Cover of Web of Spider-Man #129.1 (Oct. 2012)
Art by Mike McKone and Morry Hollowell.
|First appearance||Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962)|
|Created by||Stan Lee|
|Alter ego||Peter Benjamin Parker|
|Place of origin||Queens, New York City|
|Notable aliases||Ricochet, Dusk, Prodigy, Hornet, Ben Reilly,|
Scarlet Spider, Captain Universe, Liar
Spider-Man is a fictional superhero created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko. He first appeared in the anthology comic book Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) in the Silver Age of Comic Books, he appears in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, as well as in a number of movies, television shows, and video game adaptations set in the Marvel Universe. In the stories, Spider-Man is the alias of Peter Parker, an orphan raised by his Aunt May and Uncle Ben in New York City after his parents Richard and Mary Parker were killed in a plane crash. Lee and Ditko had the character deal with the struggles of adolescence and financial issues, and accompanied him with many supporting characters, such as J. Jonah Jameson, Flash Thompson, Harry Osborn, romantic interests Gwen Stacy and Mary Jane Watson, and foes such as Doctor Octopus, Green Goblin and Venom. His origin story has him acquiring spider-related abilities after a bite from a radioactive spider; these include clinging to surfaces, shooting spider-webs from wrist-mounted devices, and detecting danger with his "spider-sense".
When Spider-Man first appeared in the early 1960s, teenagers in superhero comic books were usually relegated to the role of sidekick to the protagonist; the Spider-Man series broke ground by featuring Peter Parker, a high school student from Queens behind Spider-Man's secret identity and with whose "self-obsessions with rejection, inadequacy, and loneliness" young readers could relate. While Spider-Man had all the makings of a sidekick, unlike previous teen heroes such as Bucky and Robin, Spider-Man had no superhero mentor like Captain America and Batman; he thus had to learn for himself that "with great power there must also come great responsibility"—a line included in a text box in the final panel of the first Spider-Man story but later retroactively attributed to his guardian, the late Uncle Ben.
Marvel has featured Spider-Man in several comic book series, the first and longest-lasting of which is The Amazing Spider-Man. Over the years, the Peter Parker character developed from a shy, nerdy New York City high school student to troubled but outgoing college student, to married high school teacher to, in the late 2000s, a single freelance photographer. In the 2010s, he joins the Avengers, Marvel's flagship superhero team. Spider-Man's nemesis Doctor Octopus also took on the identity for a story arc spanning 2012–2014, following a body swap plot in which Peter appears to die. Marvel has also published books featuring alternate versions of Spider-Man, including Spider-Man 2099, which features the adventures of Miguel O'Hara, the Spider-Man of the future; Ultimate Spider-Man, which features the adventures of a teenaged Peter Parker in an alternate universe; and Ultimate Comics Spider-Man, which depicts the teenager Miles Morales, who takes up the mantle of Spider-Man after Ultimate Peter Parker's supposed death. Miles is later brought into mainstream continuity, where he works alongside Peter.
Spider-Man is one of the most popular and commercially successful superheroes; as Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in countless forms of media, including several animated and live action television series, syndicated newspaper comic strips, and in a series of films. The character was first portrayed in live action by Danny Seagren in Spidey Super Stories, a The Electric Company skit which ran from 1974 to 1977. In films, Spider-Man has been portrayed by actors Tobey Maguire, Andrew Garfield, and in the Marvel Cinematic Universe Tom Holland. Reeve Carney starred as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. Spider-Man has been well received as a superhero and comic book character, and he is often ranked as one of the most popular and iconic comic book characters of all time and one of the most popular characters in all fiction.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Fictional character biography
- 3 Personality and themes
- 4 Powers, skills, and equipment
- 5 Supporting cast
- 6 Cultural influence and legacy
- 7 In other media
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Creation and development
In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea, he said the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, and the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.:1 In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter the Spider as a great influence,:130 and in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so often he has become unsure of whether or not this is true.[note 1] Although at the time teenage superheroes were usually given names ending with "boy", Lee says he chose "Spider-Man" because he wanted the character to age as the series progressed, and moreover felt the name "Spider-Boy" would have made the character sound inferior to other superheroes. At that time Lee had to get only the consent of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval. In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections.[note 2] Goodman eventually agreed to a Spider-Man tryout in what Lee in numerous interviews recalled as what would be the final issue of the science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, which was renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15 (cover-dated August 1962, on sale June 5, 1962). In particular, Lee stated that the fact that it had already been decided that Amazing Fantasy would be cancelled after issue #15 was the only reason Goodman allowed him to use Spider-Man. While this was indeed the final issue, its editorial page anticipated the comic continuing and that "The Spiderman [sic] ... will appear every month in Amazing."
Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby; as comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference", Theakston writes, and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages. Steve Ditko would be the inker;[note 3] when Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face, it would also add mystery to the character....
Although the interior artwork was by Ditko alone, Lee rejected Ditko's cover art and commissioned Kirby to pencil a cover that Ditko inked; as Lee explained in 2010, "I think I had Jack sketch out a cover for it because I always had a lot of confidence in Jack's covers."
In an early recollection of the character's creation, Ditko described his and Lee's contributions in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965): "Stan Lee thought the name up. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal." At the time, Ditko shared a Manhattan studio with noted fetish artist Eric Stanton, an art-school classmate who, in a 1988 interview with Theakston, recalled that although his contribution to Spider-Man was "almost nil", he and Ditko had "worked on storyboards together and I added a few ideas, but the whole thing was created by Steve on his own... I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands.":14
Kirby disputed Lee's version of the story and claimed Lee had minimal involvement in the character's creation. According to Kirby, the idea for Spider-Man had originated with Kirby and Joe Simon, who in the 1950s had developed a character called the Silver Spider for the Crestwood Publications comic Black Magic, who was subsequently not used.[note 4] Simon, in his 1990 autobiography, disputed Kirby's account, asserting that Black Magic was not a factor, and that he (Simon) devised the name "Spider-Man" (later changed to "The Silver Spider"), while Kirby outlined the character's story and powers. Simon later elaborated that his and Kirby's character conception became the basis for Simon's Archie Comics superhero the Fly. Artist Steve Ditko stated that Lee liked the name Hawkman from DC Comics, and that "Spider-Man" was an outgrowth of that interest.
Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man, as drawn and envisioned by Kirby, was too similar to the Fly.:127
Author and Ditko scholar Blake Bell writes that it was Ditko who noted the similarities to the Fly. Ditko recalled that "Stan called Jack about the Fly", adding that "[d]ays later, Stan told me I would be penciling the story panel breakdowns from Stan's synopsis", it was at this point that the nature of the strip changed. "Out went the magic ring, adult Spider-Man and whatever legend ideas that Spider-Man story would have contained". Lee gave Ditko the premise of a teenager bitten by a spider and developing powers, a premise Ditko would expand upon to the point he became what Bell describes as "the first work for hire artist of his generation to create and control the narrative arc of his series". On the issue of the initial creation, Ditko states, "I still don't know whose idea was Spider-Man". Kirby noted in a 1971 interview that it was Ditko who "got Spider-Man to roll, and the thing caught on because of what he did". Lee, while claiming credit for the initial idea, has acknowledged Ditko's role, stating, "If Steve wants to be called co-creator, I think he deserves [it]", he has further commented that Ditko's costume design was key to the character's success; since the costume completely covers Spider-Man's body, people of all races could visualize themselves inside the costume and thus more easily identify with the character.
A few months after Spider-Man's introduction, publisher Goodman reviewed the sales figures for that issue and was shocked to find it was one of the nascent Marvel's highest-selling comics.:97 A solo ongoing series followed, beginning with The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (cover-dated March 1963); the title eventually became Marvel's top-selling series:211 with the character swiftly becoming a cultural icon; a 1965 Esquire poll of college campuses found that college students ranked Spider-Man and fellow Marvel hero the Hulk alongside Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons. One interviewee selected Spider-Man because he was "beset by woes, money problems, and the question of existence. In short, he is one of us.":223 Following Ditko's departure after issue #38 (July 1966), John Romita, Sr. replaced him as penciler and would draw the series for the next several years. In 1968, Romita would also draw the character's extra-length stories in the comics magazine The Spectacular Spider-Man, a proto-graphic novel designed to appeal to older readers, it only lasted for two issues, but it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication, aside from the original series' summer annuals that began in 1964.
An early 1970s Spider-Man story led to the revision of the Comics Code. Previously, the Code forbade the depiction of the use of illegal drugs, even negatively. However, in 1970, the Nixon administration's Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asked Stan Lee to publish an anti-drug message in one of Marvel's top-selling titles.:239 Lee chose the top-selling The Amazing Spider-Man; issues #96–98 (May–July 1971) feature a story arc depicting the negative effects of drug use. In the story, Peter Parker's friend Harry Osborn becomes addicted to pills; when Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, Harry's father), Spider-Man defeats the Green Goblin, by revealing Harry's drug addiction. While the story had a clear anti-drug message, the Comics Code Authority refused to issue its seal of approval. Marvel nevertheless published the three issues without the Comics Code Authority's approval or seal; the issues sold so well that the industry's self-censorship was undercut and the Code was subsequently revised.:239
In 1972, a second monthly ongoing series starring Spider-Man began: Marvel Team-Up, in which Spider-Man was paired with other superheroes and villains. From that point on there have generally been at least two ongoing Spider-Man series at any time. In 1976, his second solo series, Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man began running parallel to the main series. A third series featuring Spider-Man, Web of Spider-Man, launched in 1985 to replace Marvel Team-Up; the launch of a fourth monthly title in 1990, the "adjectiveless" Spider-Man (with the storyline "Torment"), written and drawn by popular artist Todd McFarlane, debuted with several different covers, all with the same interior content. The various versions combined sold over 3 million copies, an industry record at the time. Several limited series, one-shots, and loosely related comics have also been published, and Spider-Man makes frequent cameos and guest appearances in other comic series. In 1996 The Sensational Spider-Man was created to replace Web of Spider-Man.
In 1998 writer-artist John Byrne revamped the origin of Spider-Man in the 13-issue limited series Spider-Man: Chapter One (December 1998 – October 1999), similar to Byrne's adding details and some revisions to Superman's origin in DC Comics' The Man of Steel. At the same time the original The Amazing Spider-Man was ended with issue #441 (November 1998), and The Amazing Spider-Man was restarted with vol. 2, #1 (January 1999). In 2003 Marvel reintroduced the original numbering for The Amazing Spider-Man and what would have been vol. 2, #59 became issue #500 (December 2003).
When primary series The Amazing Spider-Man reached issue #545 (December 2007), Marvel dropped its spin-off ongoing series and instead began publishing The Amazing Spider-Man three times monthly, beginning with #546–548 (all January 2008); the three times monthly scheduling of The Amazing Spider-Man lasted until November 2010 when the comic book was increased from 22 pages to 30 pages each issue and published only twice a month, beginning with #648–649 (both November 2010). The following year, Marvel launched Avenging Spider-Man as the first spinoff ongoing series in addition to the still twice monthly The Amazing Spider-Man since the previous ones were cancelled at the end of 2007; the Amazing series temporarily ended with issue #700 in December 2012, and was replaced by The Superior Spider-Man, which had Doctor Octopus serve as the new Spider-Man, having taken over Peter Parker's body. Superior was an enormous commercial success for Marvel, and ran for 31-issue before the real Peter Parker returned in a newly relaunched The Amazing Spider-Man #1 in April 2014.
Following the 2015 Secret Wars event, a number of Spider-Man-related titles were either relaunched or created as part of the "All-New, All-Different Marvel" event. Among them, The Amazing Spider-Man was relaunched as well and primarily focuses on Peter Parker continuing to run Parker Industries, and becoming a successful businessman who is operating worldwide.
Fictional character biography
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2019)
In Forest Hills, Queens, New York, Midtown High School student Peter Benjamin Parker is a science-whiz orphan living with his Uncle Ben and Aunt May; as depicted in Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962), he is bitten by a radioactive spider (erroneously classified as an insect in the panel) at a science exhibit and "acquires the agility and proportionate strength of an arachnid". Along with heightened athletic abilities, Parker gains the ability to adhere to walls and ceilings. Through his native knack for science, he develops a gadget that lets him fire adhesive webbing of his own design through small, wrist-mounted barrels. Initially seeking to capitalize on his new abilities, Parker dons a costume and, as "Spider-Man", becomes a novelty television star. However, "He blithely ignores the chance to stop a fleeing thief, [and] his indifference ironically catches up with him when the same criminal later robs and kills his Uncle Ben." Spider-Man tracks and subdues the killer and learns, in the story's next-to-last caption, "With great power there must also come—great responsibility!"
Despite his superpowers, Parker struggles to help his widowed aunt pay rent, is taunted by his peers—particularly football star Flash Thompson—and, as Spider-Man, engenders the editorial wrath of newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. As he battles his enemies for the first time, Parker finds juggling his personal life and costumed adventures difficult. In time, Peter graduates from high school, and enrolls at Empire State University (a fictional institution evoking the real-life Columbia University and New York University), where he meets roommate and best friend Harry Osborn, and girlfriend Gwen Stacy, and Aunt May introduces him to Mary Jane Watson; as Peter deals with Harry's drug problems, and Harry's father is revealed to be Spider-Man's nemesis the Green Goblin, Peter even attempts to give up his costumed identity for a while. Gwen Stacy's father, New York City Police detective captain George Stacy is accidentally killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus (#90, November 1970).
In issue #121 (June 1973), the Green Goblin throws Gwen Stacy from a tower of either the Brooklyn Bridge (as depicted in the art) or the George Washington Bridge (as given in the text), she dies during Spider-Man's rescue attempt; a note on the letters page of issue #125 states: "It saddens us to say that the whiplash effect she underwent when Spidey's webbing stopped her so suddenly was, in fact, what killed her." The following issue, the Goblin appears to kill himself accidentally in the ensuing battle with Spider-Man.
Working through his grief, Parker eventually develops tentative feelings toward Watson, and the two "become confidants rather than lovers". A romantic relationship eventually develops, with Parker proposing to her in issue #182 (July 1978), and being turned down an issue later. Parker went on to graduate from college in issue #185, and becomes involved with the shy Debra Whitman and the extroverted, flirtatious costumed thief Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, whom he meets in issue #194 (July 1979).
From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a black costume with a white spider design on his chest; the new costume originated in the Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains. He continues wearing the costume when he returns, starting in The Amazing Spider-Man #252; the change to a longstanding character's design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals Superman and Batman." The creators then revealed the costume was an alien symbiote which Spider-Man is able to reject after a difficult struggle, though the symbiote returns several times as Venom for revenge. Parker proposes to Watson in The Amazing Spider-Man #290 (July 1987), and she accepts two issues later, with the wedding taking place in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #21 (1987) — promoted with a real-life mock wedding using actors at Shea Stadium, with Stan Lee officiating, on June 5, 1987. David Michelinie, who scripted based on a plot by editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, said in 2007, "I didn't think they actually should [have gotten] married. ... I had actually planned another version, one that wasn't used." Parker published a book of Spider-Man photographs, Webs. and returned to his Empire State University graduate studies in biochemistry in #310 (Dec. 1988).
In the controversial 1990s storyline the "Clone Saga", a clone of Parker, created in 1970s comics by insane scientist Miles Warren, a.k.a. the supervillain the Jackal, returns to New York City upon hearing of Aunt May's health worsening. The clone had lived incognito as "Ben Reilly", but now assumes the superhero guise the Scarlet Spider and allies with Parker. To the surprise of both, new tests indicate "Reilly" is the original and "Parker" the clone. Complicating matters, Watson announces in The Spectacular Spider-Man #220 (Jan. 1995) that she is pregnant with Parker's baby. Later, however, a resurrected Green Goblin (Norman Osborn) has Watson poisoned, causing premature labor and the death of her and Parker's unborn daughter; the Goblin had also switched the results of the clone test in an attempt to destroy Parker's life by making him believe himself to be the clone. Reilly is killed while saving Parker, in Peter Parker: Spider-Man #75 (Dec. 1996), and his body immediately crumbles into dust, confirming Reilly was the clone.
In issue #97 (Nov. 1998) of the second series titled Peter Parker: Spider-Man, Parker learns his Aunt May was kidnapped by Norman Osborn and her apparent death in The Amazing Spider-Man #400 (April 1995) had been a hoax. Shortly afterward, in The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2, #13 (#454, Jan. 2000), Watson is apparently killed in an airplane explosion. She turns up safe and alive in vol. 2, #28 (#469, April 2001), but she and Peter become separated in the following issue.
Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski began writing The Amazing Spider-Man, illustrated by John Romita Jr., beginning with vol. 2, #30 (#471, June 2001). Two issues later, Parker, now employed as a teacher at his old high school, meets the enigmatic Ezekiel, who possesses similar spider powers and suggests that Parker having gained such abilities might not have been a fluke — that Parker has a connection to a totemic spider spirit. In vol. 2, #37 (#478, Jan. 2002), May discovers her nephew Parker is Spider-Man, leading to a new openness in their relationship. Parker and Watson reconcile in vol. 2, #50 (#491, April 2003), and in #512 (Nov. 2004) — the original issue numbering having returned with #500 — Parker learns his late girlfriend Gwen Stacy had had two children with Norman Osborn.
He joins the superhero team the Avengers in New Avengers #1-2. After their respective homes are destroyed by a deranged, superpowered former high-school classmate, Parker, Watson, and May move into Stark Tower, and Parker begins working as Tony Stark's assistant while again freelancing for The Daily Bugle and continuing his teaching. In the 12-part, 2005 story arc "The Other", Parker undergoes a transformation that evolves his powers. In the comic Civil War #2 (June 2006), part of the company-wide crossover arc of that title, the U.S. government's Superhuman Registration Act leads Spider-Man to reveal his true identity publicly. A growing unease about the Registration Act prompts him to escape with May and Watson and join the anti-registration underground.
In issue #537 (Dec. 2006), May is critically wounded by a sniper and enters a coma. Parker, desperate to save her, exhausts all possibilities and makes a pact with the demon Mephisto, who saves May's life in exchange for Parker and Watson agreeing to have their marriage and all memory of it disappear. In this changed reality, Spider-Man's identity is secret once again, and in #545 (Jan. 2008), Watson returns and is cold toward him.
That controversial storyline, "One More Day", rolled back much of the fictional continuity at the behest of editor-in-chief Joe Quesada, who said, "Peter being single is an intrinsic part of the very foundation of the world of Spider-Man", it caused unusual public friction between Quesada and writer Straczynski, who "told Joe that I was going to take my name off the last two issues of the [story] arc" but was talked out of doing so. At issue with Straczynski's climax to the arc, Quesada said, was
...that we didn't receive the story and methodology to the resolution that we were all expecting. What made that very problematic is that we had four writers and artists well underway on [the sequel arc] "Brand New Day" that were expecting and needed "One More Day" to end in the way that we had all agreed it would. ... The fact that we had to ask for the story to move back to its original intent understandably made Joe upset and caused some major delays and page increases in the series. Also, the science that Joe was going to apply to the retcon of the marriage would have made over 30 years of Spider-Man books worthless, because they never would have had happened. ...[I]t would have reset way too many things outside of the Spider-Man titles. We just couldn't go there....
In this new continuity, designed to have very limited repercussions throughout the remainder of the Marvel Universe, Parker returns to work at the Daily Bugle, which has been renamed The DB under a new publisher, he soon switches to the alternative press paper The Front Line. J. Jonah Jameson becomes mayor of New York City in #591 (June 2008). Jameson's estranged father, J. Jonah Jameson, Sr., marries May in issue #600 (Sept. 2009).
After Osborn's fall and the Registration Act's abolition following the Siege of Asgard, MJ invited Peter over so the two of them could gain closure over the marriage that didn't happen and the break-up. Later, a massive war ensued between Doctor Octopus and Spider-Man to get Lily Hollister's and Norman Osborn's son, Spidey found that the child was actually Harry's, who later leaves town to raise him. Peter then finally starts a relationship with police officer Carlie Cooper. Spider-Man's heroic career rose up again, he joined the reassembled Avengers and also stayed with the New Avengers, who were outlaws no more, he learned that Michele was moving and he couldn't maintain his apartment anymore. However, Peter found a dream job, thanks to Jameson's wife Marla Madison, as a compensation for Jameson firing him, as a scientist at Horizon Labs where he had access to much technology and resources while also giving him freedom to come and go as he liked so long as he delivered good results. Spider-Man assisted the Avengers in defeating Doctor Octopus' army of macro-octobots, he then faced a new Hobgoblin and the Kingpin, but days later, he lamentably lost Marla in a fight between Alistair Smythe's Spider-Slayers.
After helping Anti-Venom (Eddie Brock) to reveal Mr. Negative's identity (as well as learning that Aunt May was moving to Boston with Jay) Spider-Man found himself with a new problem: the Jackal returned and gave the majority of New Yorkers spider-powers; the Queen was revealed as the true mastermind: she wanted to turn the whole human race into spiders. Mr. Fantastic created a cure using the Anti-Venom Symbiote, and after battling Peter (under Jackal's influence), Peter's clone Kaine was accidentally cured from his mutations, turning him into a perfect clone. While he and the Avengers battled the Spider-Queen in Central Park, Kaine killed her and Peter managed to get the cure to every citizen via Doc Ock's (mentally controlled) octobots, he met with Jay and May while they were leaving for Boston. Peter then ran into Kaine, who told Peter that he was leaving New York and would Peter's stealth suit, since Madame Web told Kaine he may need it. Also, because of revealing he had spider-powers during the Spider-Island event, Peter's psychic blind spot was weakened, letting Carlie know he was Spider-Man, which caused her to break up with him. Before giving a last cure sample to MJ, who briefly attempted to keep some spider-powers, Spidey met with Madame Web on the roof of Horizon Labs, she told him that he could de-power himself with the cure sample and someone else will step in to take his place. Peter refuses, saying that throwing his gift away would be the most irresponsible thing he's ever done. Madame Web warns that he is to suffer a loss, he then cures MJ and they look at the Empire State Building, lit in red and blue in his honor.
"All-New Marvel NOW"
While adjusting to his new status quo, especially his position as the CEO of his very own company, Peter learned of the existence of Cindy Moon, a second person to have been bit by the same radioactive spider which granted Peter his powers. Spider-Man tracked her down and freed her from a bunker owned by the late Ezekiel Simms, where Cindy had spent over a decade in voluntary confinement shortly after getting her powers, in order to avoid drawing Morlun's attention. While Peter notified Cindy that Morlun was dead, he had in fact survived his last encounter against Spider-Man. Not long after rescuing Cindy, who went on to adopt her own superheroic identity as Silk, Spider-Man was approached by a contingent of spider-people from all over the Multiverse that banded together to fight the Inheritors, a group of psychic vampires and family of Morlun that had begun to hunt down the spider-totems of other realities. During a mission to gather more recruits in 2099 A.D., the Spider-Army stumbled upon another party of spider-people led by Otto Octavius, or rather a version of him from the recent past who had been plucked out of time. The combined Spider-Army were forced to retreat to Earth-3145 after their safe zone in Earth-13 had been compromised by the Inheritors, namely Morlun, his brother Jennix, and his father and leader of the Inheritors, Solus. With the help of Spider-Woman, who had previously infiltrated the Inheritor's base on Earth-001, the Spider-Army learned of a prophecy in which the Inheritors planned to sacrifice three key spiders: the Other, the Bride, and the Scion; these individuals were Kaine Parker, Cindy Moon, and Benjy Parker of Earth-982, respectively. With the help of even more recruits from other realities and even a deviant Inheritor named Karn, the Spider-Army, including a version of Gwen Stacy with spider-powers known as "Spider-Gwen", launched one final attack on the Inheritors' home of Earth-001; the ritual was stopped, and the Inheritors were exiled with no means to return home to the radioactive wasteland that had become the world of Earth-3145. With the Inheritors neutralized, most of the spider-totems were sent home. Spider-Man and a few others stayed on Earth-001 for a little while longer to defeat the time-displaced Octavius, who had gone rogue after learning that Parker would eventually regain control of his body. Octavius was defeated and returned to the time he had come from, losing memory of the recent events in the process. With no more problems to confront, Spider-Man and the rest of the spiders were sent back home.
"All-New, All-Different Marvel"
Unbeknownst to anyone, Otto Octavius had created a digital back-up of his own mind which ended up inhabiting the metallic body of Parker Industries' robotic assistant, the Living Brain. Over the course of the following months, Octavius routinely hacked into the systems of the market share to manipulate its numbers in the favor of Parker Industries.As a consequence of this, the company managed to expand into a global conglomerate with numerous bases in different countries, with the company's trademark invention being a mobile device called the Webware; this change in Peter's life impacted his super heroic alter ego as well. Spider-Man officially became the mascot of Parker Industries under the guise of being Peter's bodyguard.
Spidey's gone global. One of Peter's biggest challenges during his tenure as a billionaire C.E.O was the emergence of a mysterious biotech company, operating out of the Transamerica Pyramid, called New U. Peter discovered it was a front for the operations of the Jackal, who claimed to have found a way to bring people back from the dead using cloning technology. In an attempt to persuade Peter to put Parker Industries' resources to help his plan, the Jackal resurrected numerous of his late friends and foes, including Gwen Stacy. In a turn of events, the Jackal was revealed to be Ben Reilly, who had been brought to life by the original Jackal before taking his place; the Jackal's plan eventually fell apart following the triggering of cellular decay in the clones created by New U, which led to the release of the Carrion Virus worldwide.The crisis was adverted when Spider-Man had his Webwares transmit an audio frequency in a global scale which halted the cellular degeneration, but not before most of the clones died; the Jackal, being a clone himself, was left for dead, though he secretly escaped and returned to the mantle of the Scarlet Spider.
Following Osborn's latest defeat, Peter's life was plagued with problems on both sides; as Spider-Man, now-Mayor Wilson Fisk decided to be publicly accepting of him while condemning all other vigilantes, in order to isolate him from his superhero peers. As Peter Parker, his academic credentials were revoked after being accused of plagiarizing his doctoral dissertion from Octavius (and unable to defend himself without revealing his secret identity), resulting in his firing from the Daily Bugle. On the other hand, Peter became romantically involved again with Mary Jane, and was given an opportunity to re-apply for his doctoral thesis on the recommendation of Dr. Connors. For a brief time, Peter Parker and Spider-Man were split into separate beings due to an accident involving the reverse-engineered Isotope Genome Accelerator. However, the separation split Peter down the middle, so both individuals didn't share Peter's sense of responsibility, resulting in a reckless and vain Spider-Man. Peter eventually managed to reverse the process, and merge his two halves back together before the side-effects could worsen and result in their death.
Personality and themes
As one contemporaneous journalist observed, "Spider-Man has a terrible identity problem, a marked inferiority complex, and a fear of women, he is anti-social, [sic] castration-ridden, racked with Oedipal guilt, and accident-prone ... [a] functioning neurotic". Agonizing over his choices, always attempting to do right, he is nonetheless viewed with suspicion by the authorities, who seem unsure as to whether he is a helpful vigilante or a clever criminal.
Notes cultural historian Bradford W. Wright,
Spider-Man's plight was to be misunderstood and persecuted by the very public that he swore to protect. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man, J. Jonah Jameson, publisher of the Daily Bugle, launches an editorial campaign against the "Spider-Man menace." The resulting negative publicity exacerbates popular suspicions about the mysterious Spider-Man and makes it impossible for him to earn any more money by performing. Eventually, the bad press leads the authorities to brand him an outlaw. Ironically, Peter finally lands a job as a photographer for Jameson's Daily Bugle.:212
From his high-school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider-Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people. Fittingly, then, his comic book also contained some of the earliest references to the politics of young people. In 1968, in the wake of actual militant student demonstrations at Columbia University, Peter Parker finds himself in the midst of similar unrest at his Empire State University.... Peter has to reconcile his natural sympathy for the students with his assumed obligation to combat lawlessness as Spider-Man; as a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftism and angry conservatives.:234–235
Powers, skills, and equipment
A bite from a radioactive spider triggers mutations in Peter Parker's body, granting him superpowers. In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him to danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility; the character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but later writers have depicted his intellect at genius level. Academically brilliant, Parker has expertise in the fields of applied science, chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, mathematics, and mechanics. With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and he constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters to help navigate and trap his enemies along with a spider-signal as a flashlight and a warning beacon to criminals.
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.
J. Jonah Jameson is depicted as the publisher of the Daily Bugle and is Peter Parker's boss and as a harsh critic of Spider-Man, always saying negative things about the superhero in the newspaper. Despite his role as Jameson's publishing editor and confidant Robbie Robertson is always depicted as a supporter of both Peter Parker and Spider-Man.
Eugene "Flash" Thompson is commonly depicted as Parker's high school tormentor and bully, but in later comic issues he becomes a friend to Peter. Meanwhile, Harry Osborn, son of Norman Osborn, is most commonly recognized as Peter's best friend but has also been depicted sometimes as his rival in the comics.
Peter Parker's romantic interests range between his first crush, the fellow high-school student Liz Allan, to having his first date with Betty Brant, the secretary to the Daily Bugle newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy, daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man. Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife. Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's sole superhuman girlfriend and partner at one point.
Writers and artists over the years have established a rogues gallery of supervillains to face Spider-Man. In comics and in other media; as with the hero, the majority of the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, and many have animal-themed costumes or powers.[note 6] Examples are listed down below in the ordering of their original chronological appearance: Indicates a group.
|Supervillain name / Supervillain team name||Notable alter ego / group member||First appearance||Creator|
|Chameleon||Dmitri Anatoly Nikolayevich||The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963)||Stan Lee|
|Vulture||Adrian Toomes||The Amazing Spider-Man #2 (May 1963)||Stan Lee|
|Doctor Octopus||Doctor Otto Gunther Octavius||The Amazing Spider-Man #3 (July 1963)||Stan Lee|
|Sandman||William Baker / Flint Marko||The Amazing Spider-Man #4 (September 1963)||Stan Lee|
|Lizard||Dr. Curt Connors||The Amazing Spider-Man #6 (November 1963)||Stan Lee|
|Electro||Maxwell Dillon||The Amazing Spider-Man #9 (February 1964)||Stan Lee|
|Mysterio||Quentin Beck||The Amazing Spider-Man #13 (June 1964)||Stan Lee|
|Green Goblin||Norman Osborn2
|The Amazing Spider-Man #14 (July 1964)||Stan Lee|
|Kraven the Hunter||Sergei Kravinoff||The Amazing Spider-Man #15 (August 1964)||Stan Lee|
|Sinister Six||List of members||The Amazing Spider-Man annual #1 (1964)||Stan Lee|
|Scorpion||Mac Gargan||The Amazing Spider-Man #20 (January 1965)||Stan Lee|
|Rhino||Aleksei Mikhailovich Sytsevich||The Amazing Spider-Man #41 (October 1966)||Stan Lee|
John Romita, Sr.
|Shocker||Herman Schultz||The Amazing Spider-Man #46 (March 1967)||Stan Lee|
John Romita, Sr.
|Kingpin||Wilson Fisk||The Amazing Spider-Man #50 (July 1967)
John Romita, Sr.
|Morbius||Michael Morbius||The Amazing Spider-Man #101 (January 1971)||Roy Thomas|
|Jackal||Miles Warren||The Amazing Spider-Man #129 (February 1974)||Gerry Conway10|
|Black Cat||Felicia Hardy||The Amazing Spider-Man #194 (July 1979)||Marv Wolfman|
|Hydro-Man||Morris Bench||The Amazing Spider-Man #212 (January 10, 1981)||Denny O'Neil|
John Romita, Jr.
|Hobgoblin||Roderick Kingsley||The Amazing Spider-Man #238 (March 1983)||Roger Stern|
John Romita Sr.
|Venom||Eddie Brock3||The Amazing Spider-Man #300 (May 1988)15||David Michelinie|
|Carnage||Cletus Kasady||The Amazing Spider-Man #361 (April 1992)||David Michelinie|
Unlike a lot of well-known rivalries in comics book depictions, Spider-Man is cited to have more than one archenemy and it can be debated or disputed as to which one is worse:
- Doctor Octopus is regarded as one of Spider-Man's worst enemies and archenemy. He has been cited as the man Peter might have become if he had not been raised with a sense of responsibility, he is infamous for defeating him the first time in battle and for almost marrying Peter's Aunt May. He is the core leader of the Sinister Six and has also referred himself as the "Master Planner". ("If This Be My Destiny...!") Later depictions revealed him in Peter Parker's body where he was the titular character for a while.
- Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is as commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy. Mostly after he is the first villain to uncover the hero's true identity, being responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books, he was thought to be dead after that, but writers brought him back in the 1990s, and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as himself, without his Goblin persona.
- Another character commonly described as an archenemy is Venom. Eddie Brock as Venom is commonly described as the mirror version or the evil version of Spider-Man in many ways. Venom's goals is usually depicted as trying to ruin Spider-Man's life and mess with Spider-Man's head when it comes to targeting enemies. Venom is cited as being one of the most popular Spider-Man villains; this popularity has led him to be an established iconic character of his own with own comic book stories.
Within the Marvel Universe there exists a multiverse with many variations of Spider-Men. An early character included in the 1980s is the fictional anthropomorphic funny animal parody of Spider-Man in pig form named Spider-Ham (Peter Porker). Many imprints of Spider-Men were created like the futuristic version of Spider-Man in Marvel 2099 named Miguel O'Hara. In Marvel Comics 2 imprint, Peter marries Mary Jane and has a daughter named Mayday Parker who carries on Spider-Man's legacy and Marvel Noir has a 1930s version of Peter Parker.  Other themed versions exist within the early 2000s such as a Marvel Mangaverse version and an Indian version from Spider-Man: India named Pavitr Prabhakar.
Ultimate Spider-Man was a popular modern retelling of Peter Parker; the version of Parker would later be depicted as being killed off and replaced by an Afro-Latino Spider-Man named Miles Morales.
The storyline "Spider-Verse" brought back many alternate takes on Spider-Man and introduced many new inspired ones such as an alternate world where Gwen Stacy gets bitten by a radioactive spider instead along with a British themed version named Spider-UK called Billy Braddock from Captain Britain Corps.
Cultural influence and legacy
In The Creation of Spider-Man, comic book writer-editor and historian Paul Kupperberg calls the character's superpowers "nothing too original"; what was original was that outside his secret identity, he was a "nerdy high school student".:5 Going against typical superhero fare, Spider-Man included "heavy doses of soap-opera and elements of melodrama". Kupperberg feels that Lee and Ditko had created something new in the world of comics: "the flawed superhero with everyday problems"; this idea spawned a "comics revolution".:6 The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them. Spider-Man has become one of the most recognizable fictional characters in the world, and has been used to sell toys, games, cereal, candy, soap, and many other products.
Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character and has often been used as the company mascot; when Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.:254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world. Spider-Man is the world's most profitable superhero. In 2014, global retail sales of licensed products related to Spider-Man reached approximately $1.3 billion. Comparatively, this amount exceeds the global licensing revenue of Batman, Superman, and the Avengers combined. Spider-Man is also one of the highest-grossing franchise titles being the highest-grossing American comic book superhero est. $25.6 billion worldwide.
Spider-Man joined the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade from 1987 to 1998 as one of the balloon floats, designed by John Romita Sr., one of the character's signature artists. A new, different Spider-Man balloon float is scheduled to appear from at least 2009 to 2011.
When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity, an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.
In 2008, Marvel announced plans to release a series of educational comics the following year in partnership with the United Nations, depicting Spider-Man alongside UN Peacekeeping Forces to highlight UN peacekeeping missions. A BusinessWeek article listed Spider-Man as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics.
In 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States decided Kimble v. Marvel Entertainment, LLC, a case concerning royalties on a patent for an imitation web-shooter. The opinion for the Court, by Justice Elena Kagan, included several Spider-Man references, concluding with the statement that "with great power there must also come—great responsibility".
Spider-Man has become a subject of scientific inquiry. In 1987, researchers at Loyola University conducted a study into the utility of Spiderman comics for informing children and parents about issues relating to child abuse. In 2019, an Israeli study from Ariel University and Bar-Ilan University suggested that exposure to short clips from the Spider-Man movies could help to reduce an individual's arachnophobia.
IGN staff on placing Spider-Man as the number one hero of Marvel.
Spider-Man was declared the number one superhero on Bravo's Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains TV series in 2005. Empire magazine placed him as the fifth-greatest comic book character of all time. Wizard magazine placed Spider-Man as the third greatest comic book character on their website. In 2011, Spider-Man placed third on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time, behind DC Comics characters Superman and Batman. and sixth in their 2012 list of "The Top 50 Avengers". In 2014, IGN identified Spider-Man the greatest Marvel Comics character of all time. A 2015 poll at Comic Book Resources named Spider-Man the greatest Marvel character of all time. IGN described him as the common everyman that represents many normal people but also noting his uniqueness compared to many top-tiered superheroes with his many depicted flaws as a superhero. IGN noted that despite being one of the most tragic superheroes of all time that he is "one of the most fun and snarky superheroes in existence." Empire noted and praised that despite the many tragedies that Spider-Man faces that he retains his sense of humour at all times with his witty wisecracks; the magazine website appraised the depiction of his "iconic" superhero poses describing it as "a top artist's dream".
George Marston of Newsarama placed Spider-Man's origin story as the greatest origin story of all time opining that "Spider-Man's origin combines all of the most classic aspects of pathos, tragedy and scientific wonder into the perfect blend for a superhero origin."
Real-life people who have been compared to Spider-Man for their climbing feats include:
- In 1981, skyscraper-safety activist Dan Goodwin, wearing a Spider-Man suit, scaled the Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois, the Renaissance Tower in Dallas, Texas, and the John Hancock Center in Chicago, Illinois.
- Alain Robert, nicknamed "Spider-Man", is a rock and urban climber who has scaled more than 70 tall buildings using his hands and feet, without using additional devices. He sometimes wears a Spider-Man suit during his climbs. In May 2003, he was paid approximately $18,000 to climb the 312-foot (95 m) Lloyd's building to promote the premiere of the movie Spider-Man on the British television channel Sky Movies.
- "The Human Spider", alias Bill Strother, scaled the Lamar Building in Augusta, Georgia in 1921.
- In Argentina, criminals that climb buildings and trespass into private property through the open balconies are said to use the "Spider-Man method" (in Spanish, "Hombre Araña").
This section does not cite any sources. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
From the character's inception, Spider-Man stories have won numerous awards, including:
- 1962 Alley Award: Best Short Story—"Origin of Spider-Man" by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, Amazing Fantasy #15
- 1963 Alley Award: Best Comic: Adventure Hero title—The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1963 Alley Award: Top Hero—Spider-Man
- 1964 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1964 Alley Award: Best Giant Comic—The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1
- 1964 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man
- 1965 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1965 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man
- 1966 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1966 Alley Award: Best Full-Length Story—"How Green was My Goblin", by Stan Lee & John Romita, Sr., The Amazing Spider-Man #39
- 1967 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Costumed or Powered Hero—Spider-Man
- 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Male Normal Supporting Character—J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Female Normal Supporting Character—Mary Jane Watson, The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Supporting Character—J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1969 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man
- 1997 Eisner Award: Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team—1997 Al Williamson, Best Inker: Untold Tales of Spider-Man #17-18
- 2002 Eisner Award: Best Serialized Story—The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2, #30–35: "Coming Home", by J. Michael Straczynski, John Romita, Jr., and Scott Hanna
In other media
Spider-Man has appeared in comics, cartoons, films, video games, coloring books, novels, records, and children's books. On television, he first starred in the ABC animated series Spider-Man (1967–1970); Spidey Super Stories (1974-1977) on PBS; and the CBS live action series The Amazing Spider-Man (1978–1979), starring Nicholas Hammond. Other animated series featuring the superhero include the syndicated Spider-Man (1981–1982), Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981–1983), Fox Kids' Spider-Man (1994–1998), Spider-Man Unlimited (1999–2000), Spider-Man: The New Animated Series (2003), The Spectacular Spider-Man (2008–2009), and Ultimate Spider-Man (2012–2017).
A tokusatsu series featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan, it is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man". Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, children's books, and the daily newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man, which debuted in January 1977, with the earliest installments written by Stan Lee and drawn by John Romita, Sr. Spider-Man has been adapted to other media including games, toys, collectibles, and miscellaneous memorabilia, and has appeared as the main character in numerous computer and video games on over 15 gaming platforms.
Spider-Man was featured in a trilogy of live-action films directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as the titular superhero; the first Spider-Man film of the trilogy was released on May 3, 2002; followed by Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007). A third sequel was originally scheduled to be released in 2011, however Sony later decided to reboot the franchise with a new director and cast; the reboot, titled The Amazing Spider-Man, was released on July 3, 2012; directed by Marc Webb and starring Andrew Garfield as the new Spider-Man. It was followed by The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014). In 2015, Sony and Disney made a deal for Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Tom Holland made his debut as Spider-Man in the MCU film Captain America: Civil War (2016), before later starring in his standalone film Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017); directed by Jon Watts. Holland reprises his role as Spider-Man in Avengers: Infinity War (2018), Avengers: Endgame (2019), and Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019). Jake Johnson voiced Spider-Man in Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse. Chris Pine also voiced a version of Peter Parker in the film.
A Broadway musical, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, began previews on November 14, 2010, at the Foxwoods Theatre on Broadway, with the official opening night on June 14, 2011; the music and lyrics were written by Bono and The Edge of the rock group U2, with a book by Julie Taymor, Glen Berger, Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa. Turn Off the Dark is currently the most expensive musical in Broadway history, costing an estimated $70 million. In addition, the show's unusually high running costs are reported to have been about $1.2 million per week.
- List of Spider-Man storylines
- List of Marvel Comics superhero debuts
- With great power comes great responsibility
- Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 978-0-684-87305-3.
- Detroit Free Press interview with Stan Lee, quoted in The Steve Ditko Reader by Greg Theakston (Pure Imagination, Brooklyn, NY; ISBN 1-56685-011-8), p. 12 (unnumbered). "He gave me 1,000 reasons why Spider-Man would never work. Nobody likes spiders; it sounds too much like Superman; and how could a teenager be a superhero? Then I told him I wanted the character to be a very human guy, someone who makes mistakes, who worries, who gets acne, has trouble with his girlfriend, things like that. [Goodman replied,] 'He's a hero! He's not an average man!' I said, 'No, we make him an average man who happens to have super powers, that's what will make him good.' He told me I was crazy".
- Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas (ed.). Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 978-1-893905-06-1. "'Stan said a new Marvel hero would be introduced in #15 [of what became titled Amazing Fantasy]. He would be called Spider-Man. Jack would do the penciling and I was to ink the character.' At this point still, Stan said Spider-Man would be a teenager with a magic ring which could transform him into an adult hero—Spider-Man. I said it sounded like the Fly, which Joe Simon had done for Archie Comics. Stan called Jack about it but I don't know what was discussed. I never talked to Jack about Spider-Man... Later, at some point, I was given the job of drawing Spider-Man'".
- Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan".
- Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe, he had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs, he turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added".
- Mondello, Salvatore (March 2004). "Spider-Man: Superhero in the Liberal Tradition". The Journal of Popular Culture. X (1): 232–238. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1976.1001_232.x.
- Content in this article was copied from Spider-Man at the Fictional Characters wiki, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (Unported) (CC-BY-SA 3.0) license.
- Amazing Spider-Man #434
- Spider-Man #91
- The Spectacular Spider-Man #257
- Sensational Spider-Man #27
- Amazing Spider-Man Annual #36
- The Amazing Spider-Man #149-151
- What If? (Vol 2) #31
- Amazing Spider-Man (vol.5) #6
- Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation. Johns Hopkins Press : Baltimore. ISBN 978-0-8018-7450-5.
- Sacks, Ethan (January 12, 2014). "Exclusive: Peter Parker to return from death in 'Amazing Spider-Man' #1 this April". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on July 12, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
- "Why Spider-Man is popular". Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- Weiss, Brett (October 2010). "Spidey Super Stories". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (44): 23–28.
- "It's Official! Andrew Garfield to Play Spider-Man!". Comingsoon.net. July 2, 2010. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- "Complete Cast Announced for Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark". Broadway.com. August 16, 2010. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 978-0-684-87305-3.
- DeFalco, Tom; Lee, Stan (2001). O'Neill, Cynthia (ed.). Spider-Man: The Ultimate Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7894-7946-4.
- Thomas, Roy (August 2011). "Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Interview!". Alter Ego. TwoMorrows Publishing (104): 3–45.
- Amazing Fantasy (Marvel, 1962 series) Archived March 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine at the Grand Comics Database: "1990 copyright renewal lists the publication date as June 5, 1962"; "[T]he decision to cancel the series had not been made when it went to print, since it is announced that future issues will include a Spider-Man feature."
- "Important Announcement from the Editor!", Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962), reprinted at Sedlmeier, Cory, ed. (2007). Amazing Fantasy Omnibus. Marvel Publishing. p. 394. ISBN 978-0785124580.
- Theakston, Greg (2002). The Steve Ditko Reader. Brooklyn, New York: Pure Imagination. ISBN 978-1-56685-011-7.
- Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas (ed.). Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 978-1-893905-06-1.
- "Deposition of Stan Lee". Los Angeles, California: United States District Court, Southern District of New York: "Marvel Worldwide, Inc., et al., vs. Lisa R. Kirby, et al.". December 8, 2010. p. 37.
- Ditko interview (Summer 1965). "Steve Ditko – A Portrait of the Master". Comic Fan #2 (Larry Herndon) via Ditko.Comics.org (Blake Bell, ed.). Archived from the original on February 28, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2008. Additional, February 28, 2012.
- Simon, Joe (2011). Joe Simon: My Life in Comics. London, UK: Titan Books. ISBN 978-1-84576-930-7.
- Evanier, Mark; Gaiman, Neil (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-9447-8.
- Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (2008). Fantagraphic Books.p.54-57.
- Skelly, Tim. "Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost.'" (Initially broadcast over WNUR-FM on "The Great Electric Bird", May 14, 1971. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27.) Reprinted in The Comics Journal Library Volume One: Jack Kirby, George, Milo ed. May 2002, Fantagraphics Books. p. 16
- Ross, Jonathan. In Search of Steve Ditko, BBC Four, September 16, 2007.
- Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-3821-2.
- Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, "A Not-So-Spectacular Experiment", p. 31
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 60. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- David, Peter; Greenberger, Robert (2010). The Spider-Man Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles Spun from Marvel's Web. Running Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0762437726.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1980s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 147. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Cowsill, Alan (2012). "1990s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 184. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Michael Thomas (August 22, 2000). "John Byrne: The Hidden Story". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Michael Thomas (August 5, 2008). "The Marvel 500s: How Many Are There?". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Schedeen, Jesse (November 8, 2011). "The Avenging Spider-Man #1 Review". IGN. j2 Global. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "IGN: SDCC 10: Spider-Man: The End of Brand New Day". IGN. j2 Global. July 25, 2010. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Bremmer, Robyn; Morse, Ben (September 27, 2010). "The Next Big Thing: Spider-Man: Big Time". Marvel.com. Marvel Comics / Marvel Entertainment (The Walt Disney Company). Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "Peter Parker Resurrected in Slott's Amazing Spider-Man". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- Hanks, Henry (April 29, 2014). "Back from the brain dead, Peter Parker returns to 'Spider-Man' comics". Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Arrant, Chris (June 30, 2015). "Peter Parker 'Stepped Up' As High Tech Tycoon In Amazing Spider-Man". Newsarama. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015.
- Kempton, Sally, "Spiderman's [sic] Dilemma: Super-Anti-Hero in Forest Hills", The Village Voice, April 1, 1965
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). Amazing Fantasy 15 (August 1962), New York City, New York: Marvel Comics
- Daniels, Les. Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1991) ISBN 0-8109-3821-9, p. 95.
- Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, p. 21.
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "Spider-Man"; "Spider-Man vs. The Chameleon"; "Duel to the Death with the Vulture; "The Uncanny Threat of the Terrible Tinkerer!" The Amazing Spider-Man 1-2 (March, May 1963), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Amazing Spider-Man, The (Marvel, 1963 Series) Archived July 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine at the Grand Comics Database
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "The Menace of the Molten Man!" The Amazing Spider-Man 28 (September 1965), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 51
- Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-1-4165-3141-8.
- Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (a). "The Birth of a Super-Hero!" The Amazing Spider-Man 42 (November 1966), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 27
- Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (p), Mickey Demeo (i). "Spider-Man No More!" The Amazing Spider-Man 50 (July 1967), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Lee, Stan (w), Kane, Gil (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "The Spider or the Man?" The Amazing Spider-Man 100 (September 1971), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 60
- Saffel, p. 65, states, "In the battle that followed atop the Brooklyn Bridge (or was it the George Washington Bridge?)...." On page 66, Saffel reprints the panel of The Amazing Spider-Man #121, page 18, in which Spider-Man exclaims, "The George Washington Bridge! It figures Osborn would pick something named after his favorite president. He's got the same sort of hangup for dollar bills!" Saffel states, "The span portrayed...is the GW's more famous cousin, the Brooklyn Bridge. ... To address the contradiction in future reprints of the tale, though, Spider-Man's dialogue was altered so that he's referring to the Brooklyn Bridge, but the original snafu remains as one of the more visible errors in the history of comics."
- Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 84, notes, "[W]hile the script described the site of Gwen's demise as the George Washington Bridge, the art depicted the Brooklyn Bridge, and there is still no agreement as to where it actually took place."
- Saffel, p. 65
- Conway, Gerry (w), Kane, Gil (p), Romita, John (i). "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" The Amazing Spider-Man 121 (June 1973), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 85
- Blumberg, Arnold T. (Spring 2006). "'The Night Gwen Stacy Died': The End of Innocence and the 'Last Gasp of the Silver Age'". International Journal of Comic Art. 8 (1): 208.
- Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 83
- Shooter, Jim (w), Zeck, Michael (p), Beatty, John, Abel, Jack, and Esposito, Mike (i). "Invasion" Marvel Super-Heroes Secret Wars 8 (December 1984), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Leupp, Thomas. "Behind the Mask: The Story of Spider-Man's Black Costume" Archived June 27, 2010, at WebCite, ReelzChannel.com, 2007, n.d. WebCitation archive.
- Simonson, Louise (w), LaRocque, Greg (p), Mooney, Jim and Colletta, Vince (i). "'Til Death Do Us Part!" Web of Spider-Man 1 (April 1985), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 124
- Ferraro, Ron. "Spidey Classics: Amazing Spider-Man #304" (review), SpiderManReviews.com, February 2010. WebCitation archive.
- Goletz, Andrew, and Glenn Greenberg.""Life of Reilly", 35-part series, GreyHaven Magazine, 2003, n.d." NewComicsReviews.com. Archived from the original on March 27, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- Saunders, et al., Marvel Chronicle, p. 271
- Saunders, et al., Chronicle, p. 281
- Spider-Man (Marvel, 1990 Series) Archived July 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine at the Grand Comics Database: "Cover title beginning with issue #75 is Peter Parker, Spider-Man".
- Saunders, et al. Chronicle, p. 273
- Amazing Spider-Man, The, Marvel, 1999 Series Archived July 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine (The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2) at the Grand Comics Database
- Ruby, Sam. "Mary Jane Watson", SamRuby.com (fan site). WebCitation archive.
- Blumberg, Arnold T. "Face it Tiger - A Brief Look at the Life of Mary Jane Watson-Parker, Part 2", Mania.com, July 17, 2002. WebCitation archive.
- Amazing Spider-Man, The, Marvel, 2003 Series Archived June 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine (renumbering to return to original numbering from 1963) at the Grand Comics Database
- Weiland, Jonah. storyline "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 1 of 5" Archived August 14, 2012, at WebCite, Newsarama, December 28, 2007. WebCitation archive.
- Weiland, Jonah. "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 2 of 5" Archived August 14, 2012, at WebCite, Newsarama, December 31, 2007. WebCitation archive.
- Amazing Spider-Man #549 (March 2008)
- Amazing Spider-Man #568 (October 2008)
- The Amazing Spider-Man #600
- The Amazing Spider-Man #638-641
- The Amazing Spider-Man #648-654
- The Amazing Spider-Man #663-664
- Amazing Spider-Man: Infested #1
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 3 #1
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 3 #4
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 3 #5
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 3 #9
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 3 #10
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #18
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 4 #1
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 5 #1
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol 5 #5
- Sanderson, Peter. Marvel Universe: The Complete Encyclopedia of Marvel's Greatest Characters (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1998) ISBN 0-8109-8171-8, p. 75
- Daniels, p. 96
- Gresh, Lois H., and Robert Weinberg. "The Science of Superheroes" (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002) ISBN 0-471-02460-0 (preview Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine)
- Kiefer, Kit; Couper-Smartt, Jonathan (2003). Marvel Encyclopedia Volume 4: Spider-Man. New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 978-0-7851-1304-1.
- Lee, Stan, Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books, 1974) p. 137
- DeFalco, Tom (2008). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 87. ISBN 978-0756641238.
- Siegel, Lucas. "The 10 Greatest SPIDER-MAN Villains of ALL TIME!". Newsarama. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Beard, Jim. "ARCHRIVALS: SPIDER-MAN VS THE VULTURE". Marvel.com. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Kyle, Scmidlin. "10 Spider-Man Villains (And Combinations) Deserving Of The Big Screen (7. The Vulture)". What Culture!. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 92.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 93.
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Spider-Man Versus Doctor Octopus" The Amazing Spider-Man 3 (July 1963)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Nothing Can Stop...The Sandman!" The Amazing Spider-Man 4 (September 1963)
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 95
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Face-to-Face With...the Lizard!" The Amazing Spider-Man 6 (November 1963)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 98
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Man Called Electro!" The Amazing Spider-Man 9 (February 1964)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 24. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Menace of... Mysterio!" The Amazing Spider-Man 13 (June 1964)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 25. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Albert, Aaron. "Green Goblin Profile". About.com. Archived from the original on April 24, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Beard, Jim. "SPIDER-MAN 3: THE SPIDER & THE GOBLIN". Marvel.com. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 26. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Kraven the Hunter!" The Amazing Spider-Man 15 (August 1964)
- Valentine, Eve. "Who Are the Sinister Six? – An Introduction to Spider-Man's Supervillain Group". Collider. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 27. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 28. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Lee, Stan (w), Romita, Sr., John (p), Esposito, Mike (i). "The Horns of the Rhino!" The Amazing Spider-Man 41 (October 1966)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Lee, Stan (w), Romita, Sr., John (p), Romita, Sr., John (i). "The Sinister Shocker!" The Amazing Spider-Man 46 (March 1967)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 38. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 122: "Stan Lee wanted to create a new kind of crime boss. Someone who treated crime as if it were a business...He pitched this idea to artist John Romita and it was Wilson Fisk who emerged in The Amazing Spider-Man #50."
- Lee, Stan (w), Romita, Sr., John (p), Esposito, Mike (i). "Spider-Man No More!" The Amazing Spider-Man 50 (July 1967)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1960s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 40. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Yehl, April; Schedeen, Jesse. "Top 25 Spider-Man villains: Part 2". IGN. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 59. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Gross, Edward (2002). Spider-Man Confidential: From Comic Icon to Hollywood Hero. ISBN 978-0786887224.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Manning "1970s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 107: "Spider-Man wasn't exactly sure what to think about his luck when he met a beautiful new thief on the prowl named the Black Cat, courtesy of a story by writer Marv Wolfman and artist Keith Pollard."
- Yehl, Joshua; Schedeen, Jesse. "Top 25 Spider-Man Villains: Part 1". IGN. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1980s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 118. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- "AMAZING SPIDER-MAN (1963) #212". Marvel. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
- Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 133: "Writer Roger Stern and artists John Romita, Jr. and John Romita, Sr. introduced a new – and frighteningly sane – version of the [Green Goblin] concept with the debut of the Hobgoblin."
- David and Greenberger, pp. 68-69: "Writer Roger Stern is primarily remembered for two major contributions to the world of Peter Parker. One was a short piece entitled 'The Kid Who Collects Spider-Man'...[his] other major contribution was the introduction of the Hobgoblin."
- Greenberg, Glenn (August 2009). "When Hobby Met Spidey". Back Issue! (35). TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 10–23.
- "Venom is the 33rd greatest comic book character". Empire.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 169: "In this landmark installment [issue #298], one of the most popular characters in the wall-crawler's history would begin to step into the spotlight courtesy of one of the most popular artists to ever draw the web-slinger."
- Comics Creators on Spider-Man, pg 148, Tom DeFalco. (Titan Books, 2004)
- "Venom is number 22 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Archived from the original on February 27, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- "Carnage is number 90 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Cowsill, Alan (2012). "1990s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 197. ISBN 978-0756692360.
- Michelinie, David (w), Bagley, Mark (p), Emberlin, Randy (i). "Carnage: Part One" The Amazing Spider-Man 361 (April 1992)
- Papageorgiou, Solon. "10 facts about Batman, Spider-Man, Iron Man you didn't know". Moviepilot. Archived from the original on April 25, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Albert, Aaron. "Top ten comic book archenemies". About.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Hanks, Henry. "Events in landmark 'Spider-Man' issue have fans in a frenzy". CNN. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Cronin, Brian. "50 Greatest Friends and Foes of Spider-Man: Villains #1-3". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- "The ULTIMATE SPIDER-MAN writer talks about Spidey's new Amazing Friends and lays the Osborns to rest once and for all | Marvel.com News". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- "Love is in the air as Marvel.com's Secret Cabal picks the greatest Marvel romances of all in time for Valentine's Day | Marvel.com News". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Yehl, Joshua; Schedeen, Jess. "Top 25 Spider-Man Villain: Part 5". IGN. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- "Norman Osborn is number 13 on greatest comic book villain of all time". IGN. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- "Spider-Man villains tournament: Championship". IGN. Archived from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Shutt, Craig (August 1997). "Villain Turned Hero: Venom". Wizard (72). p. 37.
- Whitbrook, James. "The Greatest Spider-Men of All Time, Ranked". io9. Archived from the original on December 30, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- "Top 10 Oddest Marvel Characters". Time. September 3, 2009. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
- "10 Best SPIDER-MEN Of All Time". Newsarama. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Robinson, Bryan (August 16, 2011). "Remembering the First – and Forgotten – Latino Spider-Man". Fox News Latino. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- Ong, Benjamin; Kean Pang (July 16, 2008). "Remembering When West Has Met East". Newsarama. Archived from the original on December 31, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
- Truitt, Brian (August 2, 2011). "Half-black, half-Hispanic Spider-Man revealed". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011.
- Ching, Albert (March 13, 2015). "Slott Details the Unexpected Origins of Spider-Gwen and Spider-Punk". ComicBookResources.com. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- "Retail Sales of Licensed Merchandise Based on $100 Million+ Entertainment/Character Properties – The Licensing Letter". www.thelicensingletter.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Kupperberg, Paul (2007). The Creation of Spider-Man; the Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4042-0763-9.
- Fleming, James R. (2006). "Review of Superman on the Couch: What Superheroes Really Tell Us about Ourselves and Our Society. By Danny Fingeroth". ImageText. University of Florida. ISSN 1549-6732. Archived from the original on December 9, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Knowles, Christopher (2007). Our Gods Wear Spandex. illustrated by Joseph Michael Linsner. Weiser. p. 139.
- "Spider-Man Weaving a spell". Screen India. 2002. Retrieved February 13, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- Davis, Lauren (November 14, 2014). "This Superhero Is More Lucrative Than Batman And The Avengers Combined". io9. Gizmodo Media Group. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- Block, Alex (November 13, 2014). "Which Superhero Earns $1.3 Billion a Year?". The Hollywood Reporter. Lynne Segall. Archived from the original on November 16, 2014. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- "Industry Annual Report". License Global. October 1, 2002. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "Top-Earning Fictional Characters - Spider-Man". Forbes. October 19, 2004. Archived from the original on September 30, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- Moskowitz, Milton (2006). The Executive's Almanac: A Diverse Portfolio of Eclectic Business Trivia. Quirk Books. p. 136. ISBN 9781594741012. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "Spider-Man's 50-Year History: How Peter Parker Became a Billion-Dollar Franchise". The Hollywood Reporter. June 29, 2012. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "Spider-Man Returning to Macy's Thanksgiving Day Paradede", Associated Press via WCBS (AM), August 17, 2009, Archived November 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Spurlock, J. David, and John Romita. John Romita Sketchbook. (Vanguard Productions: Lebanon, N.J. 2002) ISBN 1-887591-27-3, p. 45: Romita: "I designed the Spider-Man balloon float. When we went to Macy's to talk about it, Manny Bass was there. He's the genius who creates all these balloon floats. I gave him the sketches and he turned them into reality".
- Yarbrough, Beau (September 24, 2001). "Marvel to Take on World Trade Center Attack in "Amazing Spider-Man"". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- Staff (June 15, 2006). "Spider-Man Removes Mask at Last". BBC. Archived from the original on August 23, 2006. Retrieved September 29, 2006.
- Brady, Matt (June 14, 2006). "New York Post Spoils Civil War #2". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
- Lane, Thomas (January 4, 2008). "Can Spider-Man help UN beat evil?". BBC. Archived from the original on February 19, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- Pisani, Joseph (June 1, 2006). "The Smartest Superheroes". Business Week Online. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
- Cohen, Johnathan (December 12, 2008). "Exclusive: Eminem Talks New Album, Book". Billboard. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Lockett, Dee (April 2, 2015). "7 Fun Facts We Learned From Eminem's Genius Annotations". Vulture. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Caldwell, Patrick (June 22, 2015), "Justice Elena Kagan Had Some Fun Writing About Spider-Man", Mother Jones, archived from the original on June 23, 2015, retrieved June 23, 2015
- Garbarino, J (1987). "Children's response to a sexual abuse prevention program: A study of the Spiderman comic". Child Abuse & Neglect. 11 (1): 143–148. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(87)90044-5.
- Friedman, Gabe (April 25, 2019). "Israeli Researchers: "Spider Man" movies decrease Spider Phobia". Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on April 25, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- "IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2011.
- "Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains Episode Guide 2005 – Ultimate Super Villains". TVGuide.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters". Empire Online. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "Top 200 comic book characters". Wizard.
- "The Top 50 Avengers". IGN. April 30, 2012. Archived from the original on August 31, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Yehl, Joshua; Lakes, Jeff. "Top 25 Best Marvel Superheroes – IGN – Page 5". IGN. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Conin, Brian (November 5, 2015). "2015 Top 50 Marvel Characters 3-1 | Page 2 of 2 | Comics Should Be Good @ CBR". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Marston, George. "The 10 Best Superhero Origin Stories of ALL TIME!". Newsarama.com. Archived from the original on May 8, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- "Skyscraper Defense". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
- Cobb, Jocelyn (September 19, 1999). "Recalls 1921 climb of 'human spider'". The Augusta Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- "Video: un robo con la modalidad "hombre araña"en un departamento de Belgrano" [Video: a theft with the "Spider-Man" method at a Belgrano apartment] (in Spanish). Infobae. February 17, 2017. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- "Un "hombre araña" asaltó y violó a una profesora de gimnasia" [A "Spider-man" raped and stole from a gym teacher] (in Spanish). Clarín. January 17, 2008. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- "Spider-Man (1967)". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on April 24, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
- "Ultimate Spider-Man". Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "Japanese Spider-Man". Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "John Romita Interview". www.keefestudios.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "EXCLUSIVE: 'Spider-Man 4' Scrapped; Sam Rami & Tobey Maguire & Cast Out; Franchise Reboot for 2012". Deadline.com. January 11, 2010. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- ""Spider-Man" Film Gets Reboot; Sam Raimi, Tobey Maguire Out". Zap2It.com. January 11, 2010. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- "Tobey Maguire and Sam Raimi part ways with Spider-Man franchise". Archived from the original on April 28, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
- "Andrew Garfield & Marc Webb Return For 'Amazing Spider-Man 2'". Huffington Post. September 28, 2012. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- Truitt, Brian (July 20, 2013). "Garfield relishes web-swinging in 'Amazing Spider-Man 2'". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- Lesnick, Silas (February 9, 2015). "It's Official: Spider-Man Enters the Marvel Cinematic Universe!". SuperHeroHype. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Lang, Brett (April 12, 2016). "'Spider-Man' Movie Gets Official Title". Variety. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- "Sony Pictures and Marvel Studios Find Their 'Spider-Man' Star and Director" (Press release). Marvel.com. June 23, 2015. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- Busch, Anita (February 11, 2017). "Robert Downey, Jr. Confirms Spider-Man Character in 'Avengers: Infinity War' On FB Live". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- Goldberg, Matt. "'Avengers: Infinity War': Kevin Feige Reveals Spider-Man's Screentime". Archived from the original on April 28, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Kit, Borys; Couch, Aaron (April 18, 2017). "Marvel's Kevin Feige on Why the Studio Won't Make R-Rated Movies, 'Guardians 2' and Joss Whedon's DC Move". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (December 9, 2016). "'Spider-Man: Homecoming 2' Shoots Web Around Independence Day 2019 Frame; 'Bad Boys 4' Moves To Memorial Day". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- Borys Kit, Borys (June 22, 2016). "Sony Unveils Plans for Animated 'Spider-Man' and 'Emojimovie: Express Yourself'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- Schmidt, J.K. (November 29, 2018). "'Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse' Features Chris Pine in a Surprising Cameo". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
- Lustig, Jay. "Spider-Man: Turn off the Dark" Archived January 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. New Jersey On-Line. January 18, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- Gans, Andrew. "Reeve Carney, Jennifer Damiano, Patrick Page to Star in Spider-Man; Performances Begin in November" Archived May 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill.com, August 10, 2010
- "SpidermanBroadway.Marvel.com". Spidermanonbroadway.marvel.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
- Hetrick, Adam. "Troubled Spider-Man Turn Off the Dark Delays Broadway Opening Again" Archived January 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill.com. January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- "Could Spider-Man the Musical be the 'biggest disaster in Broadway history'?" Archived January 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. The Week. August 13, 2010 (updated November 4, 2010).
- Spider-Man at Marvel Universe Wiki
- Official website
- Official website for kids
- Spider-Man at the Comic Book DB
- Spider-Man at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017.
- Spider-Man at Curlie
- The science of Spider-Man, Cosmos
- The physics of Spider-man's webs, Wired
- Spider-Man physics: How real is the superhero, Wired
- Spider-Man at Comic Vine
- Peter Parker (Earth-616) on Marvel Database, a Marvel Comics wiki
- Spider-Man Wiki
- Peter Parker at Spider-Man Wiki