Spinach is a leafy green flowering plant native to central and western Asia. It is of family Amaranthaceae, subfamily Chenopodioideae, its leaves are a common edible vegetable consumed either fresh, or after storage using preservation techniques by canning, freezing, or dehydration. It may be eaten cooked or raw, the taste differs considerably, it is an annual plant. Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions; the leaves are alternate, ovate to triangular, variable in size: 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm in diameter, mature into a small, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds. In 2017, world production of spinach was 27.9 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 92% of the total. The English word "spinach" dates to the late 14th century from espinache of uncertain origin. Common spinach, S. oleracea, was long considered to be in the family Chenopodiaceae, but in 2003 that family was merged into the Amaranthaceae in the order Caryophyllales.
Within the family Amaranthaceae sensu lato, Spinach belongs to the subfamily Chenopodioideae. Spinach is an annual plant growing as tall as 30 cm. Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions; the leaves are alternate, ovate to triangular, variable in size: 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm in diameter, mature into a small, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds. Raw spinach is 91% water, 4% carbohydrates, 3% protein, contains negligible fat. In a 100 g serving providing only 23 calories, spinach has a high nutritional value when fresh, steamed, or boiled, it is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese and folate. Spinach is a good source of the B vitamins riboflavin and vitamin B6, vitamin E, calcium and dietary fiber. Although spinach is touted as being high in iron and calcium content, is served and consumed in its raw form, raw spinach contains high levels of oxalates, which block absorption of calcium and iron in the stomach and small intestine.
Spinach cooked in several changes of water has much lower levels of oxalates and is better digested and its nutrients absorbed more completely. Spinach, along with other green, leafy vegetables, contains an appreciable amount of iron attaining 21% of the Daily Value in a 100 g amount of raw spinach. For example, the United States Department of Agriculture states that a 100 g serving of cooked spinach contains 3.57 mg of iron, whereas a 100 g ground hamburger patty contains 1.93 mg of iron.. However, spinach contains iron absorption-inhibiting substances, including high levels of oxalate, which can bind to the iron to form ferrous oxalate and render much of the iron in spinach unusable by the body. In addition to preventing absorption and use, high levels of oxalates remove iron from the body. Spinach has a moderate calcium content which can be affected by oxalates, decreasing its absorption; the calcium in spinach is among the least bioavailable of food calcium sources. By way of comparison, the human body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach.
A quantity of 3.5 ounces of spinach contains over four times the recommended daily intake of vitamin K. For this reason, individuals taking the anticoagulant warfarin – which acts by inhibiting vitamin K – are instructed to minimize consumption of spinach to avoid blunting the effect of warfarin. In 2017, world production of spinach was 27.9 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 92% of the total. Fresh spinach is bunched, or packaged fresh in bags. Fresh spinach loses much of its nutritional value with storage of more than a few days. Fresh spinach is packaged in nitrogen gas to extend shelf life. While refrigeration slows this effect to about eight days, fresh spinach loses most of its folate and carotenoid content over this period of time. For longer storage, it is canned, or cooked and frozen. Frozen spinach can be stored for up to eight months; some packaged spinach is exposed to radiation to kill any harmful bacteria. The Food and Drug Administration approves of irradiation of spinach leaves up to 4.0 kilograys.
Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service experimentally tested the concentrations of vitamins C, E, K, B9, four carotenoids in packaged spinach following irradiation. They found with increasing level of irradiation, four nutrients showed no change; those nutrients include vitamins B9, E, K, the carotenoid neoxanthin. This study showed the irradiation of packaged spinach to have little or no change to the nutritional value of the crop, the health benefits of irradiating packed spinach to reduce harmful bacteria seem to outweigh the loss of nutrients. Spinach may be high in cadmium contamination depending on the soil and location where the spinach is grown; the comics and cartoon character Popeye the Sailor Man has been portrayed since 1931 as having a strong affinity for spinach, particularl
Sebasti Arul Christopher Vasanth is an Indian magician and laser show artist who performs shows in India, Burkina Faso and globally. He was titled as "Master Magician" by Star One television in 2010. Vasanth was born on 22 August 1974 in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.'Maya Maya' in Doordarshan.'G Boom Vikram' in Vijay TV.'Fox History and Entertainment' in BBC.'Logic illa Magic' in Kalaignar TV.'Star One, India’s Magic Star' in STAR One.'Comedy Circus ka Jadoo' in Sony Entertainment Television "Best Creative Magician Award" in Hyderabad for the Year 2004 "Best innovative Magician Award" in Howrah for the Year 2005 "Dr. Mgr. Bharat Rathna Award" for the year 2009 Star One television titled him as "Master Magician" in 2010 Comedy Circus Ka Jadoo crowned him as "Prince of Indian Magic" in 2011 Global Leadership Awards 2014 – Award for Excellence in the Art of Illusions Roy, Priyanka. "Pure magic". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 January 2015
Paul Compton is an Emeritus Professor at the University of New South Wales. He is the former Head of the UNSW School of Computer Science and Engineering, he is known for proposing "ripple-down rules". Paul Compton worked at the Garvan Institute before his appointment at UNSW, he was the Head of School from 1996–1998, again from 2003-2010. He was popular as Head of School, upon his retirement a large gathering fare-welled him, as well as creating a YouTube slide-show tribute. Paul Compton along with R. Jansen proposed "ripple-down rules" in 1988. Tri Minh Cao Angela Finlayson Mihye Kim Maria Lee Ashesh Mahidadia Tim Menzies Akara Prayote Debbie Richards Pramod Singh Hendra Suryanto 1 Compton, P. Peters, L. Edwards, G. and Lavers, T. G. Experience with Ripple-Down Rules. Knowledge-Based System Journal: p. in press, 2006 2 Kim, M. and Compton, P. The perceived utility of standard ontologies in document management for specialized domains. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies: p. in press, 2005.
3 Kim, M. and Compton, P. Evolutionary Document Management and Retrieval for Specialized Domains on the Web. International Journal of Human Computer Studies. 60: p. 201-241, 2004. 4 Ruiz-S‡nchez, J. M. Valencia-Garc’a, R. Fern‡ndez-Breis, J. T. Mart’nez-BŽjar, R. and Compton, P. An approach for incremental knowledge acquisition from text. Expert Systems with Applications. 25: p. 77-86, 2003. 5 Mart’nez-BŽjar, R. Iba–ez-Cruz, F. Compton, P. and Cao, T. M. An easy-maintenance, reusable approach for building knowledge-based systems: application to landscape assessment. Expert Systems with Applications. 20: p. 153-162, 2001. 6 Compton, P. Edwards, G. Lazarus, L. Peters, L. and Harries, M. Knowledge Based System, U. P. Office, 2003. 7 Park, S. S. Kim, Y. S. Park, G. C. Kang, B. H. and Compton, P. Automated Information Mediator for HTML and XML based Web Information Delivery Service. In 18th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Sydney: Springer, p. 401-405. 2005. 8 Cao, T. M. and Compton, P. A Simulation Framework for Knowledge Acquisition Evaluation.
In Twenty-Eighth Australasian Computer Science Conference. Newcastle, p. 353-360, 2005. 9 Suryanto, H. and Compton, P. Invented Predicates to Reduce Knowledge Acquisition. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web. Whittleburg Hall, UK: Springer, p. 293-306, 2004. 10 Singh, P. and Compton, P. Evolution Oriented Semi-Supervised Approach for Segmentation of Medical Images. in Proceedings of ICISIP 2004. India: IEEE, p. 77-81, 2004. 11 Mahidadia, A. and Compton, P. Knowledge Management in Data and Knowledge Intensive Environments. in Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management: 5th International Conference, PAKM 2004: Springer-Verlag, p. 106 Ð 116, 2004. 12 Compton, P. Cao, T. and Kerr, J. Generalising Incremental Knowledge Acquisition. In Proceedings of the Pacific Knowledge Acquisition Workshop 2004. Auckland: University of Tasmania Eprints repository, p. 44 Ð 53, 2004. 13 Cao, T. Martin, E. and Compton, P. On the Convergence of Incremental Knowledge Case Construction. In Discovery Science: Springer, p. 207-218, 2004.
14 Finlayson, A. and Compton, P. Incremental Knowledge Acquisition using RDR for Soccer Simulation. In Proceedings of the Pacific Knowledge Acquisition Workshop 2004. Auckland: University of Tasmania Eprints repository, p. 102-116, 2004. 15 Misra, A. Sowmya, A. and Compton, P. Incremental Learning of Control Knowledge for Lung Boundary Extraction. in Proceedings of the Pacific Knowledge Acquisition Workshop 2004. Auckland: University of Tasmania Eprints repository, p. 211-225, 2004. 16 Suryanto, H. and Compton, P. Invented Predicates to Reduce Knowledge Acquisition Effort. in Proceedings of the IJCAI-2003 Workshop on Mixed-Initiative Intelligent Systems. Acapulco, p. 107-114, 2003. 17 Kerr, J. and Compton, P. Toward Generic Model-based Object Recognition by Knowledge Acquisition and Machine Learning. In Proceedings of the IJCAI-2003 Workshop on Mixed-Initiative Intelligent Systems. Acapulco, p. 80-86, 2003. 18 Ho, V. Wobcke, W. and Compton, P. EMMA: An E-mail Management Assistant. In IEEE/WIC International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology.
Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE, p. 67-74, 2003. 19 Suryanto, H. and Compton, P. Intermediate Concept Discovery in Ripple Down Rule Knowledge Bases. in the 2002 Pacific Rim Knowledge Acquisition Workshop. Tokyo, p. 233-245, 2002. 20 Kim, M. and Compton, P. Web-Based Document Management for Specialised Domains. in 13th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management: Ontologies and the Semantic Web. SigŸenza, Spain: Springer, p. 43-48, 2002. 21 Kerr, J. and Compton, P. Interactive Learning when Human and Machine Utilise Different Feature Spaces. in The 2002 Pacific Rim Knowledge Acquisition Workshop. Tokyo, Japan, p. 15-29, 2002. 22 Suryanto, H. and Compton, P. Discovery of Ontologies from Knowledge Bases. in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Knowledge Capture. Victoria, Canada: The Association for Computing Machinery, New York, p. 171-178, 2001. 23 Mart’nez-BŽjar, R. Ib‡–ez-Cruz, F. Compton, P. Fern‡ndez-Breis, J. T. and De las Heras-Gonz‡lez, M. Integrating Ripple Down Rules with Ontologies in an Oncology Domain. in Artificial Intelligence Medicine, 8th Conference on AI in Medicine in Europe, AIME 2001.
Cascais, Portugal: Springer, p. 324-327, 2001. 24 Mahidadia, A. and Compton, P. Assisting model-discovery in neuroendocrinology. in Discovery Science: 4th Internalional Conference, DS2001. Washington: Springer, p. 214-227, 2001. 25 Kim, M. and Compton, P. Formal concept analysis for domain-specific document retrieval systems. In AI 2001: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 14th Austral