Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, the seat of Hampden County. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, the eastern Mill River; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 153,060. As of 2018, the estimated population was 155,032, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston and Providence, the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas in Massachusetts, had a population of 692,942 as of 2010. Founded in 1636 as the first Springfield in the New World, during the American Revolution, George Washington designated it as the site of the Springfield Armory for its central location, subsequently the site of Shays' Rebellion; the city would play a pivotal role in the Civil War, as a stop on the Underground Railroad and home of abolitionist John Brown known for his raid on Harpers Ferry, for the Armory's manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles" used ubiquitously by Union troops.
Closing during the Johnson administration, today the national park site features the largest collection of historic American firearms in the world. Today the city is the largest in western New England, the urban and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley. Springfield has several nicknames—"The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts. Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River; the Hartford–Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges—the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States. The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions.
Springfield was founded in 1636 by English Puritan William Pynchon as "Agawam Plantation" under the administration of the Connecticut Colony. In 1641 it was renamed after Pynchon's hometown of Springfield, England, following incidents, including trade disputes as well as Captain John Mason's hostilities toward native tribes, which precipitated the settlement's joining the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During its early existence, Springfield flourished both as an agricultural settlement and as a trading post, although its prosperity waned during King Philip's War in 1675, when natives laid siege to it and burned it to the ground as part of the ongoing campaign. During that attack, three-quarters of the original settlement was burned to the ground, with many of Springfield's residents survived by taking refuge in John Pynchon's brick house, the "Old Fort", the first such house to be built in the Connecticut River Valley. Out of the siege, Miles Morgan and his sons were lauded as heroes; the original settlement—today's downtown Springfield—was located atop bluffs at the confluence of four rivers, at the nexus of trade routes to Boston, New York City, Montreal, with some of the northeastern United States' most fertile soil.
In 1777, Springfield's location at numerous crossroads led George Washington and Henry Knox to establish the United States' National Armory at Springfield, which produced the first American musket in 1794, the famous Springfield rifle. From 1777 until its closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory attracted skilled laborers to Springfield, making it the United States' longtime center for precision manufacturing; the near-capture of the armory during Shays' Rebellion of 1787 led directly to the formation of the U. S. Constitutional Convention. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Springfielders produced many innovations, including the first American-English dictionary. Springfield would play major roles in machine production driven by the arms industry of the Armory, as well as from private companies such as Smith & Wesson, established by Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson; the industrial economy led Thomas and Charles Wason to establish the Wason Manufacturing Company, which produced the first manufactured sleeping car.
Karl Gottlob Kühn was a German physician and medical historian. He studied medicine at the University of Leipzig, earning his doctorate in 1783 with the dissertation thesis "De forcibus obstetriciis nuper inventis". In 1785 he became an associate professor at Leipzig, where he served as a full professor of therapy and physics and pathology. On three separate occasions he served as university rector. Known as an editor of works by ancient physicians, he published editions of Aretaeus of Cappadocia and Galen, of whom he issued the acclaimed "Claudii Galeni opera omnia", being published from 1821 to 1833 in twenty volumes, he was the author of books associated with more recent physicians — he translated works by William Hunter, Thomas Beddoes and Charles Bell, edited works by Thomas Sydenham and Giorgio Baglivi. He is credited with publishing an edition of Stephan Blancard's "Lexicon medicum"; as a physician, his interests included the use of electricity as it pertained to therapy, smallpox vaccine and food poisoning.
He was co-editor of the "Neuen Sammlung der auserlesensten und neuesten Abhandlungen für Wundärzte", the new "Leipziger Literaturzeitung" and the "Magazins der neuesten Erfindungen, Entdeckungen und Verbesserungen"
The Midwest Questar Open Aire is an American ultralight aircraft, designed and produced by Midwest Engineering of Overland Park, Kansas. When it was available the aircraft was supplied in the form of plans for amateur construction, but the plans were withdrawn on 29 June 2000; the Questar Open Aire was designed to comply with the US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles rules, including the category's maximum empty weight of 254 lb. The aircraft has a standard empty weight of 220 lb; the aircraft features a strut-braced high-wing, a single-seat open cockpit without a windshield, fixed conventional landing gear without wheel pants and a single engine in pusher configuration. The Questar Open Aire is made from bolted-together aluminum tubing and wood, with its flying surfaces covered in doped aircraft fabric, its 28.66 ft span wing is supported by "V" struts. The acceptable power range is 30 to 40 hp and the standard engines used are small 30 hp two-stroke powerplants; the aircraft has a typical empty weight of 220 lb and a gross weight of 450 lb, giving a useful load of 230 lb.
With full fuel of 3 U. S. gallons the payload for the baggage is 212 lb. The standard day, sea level, no wind, take off and landing roll with a 30 hp engine is 100 ft. By 1998 the company reported that 50 sets of plans had been sold and that ten aircraft were completed and flying. Data from AeroCrafterGeneral characteristics Crew: one Length: 16.66 ft Wingspan: 28.66 ft Wing area: 124.0 sq ft Empty weight: 220 lb Gross weight: 450 lb Fuel capacity: 3 U. S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × two-stroke aircraft engine, 30 hp Propellers: 2-bladed woodenPerformance Maximum speed: 60 mph Cruise speed: 52 mph Stall speed: 25 mph Service ceiling: 10,000 ft Rate of climb: 600 ft/min Wing loading: 3.6 lb/sq ft Official website Three view drawing of the Midwest Questar Open Aire