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Sri Lankan Tamils

Sri Lankan Tamils known as Ceylon Tamils or Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka. According to the anthropological and archaeological evidence, Sri Lankan Tamils have a long history in Sri Lanka and have lived on the island since at least around the 2nd century BCE. Most modern Sri Lankan Tamils claim descent from residents of Jaffna Kingdom, a former kingdom in the north of the island and Vannimai chieftaincies from the east, they constitute a majority in the Northern Province, live in significant numbers in the Eastern Province and are in the minority throughout the rest of the country. 70 % of Sri Lankan Tamils in Sri Lanka live in the Eastern provinces. Although Sri Lankan Tamils are culturally and linguistically distinct, genetic studies indicate that they are related to Sinhalese ethnic group in the island; the Sri Lankan Tamils are Hindus with a significant Christian population. Sri Lankan Tamil literature on topics including religion and the sciences flourished during the medieval period in the court of the Jaffna Kingdom.

Since the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War in the 1980s, it is distinguished by an emphasis on themes relating to the conflict. Sri Lankan Tamil dialects are noted for their archaism and retention of words not in everyday use in Tamil Nadu, India. Since Sri Lanka gained independence from Britain in 1948, relations between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil communities have been strained. Rising ethnic and political tensions, along with ethnic riots in 1956, 1958, 1977, 1981 and 1983, led to the formation and strengthening of militant groups advocating independence for Tamils; the ensuing civil war resulted in the deaths of more than 100,000 people and the forced disappearance of thousands of others. The civil war ended in 2009 but there are continuing allegations of atrocities being committed by the Sri Lankan Military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam during its final months. A United Nations panel found that as many as 40,000 civilians may have been killed in the final months of the civil war.

The end of the civil war has not improved conditions in Sri Lanka, with press freedom not being restored and the judiciary coming under political control. One-third of Sri Lankan Tamils now live outside Sri Lanka. While there was significant migration during the British colonial period, the civil war led to more than 800,000 Tamils leaving Sri Lanka, many have left the country for destinations such as India, Australia and Canada as refugees. There is little scholarly consensus over the presence of the Sri Lankan Tamil people in Sri Lanka known as Eelam in Sangam literature. One theory states that there was not an organised Sri Lankan Tamil people presence in Sri Lanka until the creation of a Tamil Kingdom in the 7th century CE, followed by much earlier invasions from Tamilakam. Another theory states that the Sri Lankan Tamils are descendant of the Nagas, who started to assimilate to Tamil culture and language around 3rd BCE. Other theories contends; the Indigenous Veddhas are ethnically related to people in South India and early populations of Southeast Asia.

It is not possible to ascertain what languages that they spoke as Vedda language is considered diverged from its original source. According to K. Indrapala, cultural diffusion, rather than migration of people, spread the Prakrit and Tamil languages from peninsular India into an existing mesolithic population, centuries before the common era. Tamil Brahmi and Tamil-Prakrit scripts were used to write the Tamil language during this period on the island. Settlements of culturally similar early populations of ancient Sri Lanka and ancient Tamil Nadu in India were excavated at megalithic burial sites at Pomparippu on the west coast and in Kathiraveli on the east coast of the island. Bearing a remarkable resemblance to burials in the Early Pandyan Kingdom, these sites were established between the 5th century BCE and 2nd century CE. Excavated ceramic sequences similar to that of Arikamedu were found in Kandarodai on the north coast, dated to 1300 BCE. Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archaeologists to 10th century BCE.

However, Indian history and archaeology have pushed the date back to 15th century BCE. In Sri Lanka, there is radiometric evidence from Anuradhapura that the non-Brahmi symbol-bearing black and red ware occur in the 10th century BCE; the skeletal remains of an Early Iron Age chief were excavated in Jaffna District. The name Ko Veta is engraved in Brahmi script on a seal buried with the skeleton and is assigned by the excavators to the 3rd century BCE. Ko, meaning "King" in Tamil, is comparable to such names as Ko Atan, Ko Putivira and Ko Ra-pumaan occurring in contemporary Tamil Brahmi inscriptions of ancient South India and Egypt. Potsherds with early Tamil writing from the 2nd century BCE have been found from the north in Poonagari, Kilinochchi District to the south in Tissamaharama, they bore several inscriptions, including a clan name—vela, a name related to velir from ancient Tamil country. Epigraphic evidence shows people identifying themselves as Damelas or Damedas in Anuradhapura, the capital city of Rajarata the middle kingdom, other areas of Sri Lanka as early as the 2nd century BCE.

Excavations in the area of Tissamaharama in southern Sri Lanka have unearthed locally issued coins, produced between the 2nd century BCE and the 2nd century CE, some of which carry local Tamil personal names written in early Tamil characters, which suggest that local Tamil merchants were present

Alex Reid (footballer, born 1995)

Alex Michael Reid is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for Dagenham & Redbridge, on loan from League Two club Stevenage. Reid began his career at Aston Villa's academy before becoming an apprentice at Walsall, he joined Swedish club Ånge IF in 2014, before returning to England to play for Solihull Moors in 2015. He joined Rushall Olympic of the Northern Premier League and spent a year-and-a-half there. Following a successful trial, Reid signed for League One club Fleetwood Town in January 2017. During his time at Fleetwood, he was loaned out to National League clubs in the form of Wrexham and former employers Solihull Moors throughout the 2017–18 season. Reid signed for Stevenage in July 2018, he spent the last three months of the 2018–19 season on loan at A. F. C. Fylde and helped the club to win the FA Trophy during his time there. Reid began his career at Aston Villa at the age of ten and remained at the club's academy until 2013, he subsequently joined Walsall's academy that year and spent one year as an apprentice at the West Midlands club.

Reid thought about quitting football after not being offered professional terms at Walsall, but instead took up the League Football Education's Player Placement Programme in Sweden, joining Ånge IF in 2014. He returned to England a year and had spells at Solihull Moors and Rushall Olympic. Having scored 14 times during the first half of the 2016–17 season for Rushall, Reid went on trial with League One club Fleetwood Town in December 2016; the trial period proved successful and he signed for Fleetwood for an undisclosed fee on 4 January 2017. Reid did not make any first-team appearances for Fleetwood during the remainder of the campaign, spending it with the club's development squad. Reid joined Wrexham of the National League on a two-month loan deal on 15 August 2017, he made his Wrexham debut on the same day his signing was announced, coming on as a 59th-minute substitute and scoring the only goal of the game in a 1–0 home win over Gateshead. Having scored three times during the two month loan spell, the deal was extended until 25 November 2017.

He made 18 appearances during his time on loan at Wrexham. On his return to his parent club, Reid made his Fleetwood debut in the EFL Trophy against Chesterfield on 5 December 2017, scoring the second goal in a 2–0 victory in what turned out to be his solitary first-team appearance for the club, he was loaned out for a second time during the season, this time joining former club Solihull Moors of the National League. Reid signed for Solihull on 1 February 2018, on a loan deal that ran for the remainder of the 2017–18 campaign, he made his second debut for Solihull in a 1–0 away loss to Ebbsfleet United on 10 February 2018, before scoring his first goal of the loan spell a week in a 3–2 comeback victory over Dover Athletic. Reid's second-half goal in Solihull's 2–1 away win against promotion-chasing Tranmere Rovers on 24 April 2018 meant that Solihull had guaranteed their place in the National League for another season, he scored four times in 15 appearances during the loan spell before returning to Fleetwood upon the conclusion of the season.

Whilst still contracted to Fleetwood, Reid went on trial at League Two club Stevenage in July 2018. He subsequently signed for Stevenage on a free transfer on 19 July 2018. Reid made his Stevenage debut in the club's opening match of the 2018–19 season, a 2–2 draw with Tranmere Rovers at Broadhall Way, playing the first 58 minutes of the match. Reid joined National League club A. F. C. Fylde on loan for the rest of the season on 8 February 2019. In August 2019 he moved on loan to Ebbsfleet United, he said he was looking forward to scoring goals for the club. On 17 January 2020 he joined National League side Dagenham & Redbridge on loan until the end of the season. Reid was described as "strong and athletic", as well as "having an eye for goal" by Fleetwood Town development coach Paul Murray. Stevenage manager Dino Maamria called Reid a "pure athlete" and stated that "he will add pace to our forward-line"; as of match played 10 March 2020 A. F. C. Fylde FA Trophy: 2018–19

Ignacio Martínez (footballer)

Ignacio Martínez is a Mexican former footballer and manager. Martínez played as goalkeeper for La Piedad, Ciudad Madero, Club Universidad Nacional and Atlético Morelia; as manager, Martínez spent most of his career at La Piedad. The last team he managed was Jaral del Progreso from the Tercera División in 2017. Born in La Piedad, Michoacán, Martínez worked as a car mechanic before starting a career as a footballer. During his youth career with local teams from La Piedad, Martínez played as a forward, but due to his height, 1.81 meters, he switched to goalkeeper. He was invited to join to La Piedad and made his professional debut as a replacement for the legendary goalkeeper Enrique "Tarzán" Aguilar, he played one season for Ciudad Madero, where the team won the Segunda División Cup. He played with UNAM until 1964. Martínez was part of the UNAM squad. Martínez played for Celaya and Atlético Morelia. In 1974, Martínez was invited by La Piedad president Francisco Mares Rodríguez to work as head coach for the team.

In 1985, Martínez led La Piedad to won a Segunda División B the third level of Mexican professional football.. Martínez's last team as manager was Jaral del Progreso from Mexican Tercera División in 2017