Edward Hitchcock Jr.
Edward Hitchcock Jr. was an American physical educator. Born to Edward Hitchcock Sr. the geologist and President of Amherst College, wife Orra White, Hitchcock attended Williston Seminary as a boy and continued his education while following in his father's footsteps by entering Amherst College in the fall of 1845. Hitchcock Jr. graduated from Amherst college in 1849. From 1850 to 1861, with the exception of a single year, he was teacher of elocution and natural science at Williston Seminary. In 1853, he obtained the degree of doctor of medicine from the Harvard Medical School; the same year, after receiving his doctorate, he married Mary Judson. They had ten children. Hitchcock Jr. returned to Amherst College in 1861 as professor of Physical Education. Hitchcock Jr. was the first physical educator. Colleges had hired physical educators since the early 1820s, but Edward Hitchcock Jr. is credited with being the first formal physical educator at the collegiate level. He believed in the importance of sound physical health for college students, so that the mind could accomplish its best work and students could look forward to "the promised labor of a long life."
To achieve that goal, he developed systems of physical training intended to appeal to the students both mentally and physically. His program at Amherst became a model for college and secondary school programs nationally and internationally; the development of this first college program was Hitchcock's major contribution to the field of physical education. Edward Hitchcock Jr. contributed to Amherst College not only with his enlightened ideas concerning physical education, but with his genuine personality. Hitchcock Jr. was noted as a kind, broad-minded, optimistic, faithfully religious man with shrewd common sense and an intense loyalty to the college. Students were known for being rather fond of Hitchcock Jr. as well, he was affectionately referred to as "Old Doc". Old Doc is a noted "crusader for fitness" he created schedules for physical exercises to be completed at the college. While Edward Hitchcock Jr. practiced and taught physical education at Amherst, he conducted research and intently studied the scientific functions that applied to his phys ed ideas.
Hitchcock Jr. worked with his aforementioned father Edward Hitchcock Sr to compile a textbook titled, Elementary Anatomy and Physiology For Colleges and Other Schools. He named one of the earliest dinosaurs discovered in America, Megadactylus polyzelus, it was reclassified as the type specimen of Anchisaurus polyzelus, a prosauropod. Hitchcock, Edward. Elementary anatomy and physiology for colleges and other schools. N.p.: Ivison, Phinney &Co. 1860. 1-441. Web. 14 Mar. 2011. McArdle, W. D. et al. Exercise Physiology. 4th edition. Williams & Wilkins Publishers. Baltimore, 1996. Edward and Mary Judson Hitchcock Family Papers, 1840-1962 Five Colleges
Sports in Asia
Association football is the most popular sport in all Asian countries. Cricket is the second most popular sport in Asia. Other popular sports in Asia include baseball, basketball and table tennis among others; the Asian Football Confederation was founded in 1954. They organize several tournaments for national teams, most notably the AFC Asian Cup since 1956 and AFC Women's Asian Cup since 1975, as well as qualifying tournaments for the FIFA World Cup, FIFA Women's World Cup and the Summer Olympics; the AFC Champions League is Asia's premier tournament for clubs, first held in 1967. The AFC members are split into five regional federations: West, South and South East; these federations organize regional football championships. The most successful Asian countries in international men's competitions have been Japan and South Korea in East, Saudi Arabia and Iran in the West. In women's football, East Asian have been dominant Japan and North Korea. Asia has been more successful in women's football than in men's football.
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was hosted jointly by South Korea. It was the first edition not held in Europe or the Americas; the 2022 FIFA World Cup is scheduled to take place in Qatar, but it was announced that it could be cancelled for bribery during the bidding process. The People's Republic of China hosted the first edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup in 1991, as well as the 2007 edition. Bandy is a growing sport in Asia. While traditional in some former Soviet republics Kazakhstan, it is more or less new in some other ones. President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj invited the Mongolian national team after its bronze medal in Division B of the 2017 World Championship. Japan reached the semi-final. Mongolia beat them in the bronze match. China started to compete in the World Championship in 2015 and the women's national team in 2016. Both Division B of the men's tournament 2018 and 2018 Women's World Championship will be played in China, which will be the first time either tournament is held in a Asian country.
In September 2017 it was announced that an FIB office for development and marketing in Asia would open in Harbin. Apart from the countries mentioned, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan are FIB members. In the Philippines an attempt started in 2016 to introduce rink bandy. FIB is interested in having South Korea join the bandy community; as of 2017 negotiations are ongoing. Baseball is most popular sport in Japan, where it was introduced in the 1870s and became professional in the 1920s; the Japanese Baseball League was operated from 1936 to 1949, reorganized into the Nippon Professional Baseball in 1950. Teams have been identified with their corporate owners, not where the team is based, have relocated to other cities. Over 50 Japanese-born players have played in Major League Baseball, including Ichiro Suzuki, Hideki Matsui, Koji Uehara and Hideo Nomo; the Japan national baseball team has won the 2009 World Baseball Classic. High school baseball is popular in Japan. In South Korea, baseball was introduced in the 1900s and the KBO League was established in 1982.
The Taiwan-based Chinese Professional Baseball League was established in 1989. Like the NPB, these two leagues feature teams owned by major corporations. Basketball is popular in a number of Asian countries. FIBA Asia manages the sport over the region. Major contending nations are China, the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan; the Philippines has the best finish in the FIBA World Cup from teams outside the Americas and Europe winning bronze in 1954 FIBA World Championship. The team took a fifth-place finish in 1936 Summer Olympics, the best finish by any team outside the Americas and Oceania. China has dominated the FIBA Asia Championship since the 1970s while the Philippines, South Korea and Iran continues to be strong contenders. In women's basketball, the FIBA Asia Women's Championship has been fought between China, Taiwan and South Korea; the FIBA World Cup was held in Asia in 1978 in the Philippines and 2006 in Japan and by 2019, China will host that year's edition. In 2023, the Philippines and Japan will once again host the World Cup, along with Indonesia.
The main tournament for Asian basketball clubs is the FIBA Asia Champions Cup, held since 1981. Boxing is a popular sport in Asia where there is a vast following of professional fights across the region, its popular in countries such as Japan, the Philippines and South Korea. The Philippines is the most dominant in terms of professional and amateur level with a history of world champions including eight division world champion Manny Pacquiao. Cricket is a popular sport in South Asia. Five countries have Test status: Afghanistan, India and Sri Lanka. At the Cricket World Cup, India has won two editions, while Pakistan and Sri Lanka have each won once. At the ICC World Twenty20, three countries have won once. Bangladesh was known to be the weakest of the four teams, having won 7 out of 91 Test matches and 95 out of 309 One Day International matches, but now it making its mark in cricket after winning against the top quality sides in world cricket. The Asian Cricket Council is a cricket organization, established in 1983, to promote and develop the sport of cricket in Asia.
Membership in the Asian Cri
Sport in Europe
Sport in Europe tends to be organized with many sports having professional leagues. The origins of many of the world's most popular sports today lie in the codification of many traditional games in Great Britain. However, a paradoxical feature of European sport is the remarkable extent to which local and national variations continue to exist, in some instances to predominate.. Association football is the most popular sport in all countries of Europe. European national teams have won 12 of 21 editions of the FIFA World Cup. UEFA, the governing body for European football, has hosted the UEFA European Championship since 1960, the UEFA Women's Championship since 1984; the most popular and successful football leagues are the Spanish La Liga, the English Premier League, the Italian Serie A, the German Bundesliga and the French Ligue 1. Other main football leagues on continent are the Portuguese Primeira Liga, the Russian Premier League, the Turkish Super Lig and the Netherlands Eredivisie. There are many other significant football leagues in Europe.
The top clubs in each league play the UEFA Champions League, while lower-ranked clubs compete in UEFA Europa League. Rugby union is popular in southern France, southern England, Scotland and northern Italy. Although the game is played competitively in Germany, Russia and Georgia, it is not at a professional level. Europe's main competition for national teams is the Six Nations Championship, first held in 1883 as the Home Nations Championship; the other European national teams play at the Rugby Europe International Championships. The England national teams is the only European team to have won the Rugby World Cup, whereas France was runner-up three times and Wales reached the semifinals once; the three main domestic rugby union competitions are the professional Premiership, Top 14 and Pro14. The European Rugby Champions Cup is the premier continental championship, with clubs qualifying from the three professional competitions. Rugby league is popular in northern England, where the sport formed in 1895.
The game is popular in southern France. The Great Britain national team first played in 1908, entered the World Cup until 1992 and the Tri-Nations until 2006. England and Wales have played independently since then. Great Britain has won the World Cup three times, whereas France has been runner-up twice.. Clubs from England and France compete in the only professional league, the Super League, as well as the Challenge Cup competition. In addition to this, the game is played semi-professionally and at amateur levels in Russia, Italy, Wales and Ireland. Cricket is a popular summer sport in the United Kingdom and has been exported to other parts of the former British Empire. Cricket has its origins in south east Britain, it is popular throughout England and Wales, parts of the Netherlands. Cricket is popular in other areas and played in northwest Europe, it is however popular worldwide in southern Africa, New Zealand and the Indian subcontinent. The England cricket team and Ireland cricket team are the only European teams with Test status.
England's main rival is Australia, they play each other in The Ashes series. England has never won the Cricket World Cup or the ICC Champions Trophy, despite multiple appearances at the final. However, the team has won the ICC World Twenty20 in 2010. Ireland has received Test status in 2017. Ice hockey is popular at a professional and amateur level in Czech Republic, Russia, Sweden, Finland and northern central Europe, where it rivals association football in popularity, it is popular at a professional level in Germany, Switzerland, most of Western Europe and parts of former USSR and Yugoslavia. The Kontinental Hockey League originated from Russia but features teams from eight other countries; the Austrian Hockey League, Czech Extraliga, Deutsche Eishockey Liga, SM-Liiga, National League A and Swedish Hockey League are other professional leagues, whose top teams meet at the Champions Hockey League. The Ice Hockey European Championships for national teams was played from 1910 to 1932. National teams play the Ice Hockey World Championships, where Russia / Soviet Union have claimed a combined 27 titles, the Czech Republic / Czechoslovakia 12 and Sweden 9.
Basketball originated in America. It was invented by James Naismith in Massachusetts, he first coached Kansas University, is their only coach with a career losing record. In Europe, basketball is the second most popular team sport in many countries, including Greece, Spain and in Lithuania it is the national sport; the EuroBasket is the main European basketball competition for men's national teams, first held in 1935. The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have won the most titles, with Spain claiming three championships since the late 2000s; the EuroLeague is the most important club basketball competition in Europe. It was founded as the FIBA European Champions Cup in 1958, but is organized by the Euroleague Basketball association since 2000. Handball is played professionally in several European countries; the European Handball Federation organizes continental competitions for women's. European teams have dominated the IHF World Men's Handball Championship and have won most editions of the IHF World Women's Handball Championship.
Notable men's teams include Germany, Spain, Denmark and Croatia, whereas Norway has dominated women's championships since the 2000s. The EHF Champions League is the most important handball club competition for men's teams in Europe and involves the leading teams from the top Europea
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has through these three disciplines become successful at explaining living processes. All areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed by biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry focuses on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, which in turn relates to the study and understanding of tissues and organism structure and function. Biochemistry is related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
The chemistry of the cell depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins; the mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied in medicine and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the cures of diseases. In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control. At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components and composition of living things and how they come together to become life, in this sense the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks. However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on.
Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, in 1833 by Anselme Payen, while others considered Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. Some might point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal chemistry, or, Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of metabolism, or earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier. Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry; the term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of chemistry. In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study.
The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is cited to have coined the word in 1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister. It was once believed that life and its materials had some essential property or substance distinct from any found in non-living matter, it was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life. In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially. Since biochemistry has advanced since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations; these techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level. Philip Randle is well known for his discovery in diabetes research is the glucose-fatty acid cycle in 1963.
He confirmed. High fat oxidation was responsible for the insulin resistance. Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene, its role in the transfer of information in the cell; this part of biochemistry is called molecular biology. In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information. In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to the growth of forensic science. More Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference, in the silencing of gene expression. Around two dozen of the 92
Schack August Steenberg Krogh was a Danish professor at the department of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen from 1916 to 1945. He contributed a number of fundamental discoveries within several fields of physiology, is famous for developing the Krogh Principle. In 1920 August Krogh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of the capillaries in skeletal muscle. Krogh was first to describe the adaptation of blood perfusion in muscle and other organs according to demands through opening and closing the arterioles and capillaries. Besides his contributions to medicine, Krogh was one of the founders of what is today Novo Nordisk, he was born in Grenaa on the peninsula of Djursland in Denmark, the son of Viggo Krogh, a shipbuilder. He was educated at the Aarhus Katedralskole in Aarhus, he attended the University of Copenhagen graduating MSc in 1899 and gaining a doctorate PhD in 1903. Krogh was a pioneer in comparative physiology.
He wrote his thesis on the respiration through the skin and lungs in frogs: Respiratory Exchange of Animals, 1915. Krogh took on studies of water and electrolyte homeostasis of aquatic animals and he published the books: Osmotic Regulation and Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms, he contributed more than 200 research articles in international journals. He was a constructor of scientific instruments of which several had considerable practical importance, e.g. the spirometer and the apparatus for measuring basal metabolic rate. Krogh began lecturing in the University of Copenhagen in 1908 and in 1916 was promoted to full professor, becoming the head of the first laboratory for animal physiology at the university. Krogh and his wife Marie brought insulin to Denmark shortly after its discovery in 1922 by Nicolae Paulescu. Marie, a doctor who had patients with type 1 diabetes, was herself suffering from type 2 diabetes and was very interested in the disease. Together with a doctor, Hagedorn and Marie Krogh founded Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, where Krogh made decisive contributions to establishing a Danish production of insulin by ethanol extraction of the hormone from the pancreatic glands of pigs.
In the 1930s, Krogh worked with two other Nobel prizewinners, the radiochemist George de Hevesy and the physicist Niels Bohr on the permeability of membranes to heavy water and radioactive isotopes, together they managed to obtain Denmark's first cyclotron for experiments on animal and plant physiology, as well as in dental and medical work. The Respiratory Exchange of Animals and Man Osmatic Regulation in Aquatic Animals The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms He married Marie Jorgenson in 1905. Much of Krogh's work was carried out in collaboration with his wife, Marie Krogh, a renowned scientist in her own right. August and Marie had four children, the youngest of whom, was born in 1918, she too was a physiologist, became the first woman president of the American Physiological Society in 1975. Bodil married Knut Schmidt-Nielsen. Torkel Weis-Fogh, an eminent pioneer on the study of insect flight, was a student of August Krogh's. Together they wrote a classic paper on that subject in 1951.
Krogh's name is preserved in two items now named for him: Krogh length, the distance between capillaries which nutrients diffuse to, based on cellular consumption of the nutrients. Krogh's principle, that "for... a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied." Bengt Saltin Per-Olof Åstrand Larsen, E. H.. "August Krogh and the laboratory of animal physiology situated at Ny Vestergade 11". Ugeskrift for Laeger. 163: 7240–7248. PMID 11797555. Kardel, T.. "About the seven little devils who changed physiology. August and Marie Krogh on pulmonary gas exchange". Ugeskrift for Laeger. 161: 7112–7116. PMID 10647306. Schmidt-Nielsen, B.. "August and Marie Krogh and respiratory physiology". Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory and Exercise Physiology. 57: 293–303. PMID 6381437. Poulsen, J. E.. "The impact of August Krogh on the insulin treatment of diabetes and our present status". Acta Medica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 578: 7–14.
PMID 1098401. Dejours, P.. "August Krogh and the physiology of respiration". Scandinavian Journal of Respiratory Diseases. 56: 337–346. PMID 769148. Kenez, J.. "The Capillaries and Krogh". Orvosi Hetilap. 106: 177–178. PMID 14275297. August Krogh biography on Nobel Prize website
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and motion of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics. The word "biomechanics" and the related "biomechanical" come from the Ancient Greek βίος bios "life" and μηχανική, mēchanikē "mechanics", to refer to the study of the mechanical principles of living organisms their movement and structure. Biological fluid mechanics, or biofluid mechanics, is the study of both gas and liquid fluid flows in or around biological organisms. An studied liquid biofluids problem is that of blood flow in the human cardiovascular system. Under certain mathematical circumstances, blood flow can be modelled by the Navier–Stokes equations. In vivo whole blood is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. However, this assumption fails. At the microscopic scale, the effects of individual red blood cells become significant, whole blood can no longer be modelled as a continuum.
When the diameter of the blood vessel is just larger than the diameter of the red blood cell the Fahraeus–Lindquist effect occurs and there is a decrease in wall shear stress. However, as the diameter of the blood vessel decreases further, the red blood cells have to squeeze through the vessel and can only pass in single file. In this case, the inverse Fahraeus -- the wall shear stress increases. An example of a gaseous biofluids problem is that of human respiration. Respiratory systems in insects have been studied for bioinspiration for designing improved microfluidic devices; the main aspects of Contact mechanics and tribology are related to friction and lubrication. When the two surfaces come in contact during motion i.e. rub against each other, friction and lubrication effects are important to analyze in order to determine the performance of the material. Biotribology is a study of friction and lubrication of biological systems human joints such as hips and knees. For example and tibial components of knee implant rub against each other during daily activity such as walking or stair climbing.
If the performance of tibial component needs to be analyzed, the principles of biotribology are used to determine the wear performance of the implant and lubrication effects of synovial fluid. In addition, the theory of contact mechanics becomes important for wear analysis. Additional aspects of biotribology can include analysis of subsurface damage resulting from two surfaces coming in contact during motion, i.e. rubbing against each other, such as in the evaluation of tissue engineered cartilage. Comparative biomechanics is the application of biomechanics to non-human organisms, whether used to gain greater insights into humans or into the functions and adaptations of the organisms themselves. Common areas of investigation are Animal locomotion and feeding, as these have strong connections to the organism's fitness and impose high mechanical demands. Animal locomotion, has many manifestations, including running and flying. Locomotion requires energy to overcome friction, drag and gravity, though which factor predominates varies with environment.
Comparative biomechanics overlaps with many other fields, including ecology, developmental biology and paleontology, to the extent of publishing papers in the journals of these other fields. Comparative biomechanics is applied in medicine as well as in biomimetics, which looks to nature for solutions to engineering problems. Computational biomechanics is the application of engineering computational tools, such as the Finite element method to study the mechanics of biological systems. Computational models and simulations are used to predict the relationship between parameters that are otherwise challenging to test experimentally, or used to design more relevant experiments reducing the time and costs of experiments. Mechanical modeling using finite element analysis has been used to interpret the experimental observation of plant cell growth to understand how they differentiate, for instance. In medicine, over the past decade, the Finite element method has become an established alternative to in vivo surgical assessment.
One of the main advantages of computational biomechanics lies in its ability to determine the endo-anatomical response of an anatomy, without being subject to ethical restrictions. This has led FE modeling to the point of becoming ubiquitous in several fields of Biomechanics while several projects have adopted an open source philosophy; the mechanical analysis of biomaterials and biofluids is carried forth with the concepts of continuum mechanics. This assumption breaks down when the length scales of interest approach the order of the micro structural details of the material. One of the most remarkable characteristic of biomaterials is their hierarchical structure. In other words, the mechanical characteristics of these materials rely on physical phenomena occurring in multiple levels, from the molecular all the way up to the tissue and organ levels. Biomaterials are classified in two groups and soft tissues. Mechanical deformation of hard tissues may be analysed with the theory of linear elasticity.
On the other hand, soft tissues undergo large deformations and thus their analysis rely on the finite strain theory and computer simulations. The interest in continuum biomechanics is spurred by the need for realism in the development of medical simulation
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher