples such as Rogers' Rangers in colonial British America, the Lovat Scouts in World War One, the Long Range Desert Group and the Special Air Service in the Western Desert Campaign and North West Europe, similar units such as Force 136 in East Asia, the special Finnish light infantry units during the Second World War. Postwar, the role was carried in various North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and British Commonwealth countries by units that could trace their origins to these wartime creations such as the British SAS, Australia's Special Air Service Regiment and the New Zealand Special Air Service, 1er RPIMa, GCP, Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés in France and the United States Army Rangers, Long Range Surveillance teams, Reconnaissance and Target Acquisition squadrons.
As indicated, the use of scouts is ancient, during the French and Indian War, the techniques of long-range reconnaissance and raiding were implemented by the British in colonial America. The British employed the American Major Robert Rogers to make long-range attacks against the French and their Indian allies along the frontiers of the British colonies and New France; the achievements of Major Roberts' dozen companies of 1,200 men during the French and Indian War were so extraordinary that his doctrine, "Standing Orders, Rogers' Rangers," 1759, became the cornerstone of future U. S. Army long-range reconnaissance patrol units, including the U. S. Army Rangers, indeed, the Special Operations light infantry community. During the Second World War, the 2/1st North Australia Observer Unit was tasked with patrolling the remote areas of northern Australia on horseback. Many from the Unit were recruited to join M Special Unit and Z Special Unit for long-range specialist reconnaissance and sabotage behind Japanese lines.
In the 1980s the Regional Force Surveillance Units were formed to conduct long-range reconnaissance and surveillance patrols in the sparsely populated and remote regions of northern Australia. The Special Air Service Regiment conducts long-ranged patrols, has done so during combat and peacekeeping deployments; the Canadian Rangers conduct long-range surveillance or sovereignty patrols in the sparsely settled areas of Northern Canada. Although part of the Canadian Army, they are an irregular military force; the Danish Defence Forces had three Long-Range Surveillance companies known as "Patrol-Companies": Two assigned to the two Land Commands: LANDJUT and LANDZEALAND – two all-volunteer units within the Danish Home Guard -, changed into the Special Support and Reconnaissance Company in 2007 as a Special Reconnaissance Company dedicated to supporting the Danish Special Operations. The Third and last company was assigned to the Jutland Division and was trained by instructors from The Danish Army Special Operations Forces: Jægerkorpset in Aalborg.
PTLCOY/DDIV was disbanded in 2002 due to budget-cuts and the intent to implement UAV in the Danish Army as primary means of ISR. The UAV project failed and was disbaned too. To be the worlds smallest LRS unit is The Sirius Dog Sled Patrol, known informally as Siriuspatruljen, it is a small squad-sized elite unit in the Danish Navy, that enforces Danish sovereignty in the Arctic wilderness of northern and eastern Greenland, conducts long-range reconnaissance patrolling. Patrolling is done in pairs, sometimes for four months and without additional human contact. In Finland, long-range patrols were notable during World War II. For example, Erillinen Pataljoona 4, a command of four different long-range patrol detachments; these units conducted reconnaissance and destroy missions. During the trench warfare period of the war, long-range patrols were conducted by special Finnish Sissi troops. After the war, NATO hired former members of the 4th Detached Battalion to spy on Soviet Union's military bases in the Kola Peninsula and Karelian Isthmus.
NATO ended the spy operation in 1957. From on, espionage data was obtained from forward satellites. Former President of Finland, Mauno Koivisto, served in Lauri Törni's specially designed Jäger Company in the Finnish 1st Infantry Division. Lauri Törni entered the US Army Special Forces, he gave important knowledge in long-range patrolling techniques and was declared MIA during the Vietnam War in 1965. His remains were found, brought to the US, buried in Arlington on 26 June 2003. In the German Bundeswehr, LRRP is called Fernspäher; the German Fernspäher units were modelled after the Finnish long-range patrols and derived from the existing elite units of Gebirgsjäger and Fallschirmjäger. There were three companies of Fernspäher in the Bundeswehr, one being assigned to each corps. Since the reformation of German Special Forces in 1996, the Fernspählehrkompanie 200 (FSL
War on Terror
The War on Terror known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign, launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U. S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, "war on terror" a few days in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U. S.. S. operations in internal government documentation. U. S. President Barack Obama announced on 23 May 2013 that the Global War on Terror was over, saying the military and intelligence agencies will not wage war against a tactic but will instead focus on a specific group of networks determined to destroy the U.
S. On 28 December 2014, the Obama administration announced the end of the combat role of the U. S.-led mission in Afghanistan. However, the unexpected rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant terror group—also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria —led to a new operation against terror in the Middle East and South Asia, Operation Inherent Resolve. Criticism of the War on Terror focused on morality, economics; the notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, infringe upon human rights. Critics assert that the term "war" is not appropriate in this context since there is no identifiable enemy and it is unlikely that international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means; the phrase "War on Terror" has been used to refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U. S. U. K. and their allies against organizations and regimes identified by them as terrorist, excludes other independent counter-terrorist operations and campaigns such as those by Russia and India.
The conflict has been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. It has been known as: World War III World War IV Bush's War on Terror The Long War The Forever War The Global War on Terror The War Against al-Qaeda In 1984, the Reagan administration, which had expanded the CIA-run program of funding the Jihadi militants in Afghanistan, employed the term "war against terrorism" to pass legislation aimed at countering terrorist groups in the wake of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 241 U. S. and 58 French peacekeepers. In 2017, U. S. Vice President Mike Pence called the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing "the opening salvo in a war that we have waged since—the global war on terror."The concept of the U. S. at war with terrorism may have begun on 11 September 2001 when Tom Brokaw, having just witnessed the collapse of one of the towers of the World Trade Center, declared "Terrorists have declared war on."On 16 September 2001, at Camp David, U. S. president George W. Bush used the phrase war on terrorism in an ostensibly unscripted comment when answering a journalist's question about the impact of enhanced law enforcement authority given to the U.
S. surveillance agencies on Americans' civil liberties: "This is a new kind of—a new kind of evil. And we understand, and the American people are beginning to understand. This crusade, this war on terrorism is going to take a while, and the American people must be patient. I'm going to be patient." Shortly after, the White House said the president regretted use of the term crusade, as it might have been misunderstood as referring to the historical Crusades. On 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, George Bush said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there, it will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found and defeated."In April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase "War on Terror" as they found it to be less than helpful. This was explained more by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were "a crime, not an act of war.
So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror."U. S. president Barack Obama used the term, but in his inaugural address on 20 January 2009, he stated: "Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred." In March 2009 the Defense Department changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation". In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term and instead to use "Overseas Contingency Operation". Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. In May 2010, the Obama administration published a report outlining its National Security Strategy; the document dropped the Bush-era phrase "global war on terror" and reference to "Islamic extremism," and stated, "This is not a g
Foreign internal defense
Foreign internal defense is a term by the militaries of some countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom, to describe an integrated and synchronized, multi-disciplinary approach to combating actual or threatened insurgency in a foreign state. This foreign state is known as the Host Nation under US doctrine; the term counter-insurgency is more used worldwide than FID. FID involves military deployment of counter-insurgency specialists. According to the US doctrinal manual, Joint Publication 3-22: Foreign Internal Defense, those specialists preferably do not themselves fight the insurgents. Doctrine calls for a close working relationship between the HN government and security forces with outside diplomatic, intelligence, military and other specialists; the most successful FID actions suppress actual violence. Formally, FID is defined as, "Participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government or other designated organization to free and protect its society from subversion and insurgency."
The FID effort is a multinational and interagency effort, requiring integration and synchronization of all instruments of national power. The military instrument of national power supports other instruments of national power to protect and enhance national security interests and deter conflict using a wide range of actions, including: Military engagement, Security cooperation, Deterrence Within this range of military operations, nation assistance is civil or military assistance rendered to a nation by US forces within that nation's territory during peacetime, crises or emergencies, or war, based on agreements mutually concluded between the United States and that nation. Nation assistance operations support the HN by promoting sustainable development and growth of responsive institutions; the goal is to promote long-term regional stability. Nation assistance programs include: security assistance, humanitarian civic assistance, foreign internal defense. MarkupRenders as This is page content; this is more content.
It is important to frame the US FID effort within the context of the US doctrine it supports and to understand how it fits into the HN Internal Defense and Development program. US military support to FID should focus on assisting an HN in anticipating and countering threats or potential threats and addressing the root causes of instability. Emphasis on internal developmental programs as well as internal defense programs when organizing and executing military support to US FID activities is essential. Although the FID operation is considered military engagement, security cooperation, deterrence, FID may include or support operations from across the range of military operations to support the HN's IDAD strategy. Accordingly, US military operations supporting FID provide training, advice, or assistance to local forces executing an IDAD program, rather than US forces conducting IDAD military missions for the HN. Internal threats means threats manifested within the internationally recognized boundaries of a nation.
These threats can come from, but are not limited to, insurgency, and/or criminal activities. B; the focus of US FID efforts is to support development. IDAD is the full range of measures taken by a nation to promote its growth and protect itself from subversion, insurgency and other threats to their security, it focuses on building viable institutions. It is important to understand that both FID and IDAD, although defined terms and used throughout this publication, are not terms used universally outside the Department of Defense. Other terms could be used to encompass what are called IDAD herein. C. Military engagement during FID supports the other instruments of national power through a variety of activities across the range of military operations. In some cases, direct military support may be necessary in order to provide the secure environment for "Although on the surface, FID appears to be a simple concept, that appearance is deceptive. FID is confused with or equated to training foreign forces, when in reality, there is much more to it."
Lieutenant Colonel John Mulbury ARSOF, General Purpose Forces and FID Special Warfare, January–February 2008 Chapter I I-2 JP 3-22 IDAD efforts to become effective. However, absent direction from the President or the Secretary of Defense, US forces engaged in NA are prohibited from engaging in combat operations, except in self-defense. D. From the US perspective, FID refers to the US activities that support an HN IDAD strategy designed to protect against subversion, insurgency and other threats to their security, consistent with US national security objectives and policies, it is the main area for United States counter-insurgency doctrine, although other nations, such as France and the United Kingdom, have carried out FID missions. The FM 3-24 Counterinsurgency, defines counterinsurgency as: Insurgency and its tactics are as old as warfare itself. Joint doctr