Spider silk is a protein fibre spun by spiders. Spiders use their silk to make webs or other structures, which function as sticky nets to catch other animals, or as nests or cocoons to protect their offspring, or to wrap up prey, they can use their silk to suspend themselves, to float through the air, or to glide away from predators. Most spiders vary the stickiness of their silk for different uses. In some cases, spiders may use silk as a source of food. While methods have been developed to collect silk from a spider by force, it is difficult to gather silk from many spiders in a small space, in contrast to silkworm "farms". All spiders produce silks, a single spider can produce up to seven different types of silk for different uses; this is in contrast to insect silks, where an individual only produces one type of silk. Spider silks may be used in many different ecological ways, each with properties to match the silk's function; as spiders have evolved, so has their silks' complexity and diverse uses, for example from primitive tube webs 300–400 million years ago to complex orb webs 110 million years ago.
Meeting the specification for all these ecological uses requires different types of silk suited to different broad properties, as either a fibre, a structure of fibres, or a silk-globule. These types include fibres; some types of fibres are used for others for constructing protective structures. Some can absorb energy whereas others transmit vibration efficiently. In a spider, these silk types are produced in different glands; each spider and each type of silk has a set of mechanical properties optimised for their biological function. Most silks, in particular dragline silk, have exceptional mechanical properties, they exhibit a unique combination of high tensile extensibility. This enables a silk fibre to absorb a large amount of energy before breaking. A frequent mistake made in the mainstream media is to confuse strength and toughness, when comparing silk to other materials. Weight for weight, silk is not as strong as Kevlar. Silk is, tougher than either; the variability of mechanical properties of spider silk fibres may be important and it is related to their degree of molecular alignment.
Mechanical properties depend on the ambient conditions, i.e. humidity and temperature. A dragline silk's tensile strength is comparable to that of high-grade alloy steel, about half as strong as aramid filaments, such as Twaron or Kevlar. Consisting of protein, silks are about a sixth of the density of steel; as a result, a strand long enough to circle the Earth would weigh less than 500 grams. The energy density of dragline spider silk is 1.2×108 J/m3. Silks are extremely ductile, with some able to stretch up to five times their relaxed length without breaking; the combination of strength and ductility gives dragline silks a high toughness, which "equals that of commercial polyaramid filaments, which themselves are benchmarks of modern polymer fibre technology". While unlikely to be relevant in nature, dragline silks can hold their strength below −40 °C and up to 220 °C; as occurs in many materials, spider silk fibres undergo a glass transition. The glass-transition temperature depends on the humidity.
When exposed to water, dragline silks undergo supercontraction, shrinking up to 50% in length and behaving like a weak rubber under tension. Many hypotheses have been suggested as to its use in nature, with the most popular being to automatically tension webs built in the night using the morning dew; the toughest known spider silk is produced by the species Darwin's bark spider: "The toughness of forcibly silked fibers averages 350 MJ/m3, with some samples reaching 520 MJ/m3. Thus, C. darwini silk is more than twice as tough as any described silk, over 10 times tougher than Kevlar". Silk fibre is a two-compound pyriform secretion, spun into patterns that are employed to adhere silk threads to various surfaces using a minimum of silk substrate; the pyriform threads polymerise under ambient conditions, become functional and are usable indefinitely, remaining biodegradable and compatible with numerous other materials in the environment. The adhesive and durability properties of the attachment disc are controlled by functions within the spinnerets.
Some adhesive properties of the silk resemble glue. Many species of spider have different glands to produce silk with different properties for different purposes, including housing, web construction, defence and detaining prey, egg protection, mobility. Different specialised silks have evolved with properties suitable for different uses. For example, Argiope argentata has five different types of silk, each used for a different purpose: Silks, like many other biomaterials, have a hierarchical structure; the primary structure is the amino acid sequence of its proteins consisting of repetitive glycine and alanine blocks, why silks are referred to as
The Examination for the Certificate in Competency in English is a high-intermediate level English language qualification that focuses on Level B2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. It is developed by CaMLA, a not-for-profit collaboration between the University of Michigan and the University of Cambridge; the exam has been in use since 1994, but is updated to ensure it reflects current research in language teaching and assessment. The ECCE is taken by school-aged and adult learners living in countries where the common language is not English, it is used as official documentary evidence of English language competency and it is ranked at B2 level and is accepted by universities and employers all over the world. The exam has four test sections, which test the four key language skills: listening, reading and speaking; the ECCE is a paper-and pencil test, with the following test sections: The texts and tasks in the exam reflect a range of personal, public and educational situations that they might encounter in real-life.
The topics are designed to be accessible to all ages and test takers do not require specialized knowledge or experience to complete the test. A new test form is developed each time. Test takers receive a CaMLA Examination Report, which has the following information: A score for each section, with a brief description of the test taker's performance An overall result, calculated by averaging the scores received for each section; the following scores are needed to achieve a Honors/Pass/Fail result: Test takers who achieve an overall score of 650 or higher are awarded the ECCE Certificate. Test takers who achieve a score of 840 or higher in all four sections are awarded a Certificate of Competency with Honors; the ECCE Certificate is recognized at the B2 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Test takers are given a numeric score for each section of the test so they can see the areas in which they have done well and the areas in which they need to improve. An ECCE qualification is valid for life.
However, language ability changes over time, organizations are advised to consider a test taker's experience with English since they took the test in addition to their test scores. The ECCE is used as official documentary evidence of English language proficiency, it is accepted by universities and employers in many countries around the world, including: Albania Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Finland France Greece Iran Italy Jordan Malaysia Mexico ) Peru Romania Spain United States Uruguay. In 2014, the ECCE was used by test takers with 36 different first language backgrounds, it is taken by secondary school-aged learners: Free practice tests, answer keys and student instructions are available on the official website, along with links to other practice materials. CaMLA CaMLA English Placement Test Examination for the Certificate of Proficiency in English MTELP Series Michigan English Language Assessment Battery Michigan English Test Young Learners Tests of English Cambridge English Language Assessment English as a Foreign or Second Language Official website
Brønnøysund Register Centre is a Norwegian government agency, responsible for the management of numerous public registers for Norway, governmental systems for digital exchange of information. The agency maintains the Norwegian metadata repository SERES and ELMER, a standard for the design of web forms; the register gets its name from the town Brønnøysund in Nordland. Most of the registers are related to commerce, but personal registers are conducted by Brønnøysund; the register is led by Lars Peder Brekk. The registry is a subsidiary of the Norwegian Ministry of Industry. Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities Register of Business Enterprises Disqualified Directors Register European Business Register Eco-Management and Audit Scheme Register Lottery Register Register of Company Accounts Register of the Reporting Obligations of Enterprises Register of Mortgaged Moveable Property Register of Bankruptcies Register of Marriage Settlements Register of Private Debt Amnesty Register of Political Parties National Fee Collection Office Norwegian Register of Hunters Central Marketing Exclusion Register Voluntary Register of Complementary Practitioners List of company registers Brønnøysund Register Centre
Jane Deans was a New Zealand pioneer and community leader. She came to Christchurch in 1853 onto her husband's farm, her husband died in the following year, Deans became a community leader. The Christchurch suburb of Riccarton derives its name from the farm, the historic buildings and the adjacent forest are popular places to visit. Jane McIlraith was born in Auchenflower, Scotland on 21 April 1823, she was the oldest child of James McIlraith. John Deans, as a young man, worked for the McIlraith family to become familiar with farming techniques. Jane McIlraith became close to John during the two years he was with the family, but she felt that she could not marry a man, living in the house. John Deans left to settle in New Zealand in 1842. In 1850, he asked her father for permission to marry her, but she would not travel by herself as an unmarried woman, she refused to travel to New Zealand with the Bishop Designate of Lyttelton, Thomas Jackson. Thus John Deans returned to Scotland to marry Jane on 15 September 1852 at Riccarton in East Ayrshire.
They arrived in Lyttelton on the Minerva on 2 February 1853. Jane was weak from seasickness and was pregnant with her first child, she travelled horseback over the Bridle Track over the Port Hills to the new settlement of Christchurch, spending a night at the Heathcote Parsonage as she travelled. Jane and John settled on the Deans farm, which the surveyor Joseph Thomas had agreed in 1848 would be named Riccarton, after the home parish of the Deans, her son John was born on 6 August of that year. Her husband died from tuberculosis on 23 June 1854, not before he had asked Jane to keep Riccarton Bush in perpetuity. Jane Deans remained at the farm in Riccarton for the rest of her life, she was regarded as a leader of pioneer women. She had Riccarton House built, where she died on 19 January 1911. Like her husband, she is buried at Barbadoes Street Cemetery. Deans Cottage, built in circa 1843 and where Jane and John first lived, is today the oldest building in Canterbury, it is registered by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust as a Category I structure, with registration number 3679, features as a museum.
Riccarton House, built from circa 1855, is registered as a Category I structure, with registration number 1868. Until the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, it featured as a function venue, but is closed for repairs. Riccarton Bush was donated by the Deans family to the people of Christchurch in 1914. At that time, it was formally protected through a campaign led by MP Harry Ell and botanist Dr. Leonard Cockayne. Today, the bush is administered by a trust; the bush contains kahikatea of between 400 and 600 years of age. A predator-proof fence was installed in 2000, the bush remains a popular urban visitor attraction; the Christchurch suburb of Riccarton takes its name from the Riccarton farm. Jane Deans Close is a recent subdivision street in Riccarton. A memorial seat for Jane Deans is placed at the top of the Bridle Path near the Canterbury Pioneer Women's Memorial
Elsa the lioness was a female lion raised along with her sisters "Big One" and "Lustica" by game warden George Adamson and his wife Joy Adamson after they were orphaned at only a few weeks old. Though her two sisters went to the Netherlands' Rotterdam Zoo, Elsa was trained by the Adamsons to survive on her own, was released into the wild, her story is told in several books by the Adamsons, as well as the 1966 motion picture Born Free. Elsa and her sisters were orphaned on 1 February 1956 after George Adamson was forced to kill their mother when she charged him, in defence of her three cubs. George only realised why the lioness had acted so aggressively towards him. George and his wife Joy adopted the lioness’s four-day-old cubs. While Elsa lived in many ways like a domesticated pet when she was small, Joy Adamson, whom Elsa trusted the most, considered her relationship with Elsa to be that of equals. Indeed, after sending the other two to a zoo, Joy was fiercely determined to give Elsa the education she needed to hunt and live in the wild.
Her efforts paid off, earning Elsa worldwide fame at the time, when her early life’s story was published in the book Born Free. When Elsa was three years old, she brought three cubs of her own to show to the Adamsons, whom the Adamsons named “Jespah”, “Gop, “Little Elsa”; the life of Elsa and her cubs is covered in the book Living Free, published not long afterwards. Elsa died prematurely of a form of babesiosis, a tick-borne blood disease similar to malaria which infects the cat family. Elsa’s grave is in the Meru National Park, she died as local sentiment had begun to turn against Elsa and her cubs, forcing the Adamsons to consider moving them. Elsa’s death made her cubs much more averse to human contact with the Adamsons themselves, complicating what would be their eventual capture and release in the Serengeti; the fate of the cubs upon their release was uncertain, though George Adamson was able to find Little Elsa, healthy and in the company of two other unrelated lions, during 19 months of subsequent searching.
This was the last time. Born Free 1960 – Written by Joy Adamson. 60-6792 Living Free 1961 – Written by Joy Adamson. 61-15810 Forever Free 1962 – Written by Joy Adamson. 63-8081 Bwana Game 1968, A Lifetime With Lions 1970 – Written by George Adamson My Pride and Joy 1986 – Written by George Adamson – ISNS 978-0-00-272518-7 0 00 272518 5. Elsa the Lioness, 29 minutes. Filmed just before Elsa's death, it follows Joy and George Adamson as they search for Elsa and her three cubs, it shows remarkable footage of its wildlife. Joy Adamson recounts the visit of Attenborough and his cameraman Jeff Mulligan in her book Living Free. Born Free, 95 minutes. Directed by James Hill. Academy Award winner and Golden Globe Award winner. Living Free, starring Susan Hampshire and Nigel Davenport, based not on the book by the same name, but on the third book of the series, Forever Free. Elsa and Her Cubs, 25 minutes, it includes George Adamson. Although the film begins by saying the narrator is George Adamson, it is not George Adamson speaking.
Elsa's Legacy: The Born Free Story, 53 minutes. It includes home footage of Elsa and her cubs shot by the Adamsons and interviews with Virginia McKenna and David Attenborough. Born Free, television series based on the film, starring Diana Muldaur. Elsa - The Lioness that Changed the World - documentary narrated by Richard Armitage. Kenya Lion Christian the Lion A tribute to Elsa This site contains a huge amount of information and listings of the books, many photos and letters written by both Joy and George Adamson. Born Free Foundation Wildlife Artist Gary Hodges – drawing of Elsa by Gary Hodges in memory of Bill Travers. Elsa the Lioness Original Documentary
Tanigashira Station is a train station in Miyakonojō, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. It is on the Kitto Line; the station is served by the Kitto Line and is located 7.1 km from the starting point of the line at Miyakonojō. The station consists of an island platform serving two tracks at grade with a siding. There is no station building but a shed has been set up at the station entrance as a waiting room. A level crossing and ramp leads to the island platform which has a shelter. Parking and a bike shed. Japanese Government Railways opened what it designated as the Miyazaki Line between Yoshimatsu and Kobayashi on 1 October 1912. In the second phase of expansion, the track was extended southeast to Tanigashira which opened as the eastern terminus on 11 May 1913. On 15 December 1923, the stretch of track between Yoshimatsu and Miyakonojō which included Tanigashira, was designated as part of the Nippō Main Line. On 6 December 1932, the same stretch was separated out and was designated as the Kitto Line with Miyakonojō as the starting point.
With the privatization of Japanese National Railways, the successor of JGR, on 1 April 1987, Tanigashira came under the control of JR Kyushu. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 65 passengers per day. List of railway stations in Japan Official website