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Spica, designated α Virginis, is the brightest object in the constellation Virgo and one of the 20 brightest stars in the night sky. Analysis of its parallax shows, it is rotating ellipsoidal variable. The primary is a variable star of the Beta Cephei type. Spica, along with Arcturus and Denebola or Regulus depending on the source, is part of the Spring Triangle asterism, by extension of the Great Diamond together with the star Cor Caroli; as one of the nearest massive binary star systems to the Sun, Spica has been the subject of many observational studies. Spica is believed to be the star that gave Hipparchus the data that led him to discover the precession of the equinoxes. A temple to Menat at Thebes was oriented with reference to Spica when it was built in 3200 BC, over time, precession but noticeably changed Spica's location relative to the temple. Nicolaus Copernicus made many observations of Spica with his home-made triquetrum for his researches on precession. Spica can be occulted by the Moon and sometimes by planets.

The last planetary occultation of Spica occurred when Venus passed in front of the star on November 10, 1783. The next occultation will occur on September 2197, when Venus again passes in front of Spica; the Sun passes a little more than 2° north of Spica around October 16 every year, the star's heliacal rising occurs about two weeks later. Every 8 years, Venus passes Spica around the time of the star's heliacal rising, as in 2009 when it passed 3.5° north of the star on November 3. A method of finding Spica is to follow the arc of the handle of the Big Dipper to Arcturus, continue on the same angular distance to Spica; this can be recalled by the mnemonic phrase, "arc to Arcturus and spike to Spica." Spica is a close binary star. They stay close together enough; the changes in the orbital motion of this pair results in a Doppler shift in the absorption lines of their respective spectra, making them a double-lined spectroscopic binary. The orbital parameters for this system were inferred using spectroscopic measurements.

Between 1966 and 1970, the Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer was used to observe the pair and to directly measure the orbital characteristics and the angular diameter of the primary, found to be × 10−3 arcseconds, the angular size of the semi-major axis of the orbit was found to be only larger at × 10−3 arcseconds. Spica is a rotating ellipsoidal variable, a non-eclipsing close binary star system where the stars are mutually distorted through their gravitational interaction; this effect causes the apparent magnitude of the star system to vary by 0.03 over an interval that matches the orbital period. This slight dip in magnitude is noticeable visually. Both stars rotate faster than their mutual orbital period; this lack of synchronization and the high ellipticity of their orbit may indicate that this is a young star system. Over time, the mutual tidal interaction of the pair may lead to rotational synchronization and orbit circularization. Spica is a polarimetric variable, first discovered to be such in 2016.

The majority of the polarimetric signal is the result of the reflection of the light from one star off the other. The two stars in Spica were the first to have their reflectivity measured; the geometric albedos of Spica A and B are 3.61 percent and 1.36 percent, values that are low compared to planets. The MK spectral classification of Spica is considered to be an early B-type main sequence star. Individual spectral types for the two components are difficult to assign especially for the secondary due to the Struve–Sahade effect; the Bright Star Catalogue derived a spectral class of B1 III-IV for the primary and B2V for the secondary, but studies have given various different values. The primary star has a stellar classification of B1 III–IV; the luminosity class matches the spectrum of a star, midway between a subgiant and a giant star, it is no longer a main-sequence star. The evolutionary stage has been calculated to be near or past the end of the main sequence phase; this is seven times the Sun's radius.

The bolometric luminosity of the primary is about 20,500 times that of the Sun, nine times the luminosity of its companion. The primary is one of the nearest stars to the Sun that has enough mass to end its life in a Type II supernova explosion; the primary is classified as a Beta Cephei variable star that varies in brightness over a 0.1738-day period. The spectrum shows a radial velocity variation with the same period, indicating that the surface of the star is pulsating outward and contracting; this star is rotating with a rotational velocity of 199 km/s along the equator. The secondary member of this system is one of the few stars whose spectrum is affected by the Struve–Sahade effect; this is an anomalous change in the strength of the spectral lines over the course of an orbit, where the lines become weaker as the star is moving away from the observer. It may be caused by a strong stellar wind from the primary scattering the light from secondary when it is receding; this star is smaller than the primary, with about 7 times the mass of the Sun

WE, Invaders

_wE, Invaders is the second release, first EP by Canadian avant-garde extreme metal band uneXpect. "Novaë" – 6:52 "Rooted Shadows" – 6:08 "In Velvet Coffins We Slept" – 8:22 "Chromatic Chimera" – 5:14 syriaKVocals, guitars Artagoth – Vocals, guitars Le bateleur – Violins Leilindel – Vocals ExoD – Keyboards, sampling ChaotH – 7 and 9 string bass Dasnos – Drums on "Rooted Shadows" and "In Velvet Coffins We Slept" Anthony Trujillo – Drums on "Novaë"Guest musicians Nathalie Duchesne – additional violin and cello Stéphanie Colerette – additional violin and cello


Spongilidae is a family of sponges that live in freshwater lakes and rivers. The following genera are recognized in the family: Anheteromeyenia Schröder, 1927 Corvoheteromeyenia Ezcurra de Drago, 1979 Corvospongilla Annandale, 1911 Dosilia Gray, 1867 Duosclera Reiswig & Ricciardi, 1993 Ephydatia Lamouroux, 1816 Eunapius Gray, 1867 Heteromeyenia Potts, 1881 Heterorotula Penney & Racek, 1968 Nudospongilla Annandale, 1918 Pachyrotula Volkmer-Ribeiro & Rützler, 1997 Pectispongilla Annandale, 1909 Pottsiela Volkmer-Ribeiro, Souza-Machado, Furstenau-Oliveira, Vieira-Soares, 2010 Racekiela Bass & Volkmer-Ribeiro, 1998 Radiospongilla Penney & Racek, 1968 Sanidastra Volkmer-Ribeiro & Watanabe, 1983 Saturnospongilla Volkmer-Ribeiro, 1976 Spongilla Lamarck, 1816 Stratospongilla Annandale, 1909 Trochospongilla Vejdovsky, 1888 Umborotula Penney & Racek, 1968 Uruguayella Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1969

Texas State Highway 144

Texas State Highway 144 is a state highway that runs from Meridian to Granbury in central Texas. SH 144 begins at an intersection with SH 22 in Meridian; the route travels northwest to Walnut Springs before turning in a more northerly direction. It enters Glen Rose, where it has a one-mile concurrency with US 67. After separating from US 67, the highway resumes its northward journey to Granbury, where it intersects the US 377 bypass; the SH 144 designation ends at an intersection with Bus. US 377 in central Granbury. SH 144 was designated on March 1930 from Glen Rose to Meridian; the road from Cleburne to Walnut Springs was erroneously omitted from the state highway log, but was designated as SH 144T. On November 30, 1932, SH 144T was added to the state highway log. On December 8, 1932, SH 144T was decommissioned as the construction on the section of SH 144 from Walnut Springs to Glen Rose was taken over and construction had started on it. On July 12, 1933, it extended north to Granbrey and northwest via Lipan to Brandon's Bridge.

On October 9, 1934, it was rerouted west to northwest of Lipan. On July 15, 1935, everything north of Glen Rose was cancelled; the section from Granbury to Glen Rose was restored on September 22, 1936. An alignment of the route in Glen Rose was designated Spur 216 before being combined with SH 144 in September 26, 1949


Meta-reference is a special type of self-reference that can occur in all media or medial artifacts, for instance literature, painting, TV series, comic strips, or video games. It includes all references to, or comments on, a specific medium, medial artifact, or the media in general; these references and comments originate from a logically higher level within any given artifact, draw attention to—or invite reflection about—media-related issues of said artifact, specific other artifacts, or to parts, or the entirety, of the medial system. It is, the recipient's awareness of an artifact's medial quality that distinguishes meta-reference from more general forms of self-reference. Thus, meta-reference triggers media-awareness within the recipient, who, in turn "becomes conscious of both the medial status of the work" as well as "the fact that media-related phenomena are at issue, rather than references to the world outside the media." Although certain devices, such as mise-en-abîme, may be conducive to meta-reference, they are not metareferential themselves.

Innately metareferential devices, such as metalepsis, are to be seen as special cases of meta-reference. The terms meta-reference and metalepsis can, not be used synonymously. While meta-reference as a concept is not a new phenomenon and can be observed in early works of art and media not tied to specific purposes, the term itself is new. Earlier discussions of metareferential issues opt for more specific terminology tied to the respective discipline. Notable discussions of meta-reference include, but are not limited to, William H. Gass's and Robert Scholes's exploration of metafiction, Victor Stoichita's examination of early modern meta-painting, Lionel Abel's investigation of metatheatre. In the context of drama, meta-reference has become colloquially known as the breaking of the fourth wall; the first study to underscore the problem resulting from the lack of cohesive terminology, as well as the necessity to acknowledge metareference as transmedial and trans-generic phenomenon, was published in 2007 by Hauthal et al.

Publications by Nöth and Bishara as well as Wolf followed suit, raised similar concerns, included case studies from various media and helped establish the more uniform umbrella term meta-reference as define above. While every medium has the potential for meta-reference, some media can transport meta-reference more than others. Media that can realise its meta-referential potential includes, for instance, literature and film. Although music can be meta-referential outside the confines of lyrics, meta-reference in music is much harder to create or detect. Music, would be a less typical medium for the occurrence of meta-reference. Nöth argues in this context that although non-verbal media can be the home of meta-reference, the contained meta-reference can only be implicit because non-verbal media can only show similarities, but never point directly to meta-referential elements. Others, argue that meta-reference is explicit as long as it is clear. John Fowles begins chapter 13 of his novel The French Lieutenant's Woman with the wordsThis story I am telling is all imagination.

These characters I create never existed outside my own mind. If I have pretended until now to know my characters' mind and innermost thoughts, it is because I am writing in a convention universally accepted at the time of my story: that the novelist stands next to God; this is an example of explicit meta-reference because the text draws attention to the fact that the novel the recipient is reading is a fiction created by the author. It foregrounds the convention that readers of realist fiction accept the presence of an all-knowing narrator, breaks it by allowing the narrator to take centre stage which invites meta-reflections by the recipient; the Truman Show is a movie. Truman, the protagonist, is unaware that he is part of a reality TV show, but the audience knows about the artificiality of both Truman's life and, by extension, the movie, being watched; this is underscored by putting emphasis on the production process of the fictional reality TV show, which makes the audience aware of the same features being used in the movie at the time of watching.

Further examples of meta-reference in the movie include spotlights falling from the sky out of the blue, or a raincloud, curiously only raining on Truman following him around on Seahaven Beach. Both instances point to the artificiality of Truman's life as well as the film itself. An example of meta-reference in painting is Manet's Balcony by René Magritte, it comments on another painting, The Balcony by Édouard Manet, by mimicking both the setting of the balcony as well as the poses of the depicted people, but places them in coffins. Thus, the recipient's attention is drawn to the fact that not only are the people in the painting long dead and only still'alive' in the representation, but arguably that the artist and the impressionist painting style are just as dead as the portrayed individuals. Furthermore, it is foregrounded that the impressionist painting style is just a style that may be copied, which further emphasises the fact that both works are only paintings created in a specific way.

Frame story Induction Hypostasis Meta- Metacomic Meta-discussion Meta-joke Metaknowledge Self-reference Story within a story Mise en abyme Metafiction Metatheatre Me

Kanari Hamaguchi

Kanari Hamaguchi is a Japanese volleyball player who plays for Toray Arrows. Kyushubunka high school Toray Arrows 2007-2008 V. Premier League - Best Receiver 2008 Asian Club Championship "Best Libero" 2009-2010 V. Premier League - Best Libero 2007 Domestic Sports Festival - Champion, with Toray Arrows. 2007-2008 Empress's Cup - Champion, with Toray Arrows. 2007-2008 V. Premier League - Champion, with Toray Arrows. 2008 Domestic Sports Festival - Runner-Up, with Toray Arrows. 2008 Asian Club Championship - Bronze Medal with Toray Arrows 2008-2009 V. Premier League - Champion, with Toray Arrows. 2009 Kurowashiki All Japan Volleyball Championship - Champion, with Toray Arrows. 2009-2010 V. Premier League - Champion, with Toray Arrows. 2010 Kurowashiki All Japan Volleyball Championship - Champion, with Toray Arrows. 2010-11 V. Premier League - Runner-up, with Toray Arrows. 2010 World Championship - Bronze medal 2011 Montreux Volley Masters - Champion Toray Arrows Women's Volleyvall Team FIVB Biography