Municipal Theatre of Corfu
The Municipal Theatre of Corfu was the main theatre and opera house in Corfu, from 1902 to 1943. The theatre was the successor of the Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, which became the Corfu city hall, it was destroyed during a Luftwaffe aerial bombardment in 1943. During its 41-year history it was one of the premier theatres and opera houses in Greece, as the first theatre in Southeastern Europe, it contributed to the Arts and to the history of the Balkans and of Europe; the Municipal theatre was built to accommodate the demands of a growing audience. The decision for its construction was taken in 1885, during the mayoralty of Georgios Theotokis, construction started in 1893 by mayor Michael Theotokis. High construction costs delayed its inaugural opening until 1902; the architect was the Italian Conrado Pergolesi who developed plans modelled after La Scala in Milan. The maximum height of the theatre was 39 meters; the entrance featured large purple columns and its high walls were decorated with frescoes of famous composers created by Italian artists.
The upper floor was decorated by a gable. The official emblem shield of Corfu stood in relief at the centre of the gable surrounded by a laurel wreath; the auditorium included 64 decorated boxes arranged in three levels and a gallery for the general public at the top. The first box in the first row was reserved for the theatre committee. Behind this box, inside an office, the archives of Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo were kept; the first box of the second row was reserved for the Greek royal family. All boxes included gas lights at their bow; the commoners gathered at the top level in the gallery. There was a proscenium; the orchestra was made up of locals and it performed 10 operas per cycle. Opera season ended on the Sunday before Ash Monday; the stage curtain of the new theatre was inherited from its predecessor, Teatro di San Giacomo, was created by an Italian artist. It depicted a scene from the Odyssey where Odysseus was welcomed by King Alcinous to the land of the Phaiakes; the theatre was considered one of Europe's best, with great acoustics and richly decorated interiors depicting ancient Greek gods and musical themes, painted by Italian artists.
It functioned as a social gathering place where high society gathered for dances and balls. Its official opening date was 7 December 1902, with Wagner's opera Lohengrin as the inaugural performance. Kaiser Wilhelm II attended performances while vacationing at his Achilleion palace. In 1907 the Old Philharmonic of Corfu rendered a symphony in a performance which received much acclaim from the audience. From 19 January 1916 through to 19 November 1918, the theatre served as the place of assembly for the Serbian Parliament in exile, the decision for the creation of the new united Kingdom of Yugoslavia was taken there. In 1923, refugees from Asia Minor were accommodated in the theatre boxes. During the first quarter of the twentieth century, many Italian operas were performed at the theatre; this tradition came to a halt following the bombardment of Corfu in 1923 by the Italians. After the bombardment the theatre featured Greek operas as well as Greek theatre performances by distinguished Greek actors such as Marika Kotopouli and Pelos Katselis.
The cost of the building escalated to about 1,000,000 British golden sovereigns, a huge amount at the time. Two years on the night of 13 September 1943, the theatre was destroyed in a bombing raid by Hitler's Luftwaffe; the archives of the theatre, including the historical San Giacomo archives, all valuables and art were destroyed in the bombing with the sole exception of the stage curtain, not in the premises the night of the bombing and thus escaped harm. The remains of the building were considered to be without historical or other value and were condemned following a decision by the supervising architect Ioannis Kollas and civil engineers Georgios Linardos and Renos Paipetis. On 31 May 1952, mayor Stamatis Desyllas and the city council unanimously decided to demolish the theatre despite widespread public protests and legal challenges. Virtual reality tour of the Municipal theatre of Corfu from Ionian University
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, masque, cantata or musical. The term libretto is sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro. Sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot; some ballet historians use the word libretto to refer to the 15–40 page books which were on sale to 19th century ballet audiences in Paris and contained a detailed description of the ballet's story, scene by scene. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a musical work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources and the writing techniques employed.
In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, the libretto is referred to as the book of the work, though this usage excludes sung lyrics. Libretti for operas and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries were written by someone other than the composer a well-known poet. Pietro Trapassi, known asMetastasio was one of the most regarded librettists in Europe, his libretti were set many times by many different composers. Another noted, he who wrote the libretti for three of Mozart's greatest operas, for many other composers as well. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi; the French writers' duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a large number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet and Georges Bizet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli composed two operas of his own; the libretto is not always written before the music.
Some composers, such as Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Serov, Rimsky-Korsakov and Mascagni wrote passages of music without text and subsequently had the librettist add words to the vocal melody lines. Some composers wrote their own libretti. Richard Wagner is most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, wrote the libretti for two of his best-known works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchner's play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck. Sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer. In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics and the "book" may each have their own author. Thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the "book". In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements – music and libretto, as Lionel Bart did for Oliver!. Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen.
There are the preliminary steps of selecting or suggesting a subject and developing a sketch of the action in the form of a scenario, as well as revisions that might come about when the work is in production, as with out-of-town tryouts for Broadway musicals, or changes made for a specific local audience. A famous case of the latter is Wagner's 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris; the opera libretto from its inception was written in verse, this continued well into the 19th century, although genres of musical theatre with spoken dialogue have alternated verse in the musical numbers with spoken prose. Since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. Much of the recitatives of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, for instance, are DuBose and Dorothy Heyward's play Porgy set to music as written – in prose – with the lyrics of the arias, duets and choruses written in verse; the libretto of a musical, on the other hand, is always written in prose.
The libretto of a musical, if the musical is adapted from a play, may borrow their source's original dialogue liberally – much as Oklahoma! used dialogue from Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, Carousel used dialogue from Ferenc Molnár's Liliom, My Fair Lady took most of its dialogue word-for-word from George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, Man of La Mancha was adapted from the 1959 television play I, Don Quixote, which supplied most of the dialogue, the 1954 musical version of Peter Pan used J. M. Barrie's dialogue; the musical Show Boat, different from the Edna Ferber novel from which it was adapted, uses some of Ferber's original dialogue, notably during the miscegenation scene. And Lionel Bart's Oliver! Uses chunks of dialogue from Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist, although it bills itself
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was established on 26 February 1935, just over a fortnight before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament and conscription would be announced on March 16; the Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new tactics and aircraft. As a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in 1939.
By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwader. The Luftwaffe operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units; the Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. From late 1942, the Luftwaffe used its surplus ground and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions. In addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers, the Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel.
In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority, met with failure. With dwindling supplies of petroleum and lubricants after this campaign, as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely; the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. The Luftwaffe was involved in Nazi war crimes. By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration camps, an industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners; the Luftwaffe's demand for labor was one of the factors that led to the deportation and murder of hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews in 1944.
The Luftwaffe High Command organized Nazi human experimentation, Luftwaffe ground troops committed massacres in Italy and Poland. The Imperial German Army Air Service was founded in 1910 with the name Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, most shortened to Fliegertruppe, it was renamed Luftstreitkräfte on 8 October 1916. The air war on the Western Front received the most attention in the annals of the earliest accounts of military aviation, since it produced aces such as Manfred von Richthofen and Ernst Udet, Oswald Boelcke, Max Immelmann. After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft. Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. Civil aviation schools within Germany were used, yet only light trainers could be used in order to maintain the façade that the trainees were going to fly with civil airlines such as Deutsche Luft Hansa.
To train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Union, isolated in Europe. A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk in 1924 and operated for nine years using Dutch and Soviet, but some German, training aircraft before being closed in 1933; this base was known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. Roessing, Fosse, Heini, Makratzki and many other future Luftwaffe aces were trained in Russia in joint Russian-German schools that were set up under the patronage of Ernst August Köstring; the first steps towards the Luftwaffe's formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power. Hermann Göring, a World War I ace, became National Kommissar for aviation with former Luft Hansa director Erhard Milch as his deputy. In April 1933 the Reich Aviation Ministry was established; the RLM was in charge of production of aircraft.
Göring's control over all aspects of aviation became absolute. On 25 March 1933 the German Air Sports Association absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its'sports' title. On 15 May 1933, all military aviation organizations in th
Nikolaos Chalikiopoulos Mantzaros was an Italian-Greek composer born in Corfu and the major representative of the so-called Ionian School of music. Mantzaros was of noble Italian descent, coming from one of the most important and wealthy Venetian families of the "Libro d'Oro" di Corfu and therefore he never considered himself a "professional composer". Recent research and performances have led to a re-evaluation of Mantzaros as a significant composer and music theorist, he was taught music in his native city by the brothers Stefano and Gerolamo Pojago, Stefano Moretti from Ancona and cavalliere Barbati a Neapolitan. Mantzaros presented his first compositions in 1815 in the theatre of San Giacomo of Corfu. From 1819 onwards he was visiting Italy, among others, he met the veteran Neapolitan composer Niccolo Antonio Zingarelli, his compositions include incidental music, vocal works in Italian and demotic Greek, sacred music for the Catholic Rite and the Orthodox Church, band music, instrumental music etc.
Mantzaros composed the music for the first concert aria in Greek in 1827, the Aria Greca. Mantzaros was an important music theorist and teacher. From 1841 and until his death he was the Artistic Director of the Philharmonic Society of Corfu, his most popular composition remains the musical setting for the poem of Dionysios Solomos' Ýmnos eis tīn Eleutherían, which Mantzaros added to Solomos' poem in 1828. The first and second stanzas were adopted in 1864 as the Royal Anthem of Greece and on 28 June 1865 as the Greek national anthem. However, recent research and performances have proved that Mantzaros had broader activities as a significant composer and music theorist, which go beyond the established perception of him as the mere composer of the National Anthem. Mantzaros-Solomos: The Hymn to the Liberty Music of the Ionian School. N. Mantzaros, N. Lambelet, P. Carrer. The'Nikolaos Mantzaros Chamber Music Ensemble' performing arrangements from piano Sinfonias by Mantzaros. Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros: Early Works for voice and orchestra Don Crepuscolo performed by Christophoros Stamboglis, George Petrou and Armonia Atenea in the CD Georg Friedrich Haendel, Alessando Severo / Niccolo Manzaro, Don Crepuscolo Niccolo Calichiopulo Manzaro - Fedele Fenaroli, Partimenti for String Instruments performed by Ionian String Quartet Andonios Liveralis Ionian School Partimenti for String Quarte by Mantzaros on YouTube Sinfonia-Ouverture No5 by Mantzaros on YouTube Full version of the Hymn to Liberty on YouTube Kostas Kardamis,"From popular to esoteric: Nikolaos Mantzaros and the development of his career as composer", Nineteenth-Century Music Review 8 from Cambridge Journals Online
Philharmonic Society of Corfu
The Philharmonic Society of Corfu is today known as a community band in Corfu, Greece. However, when it was founded in 1840, its initial scope was to become the first Greek music academy organised on European prototypes, its first Artistic Director was Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros, who retained this office until his death in 1872. The Philharmonic had a organised programme of tuition both in music theory and practice, its students, who for the first time in modern Hellenic history could learn music regardless of their social class, had the opportunity to be taught by professional musicians and teachers basic music theory, counterpoint, composition, as well as piano, vocal music and wind instruments. The tuition of the latter category found its artistic expression through the wind band of the philharmonic, an ensemble, which became popular by developing into an integral part of public and religious festivities. Nonetheless, the popularity of the band was so strong, that in the end in the public opinion of Corfu'band' became synonymous to the'philharmonic'.
This misunderstanding, became a reality after the Second World War because of the financial problems that a non-governmental institution like PSC came across. As well as a result of the shortage of professional teachers. Nonetheless, it was only in 1907, as well as during the 1930s when the symphonic orchestra of the society performed in the Municipal Theatre of Corfu, to much critical acclaim; the symphonic orchestra of the Philharmonic made sporadic appearances until the early postwar years. Since 2003 the orchestra has again commenced its activities. In 1979 Maria Desylla-Kapodistria, former mayor of Corfu and the first female mayor in Greece, bequeathed the Kapodistrias summer home under contract No. 4541/3.11.1979 to the Reading Society of Corfu, the Philharmonic Society of Corfu and the Society of Corfiote Studies for the purpose of converting it to a museum dedicated to the memory of Ioannis Kapodistrias. The Kapodistrias Museum, under the stewardship of the three societies, was formally inaugurated in 1981.
The Museum of the Corfu Philharmonic Society, which occupies the first floor of the Society's building, opened for the public on September 18, 2010. The Museum attempts to present in brief the history of the institution after two centuries of incessant activity. Moreover, the Museum honours Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros, the Society’s first artistic director, composer –among others– of the Greek national anthem, well-known music teacher and contrapuntist, as well as inspirer of a whole generation of composers that shaped the music of Ionian Islands, not only, during the 19th century; the Museum of the Corfu Philharmonic Society «Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros» consists of five thematic sections, which present its activities and history: Foundation, Organization: Features historical documents related to the Society’s early days and organization. Educational activities: Presents documents and artifacts related to the music pedagogy within the limits of the Society; the concerts: The Philharmonic as a concert society for vocal and orchestral music.
The wind band: Documents, scores and artifacts related to the repertory and the activities of the Society’s wind band. The people and their work: Important composers and teachers, who related themselves through their presence and their works with the history of the Society, as well as with the development of art music in 19th-century Greece. Scores by Spyridon Samaras, Pavlos Carrer, the Liberali brothers, Spyridon Xyndas, Domenikos Padovanis, Dionissios Rodotheatos, Alexander Grek, Napoleon Lambelet, Andreas Seiler, as well as women composers from Ionian Islands are exhibited in this section; the Museum organizes an annual circle of musicological lectures and has initiated a series of musicological publications. It is open Monday to Saturday from 09.30 until 13.30. The entrance is free. List of music museums Kostas Kardamis, “Corfu Philharmonic Society: An overview of its history”, in Six Essays for the Corfu Philharmonic Society, 13–36 Spyridon Motsenigos, Neoelliniki moussiki Philharmonic Society of Corfu Museum of the Philharmonic Society of Corfu
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, translated as The Noble Theatre of Saint James of Corfu, or Teatro di San Giacomo, was a theatre in Corfu, Greece which became the centre of Greek opera between 1733 and 1893. Despite its provincial origins it attracted Italian musicians and composers, many of whom became permanent residents of Corfu and contributed to the local music scene; the theatre acted as a catalyst in this cultural interaction and gave impetus to the development of the Ionian School of Music. Corfiot composer Nikolaos Halikiopoulos Mantzaros was a beneficiary of the synergy between the Italian and Corfiot musical traditions. Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo was named after a Catholic cathedral in Corfu. Established in 1693 as a gathering place of the Venetian nobility of Corfu it was converted into a theatre in 1720 and became the first modern theatre to be established in Greece; the theatre staged theatrical plays but in 1733 an opera was performed there for the first time. The opera was A. Aurelli's tiranno di Siracusa.
The operas were continuously staged between 1771 and 1892 when the theatre was converted to a City Hall. The musical tradition established by the theatre is important to the history of modern Greek music since it helped establish a Greek musical presence at a time when the Greek State did not exist; the theatre staged the type of comic opera known as opera buffa, less elaborate and therefore more economical than the full-fledged opera seria. San Giacomo's opera crews were from southern Italy; the opera house functioned during times of upheaval unabated as, for example, during the arrival of the French in 1797. In 1799, during the Russia-Ottoman siege, the theatre continued its performances as the foreign opera troupe was unable to leave the island due to the blockade; the performance at such a challenging time was used as a means for propaganda and to raise the morale of the population. The theatre attracted many Italian professional musicians who came to Corfu as teachers as well as composers and performers.
This had the effect of generating an appreciation for music among the locals and this led to the appearance of the first Corfiot music professionals who, in turn, became the first professional musicians of modern Greece. Corfiot Spyridon Xyndas, for example, wrote the Greek opera O ypopsifios which became the first opera composed on an Greek libretto and was performed at San Giacomo in 1867; the oral tradition held that operatic performers who found success at the theatre were distinguished with the accolade applaudito in Corfú as a tribute to the discriminating musical taste of the island audience. The theatre was replaced by the Municipal Theatre of Corfu in 1902; the Municipal Theatre and its historical archives, many of which belonged to Teatro di San Giacomo, were destroyed during a Luftwaffe bombing raid in 1943