Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was an American politician who served as the 33rd President of the United States, assuming the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II. In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelts New Deal, but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them. He used weapons to end World War II, desegregated the U. S. armed forces, supported a newly independent Israel. Truman was born in Lamar and spent most of his youth on his familys 600-acre farm near Independence, in the last months of World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer with his National Guard unit. After the war, he owned a haberdashery in Kansas City and joined the Democratic Party. Truman was first elected to office as a county official in 1922. After serving as a United States Senator from Missouri and briefly as Vice President, he succeeded to the presidency on April 12,1945, upon the death of Franklin D.
Roosevelt. Germany surrendered on Trumans 61st birthday, just a few weeks after he assumed the presidency, but the war with Imperial Japan raged on and was expected to last at least another year. Although this decision and the issues that arose as a result of it remain the subject of debate to this day. Truman presided over a surge in economic prosperity as America sought readjustment after long years of depression. His presidency was a point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy. Truman helped found the United Nations in 1945, issued the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to contain Communism and his political coalition was based on the white South, labor unions, ethnic groups, and traditional Democrats across the North. Truman was able to rally groups of supporters during the 1948 presidential election. The Soviet Union became an enemy in the Cold War, Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949, but was unable to stop Communists from taking over China.
When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he sent U. S. troops, after initial successes in Korea, the UN forces were thrown back by Chinese intervention, and the conflict was stalemated throughout the final years of Trumans presidency. Scholars, starting in 1962, ranked Trumans presidency as near great, Harry S. Truman was born on May 8,1884, in Lamar, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman. His parents chose the name Harry after his mothers brother, Harrison Harry Young, while the S did not stand for any one name, it was chosen as his middle initial to honor both of his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. The initial has been written and printed followed by a period
New York State Thruway
The New York State Thruway is a system of limited-access highways located within the state of New York in the United States. The tolled mainline of the Thruway extends for 496.00 miles from the New York City line at Yonkers to the Pennsylvania state line at Ripley by way of Albany and Buffalo. According to the International Bridge and Turnpike Association, the Thruway is the fifth busiest toll road in the United States, a tolled highway connecting the major cities of New York was first proposed as early as the 1940s. The first section of the Thruway, between Utica and Rochester, opened on June 24,1954, the remainder of the mainline and many of its spurs connecting to highways in other states and provinces were built in the 1950s. When the Interstate Highway System was created in 1957, much of the Thruway system was included as portions of Interstate 87, I-90, other segments became part of I-190 and I-287 shortly afterward. The portion of I-84 in New York was part of the Thruway system from 1991 to 2010, the Thruway utilizes both open tolling and closed tolling.
Tickets are used on the Thruway mainline between Harriman and the suburbs of Buffalo and from the southern suburbs of Buffalo to the Pennsylvania state line. The Berkshire Connector utilizes a ticket-based tolling system, the portion of the mainline south of Harriman, the New England Thruway, and the Niagara Thruway have open tolling systems, with all three highways containing at least one toll barrier. The last two components—the Garden State Parkway Connector and the Cross-Westchester Expressway—and the section of the mainline in, the highways extend for 569.83 miles, making the Thruway system one of the largest toll highway systems in the United States. The longest of the six components is the 496-mile mainline, of the 570 miles in the Thruway system,560.85 miles carries at least one Interstate Highway designation. They are designated as New York State Route 982L, NY 912M, the speed limit, enforced by the New York State Police, is 65 miles per hour along most of the Thruway. I-90, which comprises the bulk of the mainline and the Berkshire Connector, I-87 comprises the remaining 148.15 miles of the mainline, including an 18.
86-mile concurrency with I-287 north of New York City. I-287 covers another 29.76 miles, while I-190 spans 21.24 miles, all highways maintained by the New York State Thruway Authority lack the reference markers that exist on all New York State Department of Transportation-maintained roads, as would be expected. In their place, NYSTA-controlled roadways use small, square tenth-mile markers with a white background and blue numbering. The mainline of the Thruway begins, both in terms of numbers and mileposts, at the boundary between the New York City borough of the Bronx and the Westchester County city of Yonkers. Here, I-87 changes from the Major Deegan Expressway to the Thruway as the mainline proceeds northward through Yonkers and it connects with Central Park Avenue at exit 1, the first of 12 exits within the county. The first few exits serve various local streets, with exit 2 providing access to Yonkers Raceway, the Hutchinson River and Bronx River parkways leave to the northeast midway through Yonkers, while the Saw Mill and Sprain Brook parkways follow the Thruway out of the city.
All three highways take generally parallel tracks to Elmsford, where I-87 directly intersects the Saw Mill River Parkway at exit 7A, not far to the north is exit 8, a semi-directional T interchange with I-287
Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic, the region was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain discovered the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic, when Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or Asia. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade, the island was named La Española and claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the portion of the island being ceded to France. The development of plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years, and apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all the first leaders of government were former slaves.
The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas, Henri Christophe – former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I – built it to withstand a possible foreign attack. It has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas, most recently, in February 2004, a coup détat originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, the name Haïti comes from the indigenous Taíno language which was the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, land of high mountains. The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti, is a mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is often disregarded, the name Haïti was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors.
The Taíno name for the island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America, genetic studies show they were related to the Yanomami of the Amazon Basin. They originated in Central and South America, after migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of organization was led by a cacique, or chief. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests, Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country. These have become symbols of Haiti and tourist attractions
Haverstraw, New York
The town runs from the west to the east border of the county in its northern part. The population was 36,634 at the 2010 census, the name comes from the Dutch word Haverstroo meaning oats straw, referring to the grasslands along the river. The town contains three villages, one of which is known as Haverstraw. Haverstraw village is the seat of government for the town, hosting the areas historic central downtown business district. In 1609, the region was explored by Henry Hudson, a land purchase was made in this town in 1666 from local natives and confirmed as a patent in 1671. The region was known as Haverstroo, meaning oat straw in Dutch, during the American Revolution, it served as an important lookout for British activities on the Hudson. A blue-marked trail, the Long Path, may be taken 2 miles eastward from Central Highway along the crest of South Mountain to High Tor, halfway is Little Tor, the second highest peak on South Mountain. The town of Haverstraw was formed in 1788 while still part of Orange County, Haverstraw was partitioned in 1791 to form the town of Clarkstown and the town of Ramapo and again in 1865 to form the town of Stony Point.
In 1826 the town was the site of an effort to establish a Owenite colony called the Franklin Community. Underfinanced and wracked by internal dissent, the model Owenite community folded after a five months of operation. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 27.4 square miles, of which 22.2 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 33,811 people,11,255 households, the population density was 1,508.3 people per square mile. There were 11,553 housing units at a density of 515.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 66. 24% White,10. 27% Black or African American,0. 41% Native American,3. 21% Asian,0. 10% Pacific Islander,15. 65% from other races, and 4. 12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31. 73% of the population,21. 3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the family size was 3.43.
In the town, the population was out with 26. 3% under the age of 18,8. 6% from 18 to 24,31. 2% from 25 to 44,23. 6% from 45 to 64. The median age was 35 years, for every 100 females there were 93.7 males
It expanded west to Chicago with its 1941 merger with the former Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, known as the New York and Ohio Railroad. Its mainline route proved influential in the development and economic growth of the Southern Tier, including such as Binghamton, Elmira. The Erie Railroad repair shops were located in Hornell, and were Hornells largest employer, Hornell was where Eries main line split into two routes, one north to Buffalo and the other west to Cleveland. On October 17,1960, the Erie merged with the former rival Delaware, the Hornell repair shops were closed, and repair operations moved to the Lackawannas Scranton facility, this had a devastating effect on Hornell from which it has never recovered. Most of the former Erie line between Hornell and Binghamton was destroyed in 1972 by the floods of Hurricane Agnes, what was left of the Erie Lackawanna became part of Conrail in 1976. In 1983, Erie remnants became part of New Jersey Transit rail operations, most of the surviving Erie Railroad routes are operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway.
The New York and Erie Rail Road was chartered April 24,1832 by Governor of New York, Enos T. Throop to connect the Hudson River at Piermont, north of New York City, west to Lake Erie at Dunkirk. On February 16,1841 the railroad was authorized to cross into the northeast corner of Pennsylvania on the west side of the Delaware River, construction began in 1836, and it opened from Piermont to Goshen on September 23,1841. After some financial problems, construction resumed in August 1846, further extensions opened to Binghamton December 27,1848, Owego January 1,1849, and the full length to Dunkirk May 19,1851. At Dunkirk steamboats continued across Lake Erie to Detroit, the line was built as 6 ft wide gauge, this was believed to be a superior technology to standard gauge, providing more stability. In 1848 the railroad built the Starrucca Viaduct, a railroad bridge over Starrucca Creek in Lanesboro. The viaduct is 1,040 feet long,100 feet high and 25 feet wide at the top and it is the oldest stone rail bridge in Pennsylvania still in use.
The Eries charter was amended April 8,1845 to allow the building of the Newburgh Branch, running from the line near Harriman north-northeast to Newburgh. The branch opened January 8,1850 and it was used as a connection to the New York and New England Railroad via a car float operation across the river to Beacon, New York. Through ticketing began in 1851, with a change of cars at Ramapo due to the gauge break. In 1852 the Buffalo and Rochester Railroad, part of the New York Central Railroad system, the alignment from Buffalo to Attica was sold to the Eries Buffalo and New York City Railroad, a reorganization of the Attica and Hornellsville Railroad, and converted to the Eries wide gauge. The extension from Attica southeast to Hornellsville opened on November 17,1852, giving the Erie access to Buffalo, the Erie began operating the Chemung Railroad in 1850, this provided a branch from Horseheads north to Watkins. The Canandaigua and Elmira Railroad opened in 1851 as an extension from Watkins to Canandaigua and was operated by the Erie until 1853
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, explorer, soldier and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900.
Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe.
Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr
Administrative divisions of New York (state)
The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York. The state is divided into counties, cities and villages, each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York has various corporate entities that serve purposes that are local governments, such as school. New York has 62 counties, which are subdivided into 932 towns and 62 cities, in total, the state has more than 3,400 active local governments and more than 4,200 taxing jurisdictions. They do so while adhering to the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York, articles VIII and IX of the state constitution establish the rights and responsibilities of the municipal governments. The New York State Constitution provides for democratically elected bodies for counties, towns. These legislative bodies are granted the power to local laws as needed in order to provide services to their citizens.
The county is the administrative division of New York. There are sixty-two counties in the state, five of the counties are boroughs of the city of New York and do not have functioning county governments. Such services generally include law enforcement and public safety and health services, every county outside of New York City has a county seat, which is the location of county government. Nineteen counties operate under county charters, while 38 operate under the provisions of the County Law. Although all counties have a certain latitude to govern themselves, charter counties are afforded greater home rule powers, sixteen counties are governed by a Board of Supervisors, composed of the supervisors of its constituent towns and cities. In most of counties, each supervisors vote is weighted in accordance with the towns population in order to abide by the U. S. Supreme Court mandate of one person. Other counties have legislative districts of equal population, which may cross municipal borders, most counties in New York do not use the term Board of Supervisors.
34 counties have a County Legislature, six counties have a Board of Legislators, the five counties, or boroughs, of New York City are governed by a 51-member City Council. In non-charter counties, the legislative body exercises executive power as well, but not all, charter counties have an elected executive who is independent of the legislature, the exact form of government is defined in the County Charter. In New York, each city is a highly autonomous incorporated area that, with the exceptions of New York City, cities in New York are classified by the U. S. Census Bureau as incorporated places. They provide almost all services to their residents and have the highest degree of home rule, villages are part of a town, with residents who pay taxes to and receive services from the town
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism, is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century. Today most affiliates reside in the United States, Israel Ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Current Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox Judaism and is noted for its religious conservatism, Hasidic thought draws heavily on Lurianic Kabbalah and to an extent is a popularization of it. Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as courts or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe. Reverence and submission to the Rebbe are key tenets, as he is considered an authority with whom the follower must bond to gain closeness to God. The various courts share basic convictions but operate apart and possess unique traits, there are several courts with many thousands of member households each, and dozens of smaller ones.
The terms hasid and hasidut, meaning pietist and piety, have a history in Judaism. The Talmud and other old sources refer to the Pietists of Old who would contemplate an entire hour in preparation for prayer, the phrase denoted extremely devoted individuals who did not only observe the Law to its letter but performed good deeds even beyond it. Adam himself is honored with the title in tractate Eruvin 18b by Rabbi Meir, Adam was a great hasid, the title continued to be applied as an honorific for the exceptionally devout. In the 16th century, when Kabbalah spread, the title became associated with it. Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah wrote in his glossa on Isaac Lurias version of the Shulchan Aruch that one who wishes to tap the hidden wisdom, the movement founded by Israel Ben Eliezer in the 18th century adopted the term hasidim in the original connotation. But when the sect grew and developed specific attributes, from the 1770s and its common adherents, belonging to groups each headed by a spiritual leader, were henceforth known as Hasidim.
Yet eventually, the sect gained such a mass following that the old connotation was sidelined. In popular discourse at least, Hasid came to someone who follows a religious teacher from the movement. It entered Modern Hebrew as such, meaning adherent or disciple, one was not merely a hasid anymore, observed historian David Assaf, but a Hasid of someone or some dynasty in particular. Originally denoting an observant, moral person, in Hasidic literature Tzaddiq became synonymous with the often hereditary master heading a sect of followers, as noted by Joseph Dan, every attempt to present such a body of ideas has failed. The difficulty of separating the movements philosophy from that of its inspiration, Lurianic Kabbalah
Ramapo, New York
Ramapo is a town in Rockland County, New York, United States. Ramapo, which means Sweet Water, was known as New Hempstead. As of the 2010 census, Ramapo had a population of 126,595. If Ramapo were incorporated as a city, it would be the sixth-largest city in the state of New York, the citys name, recorded variously as Ramopuck, Ramapock, or Ramapough, is of Lenape origin, meaning either sweet water or slanting rocks. Maps referred to Ramapo as Ramepog -1695, Ramepogh -1711, the town is located south of Haverstraw and west of Clarkstown and Orangetown. The present-day town was inhabited by the Munsee, a band of the Lenape nation. Their descendants now live on Stag Hill in Mahwah, New Jersey, general Washington and his troops set up an encampment in Suffern, in the west of Ramapo, due to its strategic location near a local mountain pass. In this encampment were two French soldiers, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau and Gilbert du Motier, the encampment was on the path to Yorktown, where the final battle of the American Revolution took place.
The Town of New Hempstead was formed part of the Town of Haverstraw in 1791. In 1829 the name was changed to Ramapo, the first railroad line across Rockland County was built in 1841 and ran from Piermont to Ramapo. By 1851, the line was extended to Lake Erie, and was considered an engineering marvel and its founder, Jeremiah H. Pierson, was influential in building the Nyack Turnpike and the New York & Erie Railroad across the county. A cotton mill is still standing on the east side of the road, in 1916, what would become State Route 59, which reached from Nyack to Spring Valley in 1915, was extended to Suffern and Hillburn. Ramapo became one of the first cities to use Adequate Public Facilities acts to tier growth, in 2006 Money magazine ranked Ramapo as the 49th best place in the United States and the best place in New York State to live. Arts and leisure, housing, low crime rates, in the category of park space, percentage of land set aside for gardens and parks, the town finished first. Ramapo received the highest rating and one of the best in the country for its open spaces and parkland.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 61.9 square miles, of which 61.2 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles. The south town line is the border of New Jersey, the break in the Ramapo Mountains at Suffern formed by the Ramapo River causes the town to be the site of the New York State Thruway and I-287, New York State Route 17, and a railroad line. The Palisades Interstate Parkway runs through the northeast corner of the town, Torne Mountain, in Harriman State Park, overlooks the Ramapo Pass and remnants of the once-thriving Ramapo Iron Works
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776.
The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city