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Square rig

Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts. These spars are called yards and their tips, beyond the last stay, are called the yardarms. A ship rigged so is called a square-rigger; the square rig is aerodynamically the most efficient running rig, stayed popular on ocean-going sailing ships until the end of the Age of Sail. The last commercial sailing ships, were square-rigged four-masted barques. Square-rigged masts may have triangular staysails that are deployed fore-and-aft between masts; the term "square-rigged" can describe individual, four-cornered sails suspended from the horizontal yards, carried on either a square-rigged or a fore-and-aft rigged vessel, such as one with a bermuda rigged or gaff rigged mainsail. "Square-rigged" is used for the uniform of a rating in the Royal Navy since 1857. It is slang and refers to anyone wearing the famous blue square collar on the shoulders and bell-bottomed trousers.

The name reflects the fact that it was these men who managed the square-rigged sails. The peaked cap uniform worn by Senior Ratings and Officers is known colloquially as'fore-and-aft rig'. A mast is considered square-rigged if its lowest sail or course is square-rigged, but if this is the case it will have a complete set of square-rigged sails. If the course is fore-and-aft, square topsails can still be carried in front of the mast. In their heyday, square-rigged vessels ranged in size from small boats to full rigged ships, but this rig fell from favour to fore-and-aft gaff rigs and bermuda rigs after the development of steam power and new materials. Ocean-going sailing ships stayed square-rigged. Square rigs allowed the fitting of many small sails to create a large total sail area to drive large ships. Fore-and-aft could be sailed with fewer crew and were efficient working to windward or reaching, but creating a large total sail area required large sails, which could cause the sails and cordage to break more under the wind.

18th-century warships would achieve tops speeds of 12–13 knots, although average speeds over long distances were as little as half that. Some clipper ships that had square rigs and for whom speed was critical could be much faster; the late windjammers were as fast as the clippers. Not only could a smaller sail be managed by a smaller crew but these smaller sails constrained the impact of weapons on them. A hole from a cannonball affected only one sail's area, whilst a hole in a large sail would tear the whole larger area and reduce more of the vessel's motive power. With the development of more advanced fittings and cordage geared winches, high loads on an individual line became less of an issue, the focus moved to minimising the number of lines and so the size of the crew needed to handle them; this reduced running costs and enlarged the space available in the ship for profitable cargoes. New materials changed sail designs on hybrid vessels carrying some square-rigged sails; the low aspect ratio of square-rigged sails produces much drag for the lift produced, so they have poor performance to windward compared to modern yachts, they cannot sail as close to the wind.

The Bermuda rig is the undisputed champion of windward performance in soft sails, due to its low drag and high lift-to-drag ratio. One advantage of square rigs is that they are more efficient when running, where the high lift to drag is irrelevant and the total drag is the most important issue. Square-rigged sails are less prone to broaching when running than Bermuda rigs. Ocean-going vessels take advantage of prevailing winds such as the trade winds and the westerlies and are thus running. On a square-rigged mast, the sails had names; the lowest square sail was the course, the next sail up the mast was called the topsail, the next the topgallant sail. Many vessels shipped a fourth sail called the royal, above the other three, some more on trades with light winds. Sometimes a vessel might put out studding sails which would be fixed outboard of these sails along the yards. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, the topsails and topgallants were each split into upper and lower sails. Sails are referred to by their mast and name, e.g. "the fore mast topgallant sail" shortened to "fore t'gallant", or "fore t'gar'ns'l".

Where no mast is specified, the main mast is implied. The oldest archaeological evidence of use of a square-rig on a vessel is an image on a clay disk from Mesopotamia from 5000BC. Single sail square rigs were used by the ancient Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Celts; the Scandinavians, the Germanic peoples, the Slavs adopted the single square-rigged sail, with it becoming one of the defining characteristics of the classic “Viking” ships. The early, simple square-rigged ships, having only the one square sail, were more limited in their ability to sail into the wind than multi-sail square-riggers. That, along with the vulnerability of a single large sail after guns began to be used in naval warfare, led to the single sail square rig being abandoned beginning in the medieval period, in favor of multi-sail, multi-mast square rigs. On multi-sail, multi-mast v

Nils Waltersen Aasen

Nils Waltersen Aasen was a Norwegian arms inventor. He has been credited with having developed the modern hand grenade and land mine just prior to World War I. Aasen was born at Stadsbygd in Norway, he graduated in 1903 from the Fortress-Artillery School for Non-Commissioned Officers at Oscarsborg Fortress. He started his experiments developing a hand grenade while serving as a sergeant at Oscarsborg, he was encouraged in his work by base commander and former defense minister Hans Georg Stang. However, the Norwegian Department of Defense showed little interest in Aasen's prototype, he formed Aasen's Grenade Company in Copenhagen, which produced and exported of his grenade throughout Europe. Apart from new types of explosives, trench mortars, airplane bombs and land mines he created several inventions for civil use. However, it was the production of arms that would bring him his greatest success. Just prior to World War I, Aasen developed an anti-personnel mine, meant as a weapon of deterrence; the invention caused enthusiasm within the French military but did not see production before the war.

During World War I, Aasen was given the task of producing hand grenades for the French Army. He would have 13 factories with 13,000 employees working throughout the war. In 1917 his hand grenade was adopted by the Norwegian army, which promoted him to premier-lieutenant. Throughout his life he received a number of honorary awards for his inventions. Most notably, he was made an honorary colonel in the French Army, a Chevalier in the order of the Légion d'honneur in 1915. Aasen's personal fortune was reduced as a result of bad financial speculations, because he had never patented the rights to several of his inventions, he died from tuberculosis in Stoughton, Wisconsin at the age of 48. Aasen bomb Aasen mortar


GraalVM is a Java VM and JDK based on HotSpot/OpenJDK, implemented in Java. It supports additional programming languages and execution modes, like ahead-of-time compilation of Java applications for fast startup and low memory footprint; the first production-ready version, GraalVM 19.0, was released in May 2019. The most recent version is GraalVM 20.0.0, made available in February 2020. Major differentiators of GraalVM compared to the base JDK are: GraalVM Compiler, a JIT compiler for Java GraalVM Native Image, allowing the ahead-of-time compilation of Java applications Truffle Language Implementation framework and the GraalVM SDK, to implement additional programming language runtimes LLVM Runtime and JavaScript Runtime To improve the performance of Java virtual machine-based languages to match the performance of native languages. To reduce the startup time of JVM-based applications by compiling them ahead-of-time with GraalVM Native Image technology. To enable GraalVM integration into the Oracle Database, OpenJDK, Node.js, Android/iOS, to support similar custom embeddings.

To allow freeform mixing of code from any programming language in a single program, billed as "polyglot applications". To include an extended set of "polyglot programming tools". GraalVM is a production-ready software and is available as Community Edition for an open-source license and as Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition accessible by accepting OTN License Agreement Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition Including License for Early Adopter Versions. Oracle Corporation announced the release of Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition on 8 May 2019. GraalVM can substitute a default JDK on Linux and macOS platforms on x86 64-bit systems. GraalVM 20.0.0 was released in February 2020. It improved in its Windows support, brought an enhanced native-image tool and improved the tooling support, among many detailed changes in the Compiler and the supported languages; the support on Windows is under development and released as an early adopter functionality in GraalVM 19.0. It was GraalVM 19.0 is based on top of JDK version 8u212.

GraalVM is shipped with the components of a normal Java virtual machine. Additional components are included in GraalVM to support new execution modes or programming languages; the GraalVM Compiler is a modern Java just-in-time compiler. It replaces the existing compilers. In contrast to those existing compilers, the GraalVM compiler is written in modular and extendable fashion in Java itself, it is released under GPL version 2 with the classpath exception. GraalVM Native Image is an ahead-of-time compilation technology that produces executable binaries of class files, it is released as an early adopter plugin, which means it is production-ready but may include backport incompatible updates in the future releases. This functionality supports JVM-based languages, but can optionally execute dynamic languages, developed on top of GraalVM with Truffle framework; the executable file does not run on a JVM and uses necessary runtime components as thread scheduling or GC from “Substrate VM” - a trivial version of a virtual machine.

Since the resulting native binary includes application classes, JDK dependencies and libraries the startup and execution time reduces significantly. GraalVM Native Image is supported by the Fn, Helidon, Picocli and Vert.x Java frameworks. Support for Spring Boot applications is under development. In September 2016, Oracle detailed plans to add ahead-of-time compilation to the OpenJDK using the GraalVM compiler for Java 9; this proposal, tracked by the JEP 295: Ahead-of-Time Compilation, was included in Java 9. The experimental use of GraalVM as a just-in-time compiler was added for the Linux x86-64 platform for Java 10. In association with GraalVM, Oracle Labs developed a language abstract syntax tree interpreter called "Truffle" which would allow it to implement languages on top of the GraalVM; the Truffle framework and its dependent part, GraalVM SDK, are released under Universal Permissive License version 1.0 to encourage use of the framework for projects which do not want to be bound by the copyright or other parent rights.

A major advantage of the GraalVM ecosystem is language-agnostic dynamic instrumentation support built-in directly into the VM runtime. Execution events can be captured by API clients with overhead, low in optimized code; the core GraalVM installation provides a language-agnostic debugger, heap viewer, others based on instrumentation and other VM support. GraalVM includes a backend implementation of the Chrome Inspector remote debugging protocol. Although designed for JavaScript debugging, it can be used to debug all GraalVM languages from a browser. GraalVM is written for the Java ecosystem, it can execute applications written in all languages that compile to the Java bytecode format, e.g. Java, Scala and more. Based on Truffle Language Implementation framework additional languages can be supported in GraalVM. GraalVM JavaScript: ECMAScript 2019 compliant JavaScript runtime, with support for Node.js TruffleRuby: Ruby language implementation with preliminary support for Ruby on Rails FastR: R language implementation GraalVM Python: Python 3 language implementation GraalVM LLVM Runtime: LLVM bitcode interpreter implementation GraalWasm: A WebAssembly implementationSupport for additional languages can be implemented by users of GraalVM.

Official website Graal project at OpenJDK Graalvm on GitHub graal on GitHub

Winning Moves

Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, action games and adult party games. The company is known for game reproduction and variants like Monopoly: The Mega Edition. Winning Moves Games was founded in 1995 by four game industry professionals, Phil E. Orbanes, Mike Meyers, Tom Kremer, Alex Randolph. Orbanes left his job at Parker Brothers to found the company. In 1998, the company made the Monopoly Calculator and Monopoly Gift Pack, which included a book and the calculator; the following year, Winning Moves came out with Monopoly: The Card Game. The company picked up the rights for the Rubik's Cube in 2000. While in 2001, the company published a reproduction of Monopoly 1935 #9. Winning Moves published Monopoly: The Mega Edition in 2006. 13 Dead End Drive Aggravation Big Boggle Bouncing Bingo Brainspin Canasta Caliente Candy Land Classic Edition Cartagena Chutes & Ladders Classic Edition Clue Classic Edition Clue Master Detective Clue Suspect Card Game Cranium Cadoo Crocodile Dentist Flinch The Game of Life Classic Edition Game Of The States Guess Who Hi Ho Cherry-O Incognito Instant Insanity KOZO Monopoly Advance To Boardwalk Monopoly: The Card Game Monopoly: The Card Game Monopoly Classic Edition Monopoly: The Mega Edition adds a speed die, more properties, skyscrapers and $1,000 bills No Stress Chess Ouija Parcheesi Royal Edition Pass The Pigs Pass The Pigs: Big Pigs Pass The Pigs Pig Party Edition PayDay Pictureka Card Game Pit Deluxe Pit Pente Precious Cargo Pretty Pretty Princess Rack-O Risk 1959 Deluxe Rook Rubik's Build It Solve It Rubik's Cube Rubik's Cube KeyRing Rubik's 2x2 Cube Rubik's 4x4 Cube Rubik's 5x5 Cube Rubik's Jr. Bear Rubik's Jr. Puppy Rubik's SpeedCube Pro-Pack Rubik's Tactile Cube Rubik's Triamid Rubik's Twist Rubik's Twist Key Ring Rubik's The Void Puzzle Rubik's Tower Scattergories 30th Anniversary Edition Scattergories Categories Scattergories The Card Game Sorry!

Classic Edition Super Big Boggle Super Scrabble Scrabble To Go This Game is Bonkers! 25 Words or Less Tile Lock Scrabble Trouble Classic Edition Top Trumps - TransAmerica Twister Classic Edition Uncle Wiggily Upwords Classic Vineta Classic Waterworks Yahtzee Classic Winning Moves official websites UK USA Winning Moves at BoardGameGeek

Double Hawk

Double Hawk is a shoot'em up video game for the Sega Master System. The basic premise of the game was that in the 1990s violence was spreading across the globe, brought forth by a group of terrorists; the protagonists, John Jackson and Jack Thomas, are sent into battle to eradicate all threats. Double Hawk has been called Sega's version of Cabal; the game consists of five missions, each with four levels ending in a boss fight. Throughout the game the player must eliminate various enemies including foot soldiers, armed vehicles, helicopters using multiple guns and ordnance weapons; the player must survive the first 3 stages of every mission within a time limit, while the 4th "boss" fight of every mission is timed, that mission will not end until all enemy units have been eliminated. A unique element that features in this game is that in co-op gameplay, if a player gets hit 3 times and dies, he or she will automatically re-spawn and take a hit off their co-op partner, provided their partner is not down to their last hit.

Various upgrades can be found in each level to facilitate game play. These upgrades would be in the form of colored boxes that fall from enemies that have been taken down, they include: Red - Shooting - for a limited time, the player has a larger target range and faster shooting upgrades, useful for taking down air-based attacks from helicopters and planes Navy - Rapid Fire - for a limited time, the player has the rapid fire ability with his gun, useful for taking down ground-based attacks from tanks and heavy machinery. Light blue - Bombs - the player receives 10 hand bombs to use on the enemy; the player is limited to carry a maximum of 99 grenades. Brown - Faster - for the duration of the rest of that particular stage, the player is able to move around and aim his gun faster, useful for dodging bullets. None of these upgrades remain with the player if she continues from a gameover. Double Hawk can be played for free in the browser at the Internet Archive

Nery Soto

Nery Francisco Soto Torres was a Honduran journalist, murdered on August 14, 2014, at the age of 32. He was the seventh Honduran journalist to die violently in 2014. Soto was an anchorman and reporter for Canal 23 in the city of Olanchito, a co-producer of the show “Cuarto Poder” on Radio Full FM. Soto was murdered on the night of August 14, 2014, in front of his house in Colonia La Conquista in the district of La Conquista, Olanchito municipality, department of Yoro, Honduras. Different sources placed the exact time of the murder at various times between 10 pm. Soto had just returned home from work and was putting his motorcycle away when he was shot at by multiple individuals, lying in wait. According to a colleague of Soto's at “Cuarto Poder,” journalist Osmán Guardado, Soto “was trying to take his motorcycle into his home, when – from a house undergoing construction – unknown individuals shot at him repeatedly.” Neighbors who heard the shots came to help him, but he was dead. Nothing was stolen from him, so the police ruled out robbery as a motive.

His assailants were riding a motorcycle. The murder took place in the midst of a power outage. At the time of the murder, his wife and two daughters were inside their home. Soto's neighbours took his body to the Anibal Murillo de Olanchito Hospital. At the time of his death, Soto was only wearing shorts, a shirt, socks, had no valuables on him. At the time of his death he was 31 years old, he left two daughters, a 3-year-old and a child, several months old. After the murder, according to IFEX, Guardado said that Soto's death had caused “outrage amongst journalists and the Olanchito community.” A group of journalists and friends of Soto demanded that the case be solved soon and the perpetrators brought to justice. On August 18, colleagues of Soto held a peaceful march in his honor. Bety Verónica Rosales, president of the Asociación de Periodistas de Atlántida, called the murder an attack on free speech. Miguel Romero, president of the Association of Journalists in Yoro, noted that the majority of murders of journalists in the country “are unpunished” with the investigations being “completely abandoned.”In an August 20 statement, the Committee to Protect Journalists condemned Soto Torres's killing.

“Authorities must investigate the murder of Nery Francisco Soto Torres, including the possibility of a link to his reporting, bring those responsible to justice," the CPJ's deputy director, Robert Mahoney, said. On August 21, 2014, the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights condemned the murder and urged the government of Honduras “to act urgently to identify the reasons for this crime and to investigate and punish the perpetrators and instigators of this murder charge.”Two of Soto's colleagues told the Committee to Protect Journalists after his murder “that he was well-liked and respected and that he was careful not to be confrontational or to cross any lines in his reporting.” At the time of his death, according to Reporters Without Borders, he had been “investigating alleged corruption involving the mayor of the nearby city of Yoro, wanted for suspected money laundering.” IFEX noted that although Soto's reportage was “impartial and unbiased,” his last few news reports had been concerned with “the rationing of electricity, corruption amongst government workers.”

Another source noted that Soto had recently criticized the frequent blackouts suffered by the population in the departments of Yoro and Bajo Aguan, had been investigating a local criminal gang. At about 11:30 am on August 26, 2014, law enforcement authorities arrested two suspects at a service station in Olanchito; the suspects were identified as Carlos Javier Martínez Ponce, believed to be the perpetrator, Marcelino Edilberto Martinez, suspected of involvement in the crime. Both suspects were carrying guns at the time of arrest. In May 2014, on Journalist Day, Soto was awarded the prize of “Newcomer of the Year” by the city of Olanchito in recognition of his “outstanding reporting.”