Media circus is a colloquial metaphor, or idiom, describing a news event for which the level of media coverage — measured by such factors as the number of reporters at the scene and the amount of material broadcast or published — is perceived to be excessive or out of proportion to the event being covered. Coverage, sensationalistic can add to the perception the event is the subject of a media circus; the term is meant to critique the coverage of the event by comparing it to the spectacle and pageantry of a circus. Usage of the term in this sense became common in the 1970s, it can be called a media feeding frenzy or just media frenzy when they cover the media coverage. Although the idea is older, the term media circus began to appear around the mid-1970s. An early example is from the 1976 book by author Lynn Haney, in which she writes about a romance in which the athlete Chris Evert was involved: "Their courtship, after all, had been a'media circus.'" A few years The Washington Post had a similar courtship example in which it reported, "Princess Grace herself is still traumatized by the memory of her own media-circus wedding to Prince Rainier in 1956."
The term has become popular with time since the 1970s. Reasons for being critical of the media are varied. Media circuses make up the central plot device in the 1951 movie Ace in the Hole about a self-interested reporter who, covering a mine disaster, allows a man to die trapped underground, it cynically examines the relationship between the news they report. The movie was subsequently re-issued as The Big Carnival, with "carnival" referring to what we now call a "circus"; the movie was based on real-life Floyd Collins who in 1925 was trapped in a Kentucky cave drawing so much media attention that it became the third largest media event between the two World Wars. Events described as a media circus include: The disappearance, assumed death, of Natalee Holloway; the Azaria Chamberlain disappearance of 2-month-old baby in outback Australia. The Beaconsfield Mine collapse. 2009 Violence against Indians in Australia controversy. Schapelle Corby Drug smuggler; the murder of Isabella Nardoni. Conrad Black, business magnate of newspapers, convicted of fraud and corporate destruction, imprisoned in Florida.
Toronto mayor Rob Ford's life, including his usage of drugs and involvement with organized crime. Paul Bernardo and Karla Homolka. Omar Khadr. Murder of Victoria Stafford. Jian Ghomeshi. Luka Rocco Magnotta, gay porn actor convicted of killing Chinese roommate and mailing remains to the Prime Minister and an elementary school in British Columbia. Elijah Marsh, a 3-year-old Toronto boy of black descent who wandered outside in February 2015 in just a diaper and boots and froze to death. 2010 Copiapó mining accident. The Death of Luis Andres Colmenares; the investigation on the murder of Grégory Villemin. The capture of Mohamed Merah in March 2012; the funerals of singer Johnny Hallyday in December 2017. Amanda Knox; the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. Joran van der the death of Stephany Flores Ramirez; the assumed discovery of the Nazi gold train in Wałbrzych, 2015 Disappearance and alleged murder of Elodia Ghinescu on OTV, which aired a couple hundred episodes on the matter. Oscar Pistorius on trial for death of his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp.
Suicide and funeral of K-pop star and SHINee member Kim Jong-hyun Tham Luang cave rescue Mykola Melnychenko's involvement in the Cassette Scandal. The Charlie Gard case; the life and funeral of Jade Goody. The News International phone hacking scandal. Overshadowed stories on the Libyan/Syrian Civil Wars, East African famine, economic crisis; the disappearance of Madeleine McCann. The McLibel case. Christine Jorgensen caused a media sensation when she returned from Denmark to the U. S. in 1952 after undergoing the "world's first sex change" operation. "Ex-GI Becomes Blonde Bombshell" was the headline in the New York Daily News on December 1, 1952. Coverage of the investigation and trial of the 1969 murders of Sharon Tate and four others by the Manson family. David Gelman, Peter Greenberg, et al. in Newsweek on January 31, 1977: "Brooklyn born photographer and film producer Lawrence Schiller managed to make himself the sole journalist to witness the execution of Gary Gilmore in Utah.... In the Gilmore affair, he was like a ringmaster in what became a media circus, with sophisticated newsmen scrambling for what he had to offer."
The rescue of baby Jessica McClure The Central Park jogger case of 1989. The O. J. Simpson murder case of 1994-1995; the Blizzard of'96. "...this storm...so hyped by the media in the same way that the O. J. Simpson murder case became hyped as the "Trial of the century"; the Elián González custody conflict. The trial of Martha Stewart. "The stone-faced Stewart never broke stride as she cut a path through the media circus." The 2005 trial of Michael Jackson on child moles
Deception is an act or statement which misleads, hides the truth, or promotes a belief, concept, or idea, not true. It is done for personal gain or advantage. Deception can involve dissimulation and sleight of hand, as well as distraction, camouflage, or concealment. There is self-deception, as in bad faith, it can be called, with varying subjective implications, deceit, mystification, ruse, or subterfuge. Deception is a major relational transgression that leads to feelings of betrayal and distrust between relational partners. Deception is considered to be a negative violation of expectations. Most people expect friends, relational partners, strangers to be truthful most of the time. If people expected most conversations to be untruthful and communicating with others would require distraction and misdirection to acquire reliable information. A significant amount of deception occurs between some relational partners. Deceit and dishonesty can form grounds for civil litigation in tort, or contract law, or give rise to criminal prosecution for fraud.
It forms a vital part of psychological warfare in denial and deception. Deception includes several types of communications or omissions that serve to distort or omit the complete truth. Examples of deception range from false statements to misleading claims in which relevant information is omitted, leading the receiver to infer false conclusions. For example, a claim that'sunflower oil is beneficial to brain health due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids' may be misleading, as it leads the receiver to believe sunflower oil will benefit brain health more so than other foods. In fact, sunflower oil is low in omega-3 fatty acids and is not good for brain health, so while this claim is technically true, it leads the receiver to infer false information. Deception itself is intentionally managing verbal or nonverbal messages so that the message receiver will believe in a way that the message sender knows is false. Intent is critical with regard to deception. Intent differentiates between an honest mistake.
The Interpersonal Deception Theory explores the interrelation between communicative context and sender and receiver cognitions and behaviors in deceptive exchanges. Some forms of deception include: Lies: making up information or giving information, the opposite or different from the truth. Equivocations: making an indirect, ambiguous, or contradictory statement. Concealments: omitting information, important or relevant to the given context, or engaging in behavior that helps hide relevant information. Exaggerations: overstatement or stretching the truth to a degree. Understatements: minimization or downplaying aspects of the truth. Untruthful: Also known as misinterpreting the truth. Many people believe that they are good at deception, though this confidence is misplaced. Buller and Burgoon have proposed three taxonomies to distinguish motivations for deception based on their Interpersonal Deception Theory: Instrumental: to avoid punishment or to protect resources Relational: to maintain relationships or bonds Identity: to preserve “face” or the self-image Deception detection between relational partners is difficult, unless a partner tells a blatant or obvious lie or contradicts something the other partner knows to be true.
While it is difficult to deceive a partner over a long period of time, deception occurs in day-to-day conversations between relational partners. Detecting deception is difficult because there are no known reliable indicators of deception and because people reply on a truth-default state. Deception, places a significant cognitive load on the deceiver, he or she must recall previous statements so that his or her story remains consistent and believable. As a result, deceivers leak important information both verbally and nonverbally. Deception and its detection is a complex and cognitive process, based on the context of the message exchange; the interpersonal deception theory posits that interpersonal deception is a dynamic, iterative process of mutual influence between a sender, who manipulates information to depart from the truth, a receiver, who attempts to establish the validity of the message. A deceiver's actions are interrelated to the message receiver's actions, it is during this exchange that the deceiver will reveal verbal and nonverbal information about deceit.
Some research has found that there are some cues that may be correlated with deceptive communication, but scholars disagree about the effectiveness of many of these cues to serve as reliable indicators. Noted deception scholar Aldert Vrij states that there is no nonverbal behavior, uniquely associated with deception; as stated, a specific behavioral indicator of deception does not exist. There are, some nonverbal behaviors that have been found to be correlated with deception. Vrij found that examining a "cluster" of these cues was a more reliable indicator of deception than examining a single cue. Mark Frank proposes. Lying requires deliberate conscious behavior, so listening to speech and watching body language are important factors in detecting lies. If a response to a question has a lot disturbances, less talking time, repeated words, poor logical structure the person may be lying. Vocal cues such as frequency height and variation may provide meaningful clues to deceit. Fear causes heightened arousal in liars, which manifests in more frequent blinking, pupil dilation, speech d
In promotion and of advertising, a testimonial or show consists of a person's written or spoken statement extolling the virtue of a product. The term "testimonial" most applies to the sales-pitches attributed to ordinary citizens, whereas the word "endorsement" applies to pitches by celebrities. Testimonials can be part of communal marketing. Sometimes, the cartoon character can be a testimonial in a commercial. Advertisers have attempted to quantify and qualify the use of celebrities in their marketing campaigns by evaluating the awareness generated and relevance to a brand's image and the celebrity's influence on consumer buying behavior. Social media such as Twitter have become popular mediums for celebrities to endorse brands and to attempt to influence purchasing behavior. According to a study by Zenith, social media ad spending was $29 billion in 2016 and is expected to rise to $50 billion in 2019. Advertising and marketing companies sponsor celebrities to tweet and influence thousands of their followers to buy brand products.
For example, Ryan Seacrest gets paid to promote Ford products. Companies that pay celebs to tweet. Celebrity endorsements have proven successful in China, where increasing consumerism makes the purchase of an endorsed product into a status symbol. On August 1, 2007, laws were passed banning healthcare professionals and public figures such as movie stars or pop singers from appearing in advertisements for drugs or nutritional supplements. A spokesperson stated, "A celebrity appearing in drug advertising is more to mislead consumers, the state must consider controlling medical advertisements and strengthen the management of national celebrities appearing in medical advertisements." Testimonials from customers who are not famous have been used in marketing for as long as marketing has existed. A past or current customer will present a formal "word of mouth" testimonial that a business can use in marketing and to build trust with future customers. Testimonials are effective when believed to be true, but a challenge is having the audience believe that testimonials presented by a business are given by real people, not fabricated by the business itself.
So, testimonials and case studies are still considered by most marketing experts to be the most effective means of marketing and gaining brand trust by small- and medium-sized businesses. Testimonials have reached an all-time high in importance as the internet is now a plethora of reviews. Websites such as Yelp!, Google+, TripAdvisor, many more have become'go to' places for individuals who are seeking other customers reviews/testimonials about a particular business. To put the growth of this industry into perspective, for example, Yelp.com's growth alone can be noted: Yelp.com has more than 71 million monthly unique visitors as of January 2012. Instagram has been useful in distributing testimonials on products and places, it is done by making use of the tagging feature that directly links to the original brand or the particular location that the picture was taken. Moreover, the description of the pictures are used to write either the review or sentences that compliments the product or place.
Users with a large number of followers are targeted for endorsement deal requests that aims to create these testimonial posts, where in return, the user receives commission for'advertising' the place or product. However, it can only be called an endorsement deal when the company or label contacts the user directly to create such testimonial post, the user receives commission; this is becoming a trend in Indonesia amongst users with at least one thousand followers, where some are now known for posting pictures with advertising purposes. The downside to such explosive importance in this arena is the massive amount of fraud in the form of fake reviews or opinion spam, testimonials that are not authentic. A business owner will open multiple email addresses and corresponding Yelp! Accounts and write a multitude of testimonials by many customers of said business; the same owner may write negative reviews of competitors. From a New York Times article about the same topic, "On another forum, Digital Point, a poster wrote,'I will pay for positive feedback on TripAdvisor.'
A Craigslist post proposed this:'If you have an active Yelp account and would like to make easy money please respond.' There are tens-of-thousands of ads out there all over the internet of people requesting you to write bogus reviews for their business and people offering to do the same." There have been allegations that review sites themselves are prepared to manipulate reviews in return for companies buying advertising subscriptions, with a class action being filed against Yelp to this effect in February 2010. While a few universities and corporations are working on a method to defeat these fake reviews, none seems to have yet been reliably successful. Testimonial Shield, a private company that began third party testimonial and review verification in the mid-2000s was awarded an independent business award for "the 2013 San Diego Award in the Data Verification Service category" for their ability to automatically discern with a claimed 90+% accuracy the difference between a legitimate and a fake review, which displays great progress towards the prevention of fake reviews and testimonials on the internet.
Research by Martin and Tomczak found that the effectiveness of testimonials depends on the degree to which consumers are influenced by normative pressure and the quality of the product features highlighted. Re
Joseph Paul Trippi is a longtime Democratic strategist who has worked on several Gubernatorial, United States Senate and Congressional campaigns, including Jerry Brown for Governor of California and, most Doug Jones for U. S. Senate in Alabama, he has worked for several Democratic presidential campaigns, most notably as manager of Howard Dean's groundbreaking 2004 campaign. He serves as a campaign strategist for Janet Garrett's congressional campaign in Ohio's 4th district against incumbent Rep. Jim Jordan, as a political commentator for CNN. Trippi began his career in the mid-1970s working on several local elections in San Jose, before leaving college a few credits shy of graduation to join Ted Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1980. Trippi served as Deputy Campaign Manager for Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley's successful reelection bid in 1981 and again when Bradley ran for governor in 1982. During Bradley's gubernatorial campaign, Trippi installed one of the first in-house computers for a political campaign: the DEC-PDP11.
Trippi used it for targeting. Trippi remained in California to hold his first and only government position as Lieutenant Governor Leo McCarthy's Deputy Chief of Staff, before overseeing several successes in Vice President Walter Mondale’s 1984 campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination. Starting with a come-from-behind victory at the Maine State Convention, Trippi managed operations as the state director in Iowa and Pennsylvania, where Mondale won by 30 and 14 points respectively. Following the Mondale campaign, Trippi joined Senator Ted Kennedy’s PAC, the Fund for a Democratic Majority, as Deputy Director under Paul Tully. At the time, Bob Shrum was chairman of the committee, but he soon resigned to start the media firm Caddell and Shrum, taking Trippi with him to be Vice President of the firm. During Trippi’s tenure at what became Doak and Shrum, the firm worked on several media campaigns for gubernatorial and senatorial candidates including those of Virginia Governor Jerry Baliles, Senator Alan Cranston of California, Senator Barbara Mikulski of Maryland, Pennsylvania Governor Bob Casey.
Shrum has attributed Trippi with conceiving and producing the famous spot on Cranston’s campaign, "Zschau’s Greatest Hits". In 1987, Trippi left Doak and Shrum to work on Gary Hart’s 1988 presidential bid with former colleague Paul Tully as deputy political director joining Dick Gephardt's team as deputy campaign manager after Hart withdrew from the race. There, Trippi was instrumental in the creation of the "Hyundai" ad, a television spot which received praise for launching Gephardt from last place in the polls to winning the Iowa caucuses. During the 1992 election cycle, Trippi consulted on the Presidential campaigns of Governor Douglas Wilder of Virginia and Jerry Brown of California. For Brown's campaign and colleague Joe Costello orchestrated the first successful use of an 800 number in politics, raising $8 million by advertising the number on television and during debates. Throughout the rest of the 1990s, Trippi worked as a media consultant and producer for multiple successful congressional races, including Ron Wyden’s run for Oregon's Senate seat, Jim Moran's in Virginia’s 8th district, Marjorie Margolies-Mezvinsky's in Pennsylvania’s 13th district, held by a Republican for 90 years.
In 2002, when five Democratic congressmen were redistricted into Republican majority districts and forced in contests against Republican incumbents, Trippi worked as a strategist and media consultant for Congressman Tim Holden, the only one of the five to win. As national campaign manager for Vermont Governor Howard Dean’s presidential campaign in 2004, Trippi used online technology to organize what he envisioned would become "the largest grassroots movement" in presidential politics at the time. One of these methods included the blog entitled Blog for America where the campaign could communicate directly with supporters. Another was an online streaming platform playing videos and clips from the campaign trail; the campaign developed technology for a social media site that enabled supporters to connect and campaign for Dean together. Through this innovative use of the Internet for small-donor fundraising, "Dean for America" raised more money than any Democratic presidential campaign to that point – all with donations averaging less than $100.
Trippi joined Jerry Brown again in 2006 serving as media consultant and strategist for his successful bid for California Attorney General. During this cycle he produced the media for John Hall’s winning campaign for New York’s 19th district congressional seat. John Edwards hired Trippi in 2007 as a senior adviser for his 2008 presidential campaign, he worked as media strategist and a senior adviser for Doug Jones' successful campaign in the 2017 U. S. Senate special election in Alabama, running for the seat left open when Jeff Sessions was appointed as Attorney General. In 2010, Trippi was a senior strategist and media consultant in Jerry Brown’s successful run for reelection as California Governor; the Brown ads Trippi & Associates produced received four Pollie awards for excellence in political media and TIME magazine named one ad, "Echo," the best ad of 2010. Andrew Romanoff, who challenged the incumbent Senator Michael Bennet in the 2010 Colorado Senate election, announced his campaign had hired Trippi as one of its four new consultants.
Trippi worked on a number of recent House victories for Representatives Tulsi Gabbard, Janice Hahn, Mark Takano, Seth Moulton. Moulton, a former Marine from Massachusetts, won in a shocking come-from-behind upset; the campaign overcame millions in outside spending to beat 18-year incumbent John Tierney in the primary and Richard T
Point of view (philosophy)
In philosophy, a point of view is a specified or stated manner of consideration, an attitude how one sees or thinks of something, as in "from my personal point of view". This figurative usage of the expression is from 1760. In this meaning, the usage is synonymous with one of the meanings of the term perspective. Margarita Vázquez Campos and Antonio Manuel Liz Gutiérrez in their work, "The Notion of Point of View", give a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the concept, they point out that despite being crucial in many discourses, the notion has not been adequately analyzed, though some important works do exist. They mention that early classical Greek philosophers, starting from Parmenides and Heraclitus discussed the relation between "appearance" and reality, i.e. how our points of view are connected with reality. They point out Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, they consider Wittgenstein's theory of "pictures" or "models" as an illustration of the relationship between points of view and reality.
The concept of the "point of view" is multifunctional and ambiguous. Many things may be judged from certain traditional or moral points of view. Our knowledge about reality is relative to a certain point of view. Vázquez Campos and Manuel Liz Gutierrez suggested to analyse the concept of "point of view" using two approaches: one based on the concept of "propositional attitudes", the other on the concepts of "location" and "access"; the internal structure of a point of view may be analysed to the concept of a propositional attitude. A propositional attitude is an attitude. Examples of such attitudes are "to believe in something", "to desire something", "to guess something", "to remember something", etc. Vazques Campos and Gutierrez suggest that points of view may be analyzed as structured sets of propositional attitudes; the authors draw on Content. Within this approach one may carry out ontological classification of various distinctions, such as individual vs. collective points of view, personal vs. non-personal, non-conceptual vs. conceptual, etc.
Whereas propositional attitudes approach is to analyze points of view internally, the "location/access" approach analyzes points of view externally, by their role. The term "access" refers to the statement of Liz Gutierrez that "points of views, or perspectives, are ways of having access to the world and to ourselves", the term "location" is in reference to the provided quotation of Jon Moline that points of view are "ways of viewing things and events from certain locations". Moline rejects the notion that points of view are reducible to some rules based on some theories, maxims or dogmas. Moline considers the concept of "location" in two ways: in a direct way as a vantage point, in an extended way, the way how a given vantage point provides a perspective, i.e. influences the perception. This approach may address epistemological issues, such as relativism, existence of the absolute point of view, compatibility of points of view, possibility of a point of view without a bearer, etc. Paradigm Perspectivism Reality tunnel Umwelt World view Value system Margarita Vázquez Campos, Antonio Manuel Liz Gutiérrez, "The Notion of Point of View", in: Temporal Points of View: Subjective and Objective Aspects, Springer, 2015, ISBN 3319198157 Manuel Liz, "Models and Points of View: The Analysis of the Notion of Point of View", in: Lorenzo Magnani, Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology: Theoretical and Cognitive Issues, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013, ISBN 364237428X Moore, A.
Points of View, Oxford University Press, 1997 Media related to Point of view at Wikimedia Commons
A news conference or press conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most ask questions. A joint press conference instead is held between two or more talking sides. In a news conference, one or more speakers may make a statement, which may be followed by questions from reporters. Sometimes only questioning occurs. A media event at which no statements are made, no questions allowed, is called a photo op. A government may wish to open their proceedings for the media to witness events, such as the passing of a piece of legislation from the government in parliament to the senate, via a media availability. Television stations and networks value news conferences: because today's TV news programs air for hours at a time, or continuously, assignment editors have a steady appetite for ever-larger quantities of footage. News conferences are held by politicians; some people, including many police chiefs, hold news conferences reluctantly in order to avoid dealing with reporters individually.
A news conference is announced by sending an advisory or news release to assignment editors, preferably well in advance. Sometimes they are held spontaneously. News conferences can be held just about anywhere, in settings as formal as the White House room set aside for the purpose to as informal as the street in front of a crime scene. Hotel conference rooms and courthouses are used for news conferences. Sometimes such gatherings are recorded for press use and released on an interview disc; when the President of the United States holds a press conference, he takes questions from the press pool in a specific order: first wire services broadcast networks, afterwards national newspapers, video and, regional newspapers. In crisis situations, this order holds a special value because it offsets all burning questions at that particular moment. Media day is a special press conference event where rather than holding a conference after an event to field questions about the event that has transpired, a conference is held for the sole purpose of making newsmakers available to the media for general questions and photographs before an event or series of events occur.
In athletics and leagues host media days prior to the season and may host them prior to special events during the season like all-star games and championship games. Media scrum Press videoconferencing Pseudo-event Message discipline Press release Press service Fact sheet Grassroots
A spin room known as spin row or spin alley, is an area in which reporters can speak with debate participants and/or their representatives after a debate. The name refers to the fact that the participants will attempt to "spin" or influence the perception of the debate among the assembled reporters; the benefit for reporters is that they get in-person interviews with debaters or their representatives, complete with audio and photos. For a U. S. presidential debate, the number of reporters in the spin room can number into the thousands. The earliest known spin room was set up by the campaign of U. S. president Ronald Reagan in 1984. In a hotel banquet room, campaign officials spoke on the record with talking points playing up their own candidate's debate performance and minimizing opponent Walter Mondale's success, despite many observers believing Mondale had just won; this operation was dubbed the "spin patrol." A spin room may be active before a debate. A common form of pre-debate spin is for each side to try to raise expectations for the opposing debater and lower expectations for their own team, a pursuit known as playing the expectations game.
Some observers have criticized the overt nature of the media manipulation in spin rooms, the media's willing participation in it. Defenders have said reporters know it's scripted and aren't persuaded by the spin, but rather, they use the talking points to analyze candidates' strategies. Spin rooms can include moments of candor, such as when presidential candidate Rick Perry admitted that he had "stepped in it" during a debate response that became known as his "oops" moment. Spin rooms have been portrayed as outdated in an era of instant online reaction from all quarters before a debate is over. Focus groups and instant post-debate "snap polls" attempt to provide a more scientific method than spin rooms in determining who has won a debate. Managing the news Propaganda Framing Public relations