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Tamils

The Tamil people known as Tamilar, Thamizhar, or Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak the Tamil language as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to Tamil Nadu and northern regions of Sri Lanka. Tamils constitute 5.9% of the population in India, 15% in Sri Lanka, 6% in Mauritius, 7% in Malaysia and 5% in Singapore. Tamils, with a population of around 76 million and with a documented history stretching back over 2,000 years, are one of the largest and oldest extant ethnolinguistic groups in the modern world. From the 4th century BC onwards and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coasts of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil political states, the Cheras, Cholas and Pallavas and a number of smaller states, all of whom were warring amongst themselves for dominance; the Jaffna Kingdom, inhabited by Sri Lankan Tamils, was once one of the strongest kingdoms of Sri Lanka, controlled much of the north of the island. Tamils were noted for their influence on regional trade throughout the Indian Ocean.

Artifacts marking the presence of Roman traders show direct trade was active between Rome and southern India, the Pandyas were recorded as having sent at least two embassies directly to Emperor Augustus in Rome. The Pandyas and Cholas were active in Sri Lanka; the Chola dynasty invaded several areas in southeast Asia, including the powerful Srivijaya and the Malay city-state of Kedah. Medieval Tamil guilds and trading organizations like the Ayyavole and Manigramam played an important role in Southeast Asian trading networks. Pallava traders and religious leaders travelled to Southeast Asia and played an important role in the cultural Indianisation of the region. Scripts brought by Tamil traders to Southeast Asia, like the Grantha and Pallava scripts, induced the development of many Southeast Asian scripts such as Khmer, Javanese Kawi script and Thai; the Tamil language is one of the world's longest-surviving classical languages, with a history dating back to 300 BCE. Tamil literature is dominated by poetry Sangam literature, composed of poems composed between 300 BCE and 300 CE.

The most important Tamil author was the poet and philosopher Thiruvalluvar, who wrote the Tirukkuṛaḷ, a group of treatises on ethics, politics and morality considered the greatest work of Tamil literature. Tamil visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres and the productions of images of deities in stone and bronze. Chola bronzes the Nataraja sculptures of the Chola period, have become notable symbols of Hinduism. A major part of Tamil performing arts is its classical form of dance, the Bharatanatyam, whereas the popular forms are known as Koothu. Classical Tamil music is dominated by the Carnatic genre, while gaana and dappan koothu are popular genres. Although most Tamil people are Hindus, many those in the rural areas practice what is considered to be Dravidian folk religion, venerating a plethora of village deities. A small Jain community survives from the classical period as well. Tamil cuisine is informed by varied vegetarian and non-vegetarian items spiced with locally available spices.

The music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people as in their ancient nation are still being learnt and practised. English historian and broadcaster Michael Wood called the Tamils the last surviving classical civilisation on Earth, because the Tamils have preserved substantial elements of their past regarding belief, culture and literature despite the influence of globalization, it is unknown as to whether the term Thamizhar and its equivalents in Prakrit such as Damela, Dameda and Damila was a self designation or a term denoted by outsiders. Epigraphic evidence of an ethnicity termed as such is found in ancient Sri Lanka where a number of inscriptions have come to light datable from the 6th to the 5th century BCE mentioning Damela or Dameda persons; the well-known Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a Tmira samghata dated to 150 BCE. It mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence 113 years before then.

In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya datable to the 3rd century CE. Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. A third inscription in Kanheri Caves refers to a Dhamila-gharini. In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention to Damila-rattha. There were trade relationship between the Roman Pandyan Empire; as recorded by Strabo, Emperor Augustus of Rome received at Antioch an ambassador from a king called Pandyan of Dramira. Hence, it is clear that by at least 300 B. C. the ethnic identity of Tamils was formed as a distinct group. Thamizhar is etymologically related to the language spoken by Tamil people. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz'self-speak', or'one's own speech'. Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process".

Possible evidence indicating the earliest presence of Tamil people in modern-day Tamil Nadu are the megalithic urn burials, dating from around 1500 BCE and onwards, which have been discovered at

Face on Moon South Pole

The Face on Moon South Pole is a region on the Moon, detected automatically in an image from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter by a computer system using face recognition technologies, as a result of a project, part of the International Space App Challenge 2013 Tokyo. It is composed of craters and shadows on the Moon's surface that, form an image resembling a face; the "Face on Mars" is a better known example. Human brains have the ability to detect ambiguous images displayed upon the Moon due to the brain's structure. On the left hemisphere of the human brain, the fusiform gyrus, detects the accuracy of how “facelike” an object is; the right fusiform gyrus uses information from the left fusiform gyrus to conclude whether or not the image is a face. The gyrus's inherent ability to detect faces and patterns in organisms and nature has led to a phenomenon called Pareidolia, in which the brain detects and recognises faces and patterns in collections of objects where there should be none. Previous scientific studies have concluded that neurons within the fusiform gyrus react better to faces.

An experiment by Massachusetts Institute of Technology brain and cognitive sciences professor Pawan Sinha examined why the right and left fusiform gyrus acknowledges a face when an object resembles a face. In the project Sinha and his students gathered images that resembled human faces and images of genuine faces, which they ran through machine vision systems; this scan resulted in the systems wrongly tagging images as containing faces. Random human participants ranked how face-like each image was while researchers scanned their brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging; the researchers found that on the right side of the brain, activity patterns stayed the same for every face except for non-face images, when brain patterns began to change regardless of whether or not the image resembled a face. On the left side of the brain, activity changed as the images began to resemble a face; this led to the Sinha and the researchers determining that the left side of the brain decides how much an image resembles a face but does not assign them to any classification, while the right side of the brain is the portion that determines whether or not an image resembles a face.

The craters of the Moon that make up the ‘face’ on the south pole have been preserved for billions of years. The Moon's exterior is 16% composed of these craters; these craters can be up to 1,600 miles across. Due to the absence of an atmosphere, the Moon cannot protect itself from outer threats like these meteors. Craters are covered with a mixture of fine dust and rocky debris called regolith; some research conducted through Clementine suggests that there is water and ice in some craters throughout the Moon. The craters themselves show a past of being filled with molten lava. Within the Western culture, people have said to have seen “the man in the Moon.” Within the East Asian culture, people have seen hands. In addition, various people have seen different imagery such as a woman, or a toad; when people describe the images they see on the Moon, such as a face, they are not directly seeing that image displayed upon the Moon. They are rather looking at an irregular section of the Moon's surface; the irregular section consists of deep holes, called craters, hills.

Humans identify. The Law of Prägnanz states that, “people will perceive and interpret ambiguous or complex images as the simplest form possible.” This means that because the craters and hills of the Moon resemble the shape of eyes and a mouth, the human brain condenses those images into a human face because of familiarity, another Gestalt Principle. Similar to the Law of Prägnanz, pareidolia is the act of comprehending meaning where it does not exist. Common examples of pareidolia include perceiving the faces of specific religious deities on toast or otherwise seeing faces in things like landscape or wood grain; this human tendency to see faces was something. Reacting to the possible sighting of a predatory animal face, for example, was more to result in survival than getting a closer look. Pareidolia explains why humans are so inclined to recognize faces on inanimate objects such as the Moon; the face on the Moon is similar to the face on Mars. During the Viking 1 mission, craters on Mars’ surface caught the public's eye as it formed an eerily realistic face.

While the face on the Moon is more inverted, the face on Mars is a three-dimensional mound resembling a human face. The face on Mars was discovered in 1976 and the face on the Moon was discovered in 2013; the face on Mars was seen on the middle of the planet while the face on the Moon is on the southern part. The region where the Mars face is called Cydonia. There are multiple other formations on Mars. There is a specific cluster of mountainous terrain that looks like a smiley face and a skull-like tableland. There is a volcano that sports a lava flow indentation that resembles Kermit the Frog from the Muppets. There seem to be landscape formations around the world that remind the human mind of other common images; some see the Cookie Monster in parts of Mercury, images resembling an eye in the Helix Nebula. On Mercury there is a clear collection of craters. Colonization of the Moon's polar regions Selenography Marsface Project USGS: Earth's Moon

Erling Knudtzon

Erling Knudtzon is a Norwegian football midfielder who plays for Eliteserien club Molde. Knudtzon began his career with Ullern, joining FC Lyn Oslo in 2007, he made his first team debut on 14 April 2007 against Fredrikstad, played twenty Norwegian top flight games in his first season, most of them as a starter. On 1 February 2010 Knudtzon signed a three-year contract with Lillestrøm, reunited with his former coach Henning Berg. Knudtzon played 231 league games for the club. On 17 July 2018, Molde FK announced that they had signed Knudtzon to a three-year contract, beginning 1 January 2019, he made his Molde debut on 31 March 2019 in a 1–1 away draw against Sarpsborg 08. On 22 April 2019, Knudtzon scored his first goal for Molde in the club's 2–0 away win against his former team Lillestrøm; the game marked his 300th appearance in the top division of Norwegian football. Knudtzon played a total of 17 games and scored two goals for Norway at international youth and under-23 level; as of match played 2 November 2019 Lillestrøm SK Norwegian Cup: 2017Molde Eliteserien: 2019