Taipei Mass Rapid Transit, branded as Taipei Metro, is a metro system serving Taipei and New Taipei, operated by government owned Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation, which operates Maokong Gondola. Taipei Metro is the first metro system in Taiwan; the initial network was approved for construction in 1986 and work started two years later. The first line opened in 1996 and by 2000, 62 stations were in service on three main lines. Over the next 9 years the number of passengers had increased by 70%. Since 2008, the network has expanded to 117 stations and the passenger count has grown by another 66%; the system has been praised for its safety and quality. It has become effective in relieving traffic congestion in Taipei, with over two million trips made daily; the system has proven effective as a catalyst for urban renewal. The idea of constructing the Taipei Metro was first put forth at a press conference on 28 June 1968, where the Minister of Transportation and Communications Sun Yun-suan announced his ministry's plans to begin researching the possibility of constructing a rapid transit network in the Taipei metropolitan area.
With the increase of traffic congestion accompanying economic growth in the 1970s, the need for a rapid transit system became more pressing. In February 1977, the Institute of Transportation of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications released a preliminary rapid transport system report, with the designs of five lines, including U1, U2, U3, S1, S2, to form a rough sketch of the planned corridors, resulting in the first rapid transit system plan for Taipei. In 1981, the IOT invited British Mass Transit Consultants and China Engineering Consultants, Inc. to form a team and provide in-depth research on the preliminary report. In 1982, the Taipei City Government commissioned National Chiao Tung University to do a research and feasibility study on medium-capacity rapid transit systems. In January 1984, the university proposed an initial design for a medium-capacity rapid transit system in Taipei City, including plans for Wenhu line and Tamsui–Xinyi line of the medium-capacity metro system.
On March 1, 1985, the Executive Yuan Council for Economic Planning and Development signed a treaty with the Taipei Transit Council, composed of three American consultant firms, to do overall research on a rapid transit system in metropolitan Taipei. Apart from adjustments made to the initial proposal, Wenhu line of the medium-capacity metro system was included into the network. In 1986, the initial network design of the Taipei Metro by the CEPD was passed by the Executive Yuan, although the network corridors were not yet set. A budget of NT$441.7 billion was allocated for the project. On 27 June 1986, the Preparatory Office of Rapid Transit Systems was created, which on 23 February 1987 was formally established as the Department of Rapid Transit Systems for the task of handling, planning and construction of the system. Apart from preparing for the construction of the metro system, DORTS made small changes to the metro corridor; the 6 lines proposed on the initial network were: Tamsui line and Xindian line, Zhonghe Line, Nangang Line and Banqiao Line, Muzha line, totaling 79 stations and 76.8 km route length, including 34.4 km of elevated rail, 9.5 km at ground level, 44.2 km underground.
The Neihu Line corridor was approved in 1990. On 27 June 1994, the Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation was formed to oversee the operation of the Taipei Metro system; the Executive Yuan approved the initial network plan for the system on 27 May 1986. Ground was broken and construction began on 15 December 1988; the growing traffic problems of the time, compounded by road closures due to TRTS construction led to what became popularly known as the "dark age of Taipei traffic". The TRTS was the center of political controversy during its construction and shortly after the opening of its first line in 1996 due to incidents such as computer malfunction during a thunderstorm, alleged structural problems in some elevated segments, budget overruns, fare prices; the system opened on 28 March 1996, with the 10.5 km elevated Wenhu line, a driverless, medium-capacity line with twelve stations running from Zhongshan Junior High School to Taipei Zoo. The first high-capacity line, the Tamsui–Xinyi line, began service on 28 March 1997, running from Tamsui to Zhongshan extended to Taipei main station at the end of the year.
On 23 December 1998, the system passed the milestone of 100 million passengers. On 24 December 1999, a section of the Bannan line was opened between Longshan Temple and Taipei City Hall; this section became the first east-west line running through the city, connecting the two completed north-south lines. On 31 May 2006, the second stage of the Banqiao–Nangang section and the Tucheng section began operation; the service was named Bannan after the districts that it connects. On 4 July 2007, a new aerial lift/cable-car system, was opened to the public; the system connects the Taipei Zoo, Zhinan Temple, Maokong. Service was suspended on 1 October 2008 due to erosion from mudslides under a support pillar following Typhoon Jangmi; the gondola resumed service as of 31 March 2010, after relocation of the pillar and passing safety inspections. On 4 July 2009, with the opening of the Neihu section of Wenhu line, the last of the six core sections was completed. Due to controversy on whether to construct a medium-capacity or high-capacity line, construction
Rosslyn is the westernmost station on the shared segment of the Blue and Silver lines of the Washington Metro. It is located in the Rosslyn neighborhood of Arlington, United States. Rosslyn is the first station in Virginia heading westward from the District on the Orange and Silver Lines and southward on the Blue Lines, it is one of four interchange points on the Metrorail system west of the Potomac River and located in a growing business district. Depending on the year, Rosslyn is the busiest, or one of the busiest stations outside the District of Columbia, along with Pentagon City and Pentagon, which are in Arlington. Rosslyn is the biggest choke point of the Metro system. Due to this, planners are considering adding another station in the Rosslyn neighborhood as part of an inner loop through Washington and Arlington; the station has entrances on the west side of North Moore Street between Wilson Boulevard and 19th Street North and on the east side of Fort Myer Drive between Wilson Boulevard and 19th Street North.
A bank of three high-speed street elevators to the mezzanine level of the station is on the east side of North Moore Street, across the street from the station entrance. The station is a stop for several express Metrobus lines, including the 5A to Washington Dulles International Airport and L'Enfant Plaza; the station opened on July 1, 1977. Its opening coincided with the completion of 11.8 miles of rail between National Airport and RFK Stadium and the opening of the Arlington Cemetery, Capitol South, Crystal City, Eastern Market, Farragut West, Federal Center SW, Federal Triangle, Foggy Bottom–GWU, L'Enfant Plaza, McPherson Square, National Airport, Pentagon City, Potomac Avenue and Stadium–Armory stations. Orange Line service to the station began upon the line's opening on November 20, 1978. Rosslyn is one of two stations at which westbound trains serve a platform, a level below the mezzanine-level platform for eastbound trains; this allows for trains to converge inbound and diverge outbound via a flying junction to avoid an at-grade crossing.
Since the neighborhood is on a bluff over the Potomac River and the shared rail line into Washington passes through a rock-bored tunnel, Rosslyn is deep: the deepest on the three lines servicing it. It is the second deepest station in the system, behind only Forest Glen; the upper platform is 175 feet below street level. An escalator ride between the street and mezzanine levels takes about three minutes, it is one of three stations on the Metro with platform-level fare elevators. A new bank of three high-speed elevators and an expanded mezzanine opened on October 7, 2013, it replaces the original single street elevator, cutting elevator transit time from about a minute to about 17 seconds. The underground hallway to the new elevator bank contains a four-coffered arch like most underground stops on the Red Line that were opened after 1980; this is the only stop on the Blue and Silver Lines with this arch. It is the only stop in the system that contains both the waffle and four-coffer arch design.
Artisphere Freedom Park Marine Corps War Memorial Netherlands Carillon WMATA: Rosslyn Station StationMasters Online: Rosslyn Station The Schumin Web Transit Center: Rosslyn Station Fort Myer Drive entrance from Google Maps Street View Moore Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
Borough Hall/Court Street (New York City Subway)
Borough Hall/Court Street is an underground New York City Subway station complex shared by the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and the IRT Eastern Parkway Line. The station is named Borough Hall on the IRT lines and Court Street on the BMT. Located at the intersection of Court and Montague Streets at the border of Downtown Brooklyn and Brooklyn Heights, it is served by the: 2, 4 and R trains at all times 3 train all times except late nights 5 train weekdays until 8:45 PM N train during late nights only Limited rush hour W trains Borough Hall on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line has two levels; each level has one track with a side platform on the south side. Manhattan-bound trains use the upper level. Both platforms have their original IRT trim line and name tablets reading "BOROUGH HALL" in a serif lettering style. Tablets showing images of Borough Hall are located at regular intervals on the trim line. Dark blue I-beam columns line both platforms at regular intervals with alternating ones having the standard black station name plate in white lettering.
At the eastern end of the platforms, a staircase from the lower level goes up to the upper level, where a passageway connects to the Manhattan-bound platform of the IRT Eastern Parkway Line section of the complex. The southbound track crosses under the tracks of the Eastern Parkway Line, both tracks become the local tracks for the line; the station opened on April 15, 1919 when the branch of the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line to Wall Street was extended to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn. Through service between the Brooklyn Line and the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line was inaugurated with this extension. In 1976, with funding from the Exxon Corporation, this station, as well as three others citywide, received new "artfully humorous graffiti" murals and artwork. Local designer Samuel Lebowitz received $5,000 to "improve the level of lighting in an exciting and light hearted way." Some "multicolored animated neon signs" were placed underneath transparent plastic screens. The fare control for this section of the station complex is at the west end of the platforms.
A staircase from the lower level goes up to the upper level before another staircase goes up to the mezzanine. The lower level has an up-only escalator that bypasses the upper level, leading directly to the mezzanine. A single elevator stopping at all three levels makes this part of the complex ADA-accessible; the mezzanine has a passageway leading to the BMT platform and two public restrooms inside fare control. Outside the turnstile bank that provides entrance/exit from the station, there is a token booth, two staircases going up to the southeast corner of Court and Montague Streets, a staircase and elevator going up to Columbus Park, the entrance plaza of Borough Hall, on the east side of Court Street. Borough Hall on the IRT Eastern Parkway Line has two side platforms. Both platforms have their original terra-cotta wall reliefs and name tablets reading "BOROUGH HALL" in sans serif lettering. "BH" tablets are located along the reliefs at regular intervals. At the extreme east end of the platforms, where they were extended in the 1950s to accommodate the current standard "A" Division train length, there is a brown trim line on beige tiles with "BOROUGH HALL" in white sans serif lettering.
Narrow I-beam columns painted in platforms at regular intervals. The northbound platform has a passageway leading to the northbound platform of the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line section of the complex at the east end; as a result, only this platform is ADA-accessible. Southbound accessibility was proposed in February 2019 as part of the MTA's "Fast Forward" program. Railroad south of this station, the two tracks become the express tracks of the IRT Eastern Parkway Line and the two tracks of the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line become the local tracks; as a result, Manhattan-bound trains on that line can be seen from the eastern end of the platforms as they turn away into their own tunnel. This was the first underground subway station in Brooklyn, opened on January 9, 1908, as the terminal for the extension of the IRT Lexington Avenue Line from Lower Manhattan, it provided easy access to the BRT elevated Fulton Street Line and Myrtle Avenue Line, although a separate fare had to be paid. The platforms were extended to the east in 1911 and in 1964, allowing the station to accommodate 10-car trains.
The Borough Hall IRT Eastern Parkway Line station has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since September 17, 2004. The main fare control area is at the center of the tracks. Two overpasses connect the two platforms with two staircases to each of them. On the Manhattan-bound side, the overpasses have full height turnstiles leading to an unstaffed mezzanine and two staircases going up to the northeast corner of Court and Joralemon Streets. On the southbound side, the overpasses have small turnstile banks leading to a mezzanine that has a token booth and two staircases going up to the southeast corner of Court and Joralemon Streets; the banisters on these staircases are made of concrete since they are outside the Brooklyn Municipal Building. The mezzanine has a large set of doors leading into the building, a plaque commemorating the subway's arrival in Brooklyn, a now defunct bank teller window. An overpass between the two platforms connects the two mezzanine areas; this section of the station complex has an unstaffed fare control area at the extreme north (geographical
A cross-platform interchange is a type of interchange between different lines at a metro station. The term originates with the London Underground. In the United States, it is referred to as a "cross-platform transfer"; this configuration occurs at a station with island platforms, with a single platform in between the tracks allocated to two directions of travel, or two side platforms between the tracks, connected by level corridors. The benefit of this design is that passengers do not need to use stairs to another platform level for transfer, thus increasing the convenience of users. A cross-platform interchange arrangement may be costly due to the complexity of rail alignment if the railway designers arrange the track with flyovers. A common two-directions cross-platform interchange configuration consists of two directions of two different lines sharing an island platform, the respective return directions of both lines sharing a different island platform in the same station complex. Common cross-platform interchanges allow passengers to change trains without changing to another platform.
This applies at places where trains of different directions meet in minor and major hubs, but this arrangement is only found at some interchange stations in metro and other rail networks worldwide. Some railway lines in more congested areas offer cross-platform interchanges between different categories of trains, for example between express and stopping trains. For instance, this kind of interchange is used at many European railway minor hubs to connect fast trains to local feeder services, as well as surface sections of suburban lines like the RER E in Paris or the Metro North Hudson Line in New York State. However, local–express interchanges are found in only a few metro networks, such as Chicago, London, New York City, Philadelphia; the New York City Subway system has numerous stations facilitating cross-platform transfers between local and express trains using pairs of island platforms, each serving express trains on one side, local trains on the other side, with both alternatives headed in the same direction.
As express and stopping trains head for different directions, cross-platform interchange between different train categories is combined with cross-platform interchanges between different lines. In some, but not all, the trains are coordinated in the timetable. In the case, the cross-platform infrastructure offers the possibility of changing trains, independently from the waiting time for the second train. In metro systems with short headways, waiting time is small, but such an noncoordinated approach could reduce the advantages of stairless cross-platform interchange in railway networks with less dense train traffic. A more advanced approach involves the coordination of the lines' timetables to reduce the scheduled changing time, either from one line to the other, or, bidirectionally, between both trains at the same time; this concept is used in Dutch and Swiss railway networks, where trains of different lines meet at the same platforms in numerous hubs all over the country. Most advanced are coordinated cross-platform interchanges wherein interconnected trains wait for each other to'guarantee' scheduled interchanges in the event of modest delays.
In order to still ensure on-time running across the network, additional waiting time for trains is limited to a certain period of time depending on general network performance, further connections to be guaranteed, train category, train line, a balanced consideration of other factors. In practice, most railways coordinating cross-platform interchanges define a certain waiting time window for each'guaranteed' interchange; some railway operators will delay train departure signals to allow imminently arriving passengers time to interchange. For example, the Vienna U-Bahn metro signals train drivers to wait by operating a special white light signal triggered by the approach of an interchange train on another track. In most cases, only cross-platform interchanges used for both directions of travel are listed, with some exceptions. Amsterdam metro network includes cross-platform interchanges at Van der Madeweg station between metro lines 50 and 53 and in the future at Amsterdam South station between metro lines 50 and 52.
Further, cross-platform connections are offered at Amstel station between metro lines 51, 53, 54 and suburban services of Netherlands Railways. At Newmarket Station, there are three lines serving two island platforms. Western Line services use the centre line allowing cross-platform interchange with Southern Line services which use the outer lines. By 2011, Barcelona metro only offers one cross-platform interchange between metro lines L4 and L11 at Trinitat Nova station where both lines terminate on one track each side of the shared island platform. Guogongzhuang station offers cross-platform interchange between Fangshan Line. National Library Station offers cross-platform interchange between Lines 9 and 4. In addition Nanluoguxiang station, Zhuxinzhuang Station, Beijing West Railway Station, Yancun East offer cross-platform interchange; the Berlin suburban rail network includes cross-platform transfers at Berlin East and at Baumschulenweg / Schöneweide, Bornholmer Straße, Treptower Park and Wannsee suburban railway stations.
Berlin metro services offer cross-platform connections at Mehringdamm, Nollendo
The Milan Metro is the rapid transit system serving Milan, operated by Azienda Trasporti Milanesi. The network consists of 4 lines, identified by different numbers and colours, with a total network length of 96.8 kilometres, a total of 106 stations underground. It has a daily ridership of about 1.4 million on weekdays. The first line, Line 1, opened in 1964. A fifth line, Line 4, is under construction; the Milan Metro is the largest system in Italy for length, number of stations and ridership. The architectural project, by Franco Albini, Franca Helg and Bob Noorda, was awarded in 1964 with a Compasso d'oro, the most prestigious award for Design in Italy; the first projects for a subway line in Milan were drawn up in 1914 and 1925, following the examples of underground transport networks in other European cities like London and Paris. Planning proceeded in 1938 for the construction of a system of 7 lines, but this too halted after the start of World War II and due to lack of funds. On 3 July 1952 the city administration voted for a project of a metro system and on 6 October 1955 a new company, Metropolitana Milanese, was created to manage the construction of the new infrastructure.
The project was funded with ₤ 500 million from the rest from a loan. The construction site of the first line was opened in viale Monte Rosa on 4 May 1957. Stations on the new line were designed by Franco Albini and Franca Helg architecture studio, while Bob Noorda designed the signage. For this project both Albini-Helg and Noorda won the Compasso D'Oro prize; the first section from Lotto to Sesto Marelli was opened on 1 November 1964, after 7 years of construction works. The track was 12.5 km long, the mean distance between the stations was 590 m. In the same year, in April, works on the second line started. Passengers on the network grew through the first years of service, passing from 37,092,315 in 1965 to 61,937,192 in 1969; the green line from Caiazzo to Cascina Gobba opened five years later. During the 1960s and 1970s the network of 2 lines was completed, both lines had 2 different spurs. In 1978, the lines were 17.6 km and 23 km long with 28 and 22 stations. The first section of the third line, with 5 stations, was opened on 3 May 1990 after 9 years of construction works.
The line opened just before the World Cup. The other 9 stations on Line 3 opened to the southeast in 1991, northwest to Maciachini Station in 2004. In March 2005 the Line 2 Abbiategrasso station and the Line 1 Rho Fiera station opened; the intermediate station of Pero opened on December 2005. A north extension of Line 3 to Comasina and a new south branch on the Line 2 to Assago opened in early 2011; the first stage of the Line 5, covering the 4.1 kilometres from Bignami to Zara opened on 10 February 2013. The 1.9-kilometre second stage, from Zara to Garibaldi FS, opened on 1 March 2014. The 7-kilometre third stage, from Garibaldi FS to San Siro Stadio opened on 29 April 2015, with some intermediate stations not in service at that time; the metro replaced several interurban tramroutes of the original Società Trazione Elettrica Lombarda tramlines. In particular the Line 2 to Gessate; the only remaining suburban tram line to Limbiate is shortened to Comasina, the endpoint of Line 3. All the lines run underground except for the Line 2 Assago branch.
There are 7 interchange stations, each with 2 lines: Centrale Milan's main train station. Lines run in the Milan municipality for the 80% of the total length. However, 12 other municipalities are served: Assago, Cassina de' Pecchi, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Cologno Monzese, Gorgonzola, Rho, San Donato Milanese, Sesto San Giovanni, Vimodrone; the network covers about 20% of Milan's total area. The metro network is linked with the suburban rail service, with 12 interchange stations: Affori FN, Cadorna FN, Garibaldi FS, Lambrate FS, Lodi T. I. B. B. Porta Venezia, Rho Fiera, Rogoredo FS, Sesto 1º Maggio, The track gauge for all lines is the 1,435 mm standard gauge. Most of the network has no platform screen doors, except for the newest Line 5, where screen doors are present in all stations and some stations on Line 1; the first 3 lines are heavy rapid-transit lines, with about 105 m in length. Line 5 is a light metro line, with 4-cars trains, about 50 m long. Line 5 is equipped with driverless trains. Lines 2 and 3 use overhead lines to supply the electric current to the train and are electrified at 1500 V DC.
Line 1, electrified at 750 V DC, uses a fourth rail system, although the same line supports overhead lines in some stretches and depots. Line 5 trains are supplied by a third rail system at 750 V DC, the same system will be used on the future line 4. Most of stations are provided with LED screens showing the destination and waiting time of coming trains. In every station, a recorded voice announces the direction of every approaching train and, at the platform, the name of the station. While older train
Downtown Oakland is the central business district of Oakland, United States. The Downtown area is sometimes expanded to refer to the industrial and residential Jack London Square and Jack London warehouse district areas, the Lakeside Apartments District, which are a residential neighborhood on the west side of Lake Merritt, the Civic Center district and the south end of Oakland's Broadway Auto Row, an area along Broadway, used by car dealers and other automotive service businesses. While many consider these areas outside of downtown proper, they are considered more geographically proximate to Downtown Oakland than to East Oakland, North Oakland or to West Oakland and are thus sometimes associated with Downtown Oakland. Downtown Oakland hosts the only celebration of its kind in the nation in memory of the black cowboys who helped settle the American West; the annual parade begins on an early October weekend at DeFremery Park in West Oakland en route to Frank H. Ogawa Plaza where judging booths are set up.
After an awards ceremony, the parade returns for a celebration. Downtown Oakland is home to apartment and condominium dwellers, numerous retail businesses, tall modern office buildings, shorter mixed-use historic buildings, the hubs of AC Transit and BART, which has three underground stations, the city's official Entertainment District which includes the historic Paramount and Fox Theatres and restaurants, the headquarters of Clorox, City Center, a portion of Old Oakland, a portion of Chinatown. Downtown includes a portion of the oldest part of the city; the area from the Oakland Estuary inland to 14th Street between West Street and the Lake Merritt Channel was the original site of Oakland, there are several 19th century houses scattered around the edges of downtown and in Chinatown. The Oakland Museum is located on Oak Street near the southeastern edge of Downtown. Laney College, with more than 12,000 students, is located on Fallon Street near the Lake Merritt BART station. Other educational institutions include Lincoln University, a small business school catering to international students, a downtown office of Cal State East Bay.
Oaksterdam University, a business college which prepares students for medical cannabis work, is located on 15th Street in an area referred to as "Oaksterdam". The original campus of UC Berkeley was located between Harrison, 12th and 14th streets. Lincoln Elementary School, one of the few public elementary schools in the downtown of a major US city, is on the edge of downtown, near the center of Chinatown; the Oakland School for the Arts, a charter school, is building a new facility surrounding the Fox Oakland Theatre in Oakland's Uptown Oakland. City Hall Plaza is a city park and a "pedestrian plaza" which includes what was once the terminus of San Pablo Avenue where it met Broadway at 14th Street, it includes 15th Street, which once ran through what is now "Kahn's Alley," past 250 Frank H. Ogawa Plaza building, across Clay Street, through what is now a glass windowed lobby of the California State office building, connecting with Jefferson Street on the building's west side entrance. Motor vehicle traffic has been excluded from where former city streets, Washington street and 13th street, were once aligned through what is now the Oakland City Center development.
Today the area features an outdoor retail mall with pedestrian streets laid out to replicate the original street grid. Three underground Bay Area Rapid Transit stations serve downtown: 12th Street/Oakland City Center and 19th Street are both located on Broadway, while Lake Merritt is in the eastern area of Chinatown, at 8th and Oak Streets. Several routes operated by AC Transit end at Downtown Oakland; these include: Local Routes 1: Downtown Oakland to San Leandro BART via International Boulevard 6: Downtown Oakland to Downtown Berkeley via most of Telegraph Avenue 12: Jack London Square Amtrak Station to Berkeley–Westbrae via parts of Grand Avenue, Martin Luther King Jr. Way, Gilman Street 14: West Oakland BART to Fruitvale BART via 14th Street and parts of East 18th Street, East 21st Street, East 27th Street, School Street, High Street 18: Lake Merritt BART to Albany–UC Village via parts of Martin Luther King Jr. Way, Shattuck Avenue, Solano Avenue 19: Downtown Oakland to Fruitvale BART via Buena Vista Avenue 20: Downtown Oakland to the Dimond District via parts of Webster Street, Alameda South Shore Center, Park Street, Fruitvale Avenue 29: Emeryville to Trestle Glen via Hollis Street, Peralta Street, parts of 10th, 11th, 12th Streets, Lakeshore Avenue 33: Piedmont to Montclair via Hampton Road, Oakland Avenue, Harrison Street, to Park Boulevard 40: Downtown Oakland to Bay Fair BART via parts of Foothill Boulevard, Bancroft Avenue, East 14th Street 51A: Rockridge BART to Fruitvale BART via Broadway and parts of Webster Street and Santa Clara Avenue 62: West Oakland BART to Fruitvale BART via parts of 7th and 8th Streets, 8th Avenue, 23rd Avenue, passing in front of Highland Hospital.
This bus line is unique in not providing service near 12th Street BA
The Washington Metro, or locally Metro, is the common name of Metrorail, the rapid transit system serving the Washington metropolitan area of the United States. It is administered by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, which operates the Metrobus service under the Metro name. Opened in 1976, the network now includes six lines, 91 stations, 117 miles of route. Metro serves the District of Columbia, as well as several jurisdictions in the states of Maryland and Virginia. In Maryland, Metro provides service to Prince George's counties. Combined with its ridership in the independent Virginia cities of Falls Church and Fairfax, the Metro service area is coextensive with the inner ring of the Washington metropolitan area; the system is being expanded to reach Dulles International Airport and Loudoun County, Virginia. It operates as a deep-level subway in more densely populated parts of the D. C. metropolitan area, while most of the suburban tracks elevated. The longest single-tier escalator in the Western Hemisphere, spanning 230 feet, is located at Metro's deep-level Wheaton station.
Metro is the third-busiest rapid transit system in the United States in number of passenger trips, after the New York City Subway and Chicago "L". There were 179.7 million trips on Metro in fiscal year 2016. In June 2008, Metro set 798,456 per weekday. Fares vary based on the distance traveled, the time of day, the type of card used by the passenger. Riders enter and exit the system using a proximity card called SmarTrip. During the 1960s plans were laid for a massive freeway system in Washington. Harland Bartholomew, who chaired the National Capital Planning Commission, thought that a rail transit system would never be self-sufficient because of low density land uses and general transit ridership decline, but the plan met fierce opposition, was altered to include a Capital Beltway system plus rail line radials. The Beltway received full funding. In 1960 the federal government created the National Capital Transportation Agency to develop a rapid rail system. In 1966, a bill creating WMATA was passed by the federal government, the District of Columbia and Maryland, with planning power for the system being transferred to it from the NCTA.
WMATA approved plans for a 97.2-mile regional system on March 1, 1968. The plan consisted of a "core" regional system, which included the original five Metro lines, as well as several "future extensions", many of which were not constructed; the first experimental Metro station was built above ground in May 1968 for a cost of $69,000. It was 64x30x17 feet and meant to test construction techniques and acoustics prior to full-scale construction efforts. Construction began after a groundbreaking ceremony on December 9, 1969, when Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe, District Mayor Walter Washington, Maryland Governor Marvin Mandel tossed the first spade of dirt at Judiciary Square; the first portion of the system opened March 27, 1976, with 4.6 miles available on the Red Line with five stations from Rhode Island Avenue to Farragut North, all in the District of Columbia. Arlington County, Virginia was linked to the system on July 1, 1977. Underground stations were built with cathedral-like arches of concrete, highlighted by soft, indirect lighting.
The name Metro was suggested by Massimo Vignelli, who designed the subway maps for the New York City Subway. The 103-mile, 83-station system was completed with the opening of the Green Line segment to Branch Avenue on January 13, 2001; this did not mean the end of the growth of the system: a 3.22-mile extension of the Blue Line to Largo Town Center and Morgan Boulevard opened on December 18, 2004. The first infill station, NoMa–Gallaudet U on the Red Line between Union Station and Rhode Island Avenue–Brentwood, opened November 20, 2004. Construction began in March 2009 for an extension to Dulles Airport to be built in two phases; the first phase, five stations connecting East Falls Church to Tysons Corner and Wiehle Avenue in Reston, opened on July 26, 2014. Metro construction required billions of federal dollars provided by Congress under the authority of the National Capital Transportation Act of 1969; the cost was paid with 33 % local money. This act was amended on January 3, 1980 by the National Capital Transportation Amendment of 1979, which authorized additional funding of $1.7 billion to permit the completion of 89.5 miles of the system as provided under the terms of a full funding grant agreement executed with WMATA in July 1986, which required 20% to be paid from local funds.
On November 15, 1990, the National Capital Transportation Amendments of 1990 authorized an additional $1.3 billion in federal funds for construction of the remaining 13.5 miles of the 103-mile system, completed via the execution of full funding grant agreements, with a 63% federal/37% local matching ratio. In February 2006 Metro officials chose Randi Miller, a car dealership employee from Woodbridge, Virginia, to record new "doors opening", "doors closing", "please stand clear of the doors, thank you" announcements aft