The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cardamom, ginger and turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World; these spices found their way into the Middle East before the beginning of the Christian era, where the true sources of these spices were withheld by the traders and associated with fantastic tales. The maritime aspect of the trade was dominated by the Austronesian peoples in Island Southeast Asia who established the precursor trade routes from Southeast Asia to Sri Lanka and India by at least 1500 BC; these goods were transported by land further on towards the Mediterranean and the Greco-Roman world via the Incense route and the Roman-India routes by Indian and Persian traders. The Austronesian maritime trade lanes expanded into the Middle East and eastern Africa by the 1st millennium AD, resulting in the Austronesian colonization of Madagascar. Within specific regions, Kingdom of Axum had pioneered the Red Sea route before the 1st century AD.
During the first millennium, Ethiopians became the maritime trading power of the Red Sea. By this period, trade routes from Sri Lanka and India were largely controlled by Tamils who had acquired maritime technology from early Austronesian contact. By mid-7th century AD after the rise of Islam, Arab traders started plying these maritime routes and dominated the western Indian Ocean maritime routes. Arab traders took over conveying goods via the Levant and Venetian merchants to Europe until the rise of the Seljuk Turks and the Ottoman Turks cut the route again by 1090 and 1453 respectively. Overland routes helped the spice trade but maritime trade routes led to tremendous growth in commercial activities. During the high and late medieval periods Muslim traders dominated maritime spice trading routes throughout the Indian Ocean, tapping source regions in East Asia and shipping spices from trading emporiums in India westward to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, from which overland routes led to Europe.
The trade was changed by the Crusades and the European Age of Discovery, during which the spice trade in black pepper, became an influential activity for European traders. The Cape Route from Europe to the Indian Ocean via the Cape of Good Hope was pioneered by the Portuguese explorer navigator Vasco da Gama in 1498, resulting in new maritime routes for trade; this trade, which drove the world economy from the end of the Middle Ages well into the Renaissance, ushered in an age of European domination in the East. Channels, such as the Bay of Bengal, served as bridges for cultural and commercial exchanges between diverse cultures as nations struggled to gain control of the trade along the many spice routes. European dominance was slow to develop; the Portuguese trade routes were restricted and limited by the use of ancient routes and nations that were difficult to dominate. The Dutch were able to bypass many of these problems by pioneering a direct ocean route from the Cape of Good Hope to the Sunda Strait in Indonesia.
People from the Neolithic period traded in spices, sea shells, precious stones and other high-value materials as early as the 10th millennium BC. The first to mention the trade in historical periods are the Egyptians. In the 3rd millennium BC, they traded with the Land of Punt, believed to have been situated in an area encompassing northern Somalia, Djibouti and the Red Sea coast of Sudan; the spice trade was associated with overland routes early on but maritime routes proved to be the factor which helped the trade grow. The first true maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean was by the Austronesian peoples of Island Southeast Asia, who built the first ocean-going ships, they established trade routes with Southern India and Sri Lanka as early as 1500 BC, ushering an exchange of material culture and cultigens. Indonesians, in particular were trading in spices with East Africa using catamaran and outrigger boats and sailing with the help of the Westerlies in the Indian Ocean; this trade network expanded to reach as far as Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in the Austronesian colonization of Madagascar by the first half of the first millennium AD.
It continued up to historic times becoming the Maritime Silk Road. In the first millennium BC the Arabs and Indians were engaged in sea and land trade in luxury goods such as spices, precious stones, leather of rare animals and pearls; the sea trade was in the Indian Ocean. The sea route in the Red Sea was from Bab-el-Mandeb to Berenike and from there by land to the Nile and by boats to Alexandria. Luxury goods was traded along the overland Incense Route included Indian spices, ebony and fine textiles. In the second half of the first millennium BC the Arab tribes of South and West Arabia took control over the land trade of spices from South Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea; the tribes were the M'ain, Hadhramaut and Himyarite. In the north the Nabateans took control of the trade route that crossed the Negev from Petra to Gaza; the trade made the Arab tribes rich. The South Arabia region was called Eudaemon Arabia by the Greeks and was on the agenda of conquests of Alexander of Macedonia before he died.
The World Transnational Open Teams Championship is a major side event conducted by the World Bridge Federation during the semifinal and final stages of its world championships for national teams at contract bridge—the Bermuda Bowl, Venice Cup, Senior Bowl. New teams may enter the Transnational, as well as national teams eliminated before the semifinals of the main events—Open and Seniors respectively, it is not required. A series of Swiss matches qualifies eight teams for three knockout rounds which conclude during the finals of the main events; the 15-day "World Team Championships" meet occurs in odd years and the first Transnational Open was added to program in 1997. The eighth rendition was held in October 2011 in Netherlands. Pierre Zimmermann's professional teams have won the last two renditions and "Zimmermann" will be the favorite again. Beginning 2011, the Italian pair Fantoni–Nunes and Norwegian pair Helgemo–Helness, from the 2007 and 2009 winners have been hired to join Zimmermann–Multon full-time, under contract expiring 2016.
The 2013 edition was won by the USA's Gordon team. The World Transnational has always been a major side event conducted alongside the Bermuda Bowl and Venice Cup, it has been possible to enter the Transnational Teams after elimination from the main events before their semifinals. World Transnational Open Team Championship To Date at the World Bridge Federation
Darci Lynne Farmer is an American ventriloquist and singer. She was the winner of season twelve of the NBC competition show America's Got Talent and the runner-up of the first season of America's Got Talent: The Champions. Lynne became both the third female and third child to win America's Got Talent, following Bianca Ryan in season one and Grace VanderWaal in season eleven, she was the third ventriloquist to win, following Terry Fator in season two and Paul Zerdin in season ten. Lynne lives in Oklahoma, she was born on October 12, 2004. Growing up, Lynne loved to sing, her parents encouraged her to overcome her shyness by participating in the 2014 International Cinderella Scholarship Program where she was crowned International Mini Miss. At that pageant she met International Teen titleholder, Laryssa Bonacquisti, a young ventriloquist who inspired her to try ventriloquism herself, she asked her parents and Misty Farmer, for a puppet, insisting that it would overcome her shyness. On her tenth birthday, her parents presented her with a puppet.
Lynne's idol is past America's Got Talent winner Terry Fator. In 2014, she entered Edmond's Got Talent where she won first prize after a month's preparation on Bonacquisti's tips, she was soon brought to the attention of ventriloquy coach Gary Owen, so impressed by Lynne's skill that he agreed to be her coach and business manager. Since she has worked with Owen and vocal teacher Tiana Plemons. In 2015, she won first place in both the junior division at Oklahoma's Got Talent and Oklahoma Kids, won Broadway, Specialty Acts, overall Entertainer of the Year at American Kids in Branson, Missouri. In March 2016, Lynne made an appearance on Little Big Shots, performing "I Want to Be a Cowboy's Sweetheart" with Katie, in July 2016, she became the first child ventriloquist to perform at an evening show in the 40-year history of the Vent Haven International Ventriloquists' ConVENTion, where she fronted for celebrity ventriloquists Kevin Johnson and Todd Oliver. In March 2017, she appeared on the British version of Little Big Shots, again performing "I Want to Be a Cowboy's Sweetheart" with Katie.
Lynne competed on the twelfth season of America's Got Talent in 2017. During the first episode broadcast on May 30, Lynne and her puppet, a sweet, girly bunny named Petunia, performed "Summertime" from Porgy and Bess; the comedy–singing act featured Petunia cutting off Lynne so Petunia could continue singing instead. Judge Mel B praised the act and pressed her Golden Buzzer, allowing Lynne to bypass the judge cuts and go straight to the quarterfinals; the video of this performance became the most viewed video in the show's history within 30 hours of broadcast, placed fourth on YouTube's list of the top 10 trending videos of 2017. For Lynne's first live presentation after her Golden Buzzer performance, she serenaded Mel B with her shy, stuttering Motown mouse puppet, performing "Who's Lovin' You". Judges Howie Mandel, Mel B, Heidi Klum, Simon Cowell gave Lynne standing ovations. For this performance, Lynne received enough viewer votes to move on to the semifinals, where she brought her puppet Edna Doorknocker to sing " A Natural Woman", stood next to the judges' table so Edna could flirt with Simon Cowell.
Again, all four judges gave Lynne a standing ovation. Viewers voted Lynne through to the finals. For her final competition appearance, Lynne performed "With a Little Help from My Friends", with Petunia and Oscar interacting for comedic effect. Again, she earned judges' praise. For the finale in episode 22, Lynne fulfilled her dream by performing "Anything You Can Do" with her idol and mentor Terry Fator, with Lynne singing as Petunia and Fator singing as Winston the Impersonating Turtle. After tripping over the first line of the song, she recovered and the act continued; the field was cut to the top five, to the top two finalists and Angelica Hale. Host Tyra Banks announced Lynne was the winner of the season, having received the most votes out of the 52 million votes cast. With the win, Lynne received the $1 million prize and a headline gig at Planet Hollywood in Las Vegas set for November 3 and 4, with two additional shows on November 2 and 5 being added after the first two dates sold out; the Las Vegas shows featured Angelica Hale, Preacher Lawson and Light Balance.
Lynne was a guest on The Ellen DeGeneres Show in September. She appeared in Jeff Dunham's video, The Haunted House on Dunham Hill, in which she takes three of her puppets trick-or-treating at Dunham's home, where they encounter him and some of his puppets. In November, she made a guest appearance during a Terry Fator performance at the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino in Tulsa. In November, she appeared in A Very Pentatonix Christmas performing "O Easter Egg" with Petunia. In December, Lynne appeared as part of the charity event One Night With the Stars at Madison Square Garden, her December 16 homecoming show iHeartMedia and KJ103 Present Darci Lynne sold out within six minutes of the tickets going on sale. As a result, a matinee show earlier the same day and later another two shows on December 17 were added. On December 31, she performed at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas along with Fergie as part of a New Year's Eve event. In November 2017, Darci Lynne and Friends Live, a national tour, was announced, starting with five locations, to take place in January and February 2018, expanded to 52 dates taking place between January 2018 and January 2019, including 9 Christmas performances in November and December, referred to as Rocking A