A thunderstorm known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. Weak thunderstorms are sometimes called thundershowers. Thunderstorms occur in a type of cloud known as a cumulonimbus, they are accompanied by strong winds, produce heavy rain and sometimes snow, sleet, or hail, but some thunderstorms produce little precipitation or no precipitation at all. Thunderstorms may become a rainband, known as a squall line. Strong or severe thunderstorms include some of the most dangerous weather phenomena, including large hail, strong winds, tornadoes; some of the most persistent severe thunderstorms, known as supercells, rotate as do cyclones. While most thunderstorms move with the mean wind flow through the layer of the troposphere that they occupy, vertical wind shear sometimes causes a deviation in their course at a right angle to the wind shear direction. Thunderstorms result from the rapid upward movement of moist air, sometimes along a front.
As the warm, moist air moves upward, it cools and forms a cumulonimbus cloud that can reach heights of over 20 kilometres. As the rising air reaches its dew point temperature, water vapor condenses into water droplets or ice, reducing pressure locally within the thunderstorm cell. Any precipitation falls the long distance through the clouds towards the Earth's surface; as the droplets fall, they become larger. The falling droplets create a downdraft as it pulls cold air with it, this cold air spreads out at the Earth's surface causing strong winds that are associated with thunderstorms. Thunderstorms can form and develop in any geographic location but most within the mid-latitude, where warm, moist air from tropical latitudes collides with cooler air from polar latitudes. Thunderstorms are responsible for the formation of many severe weather phenomena. Thunderstorms, the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards. Damage that results from thunderstorms is inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, flash flooding caused by heavy precipitation.
Stronger thunderstorm cells are capable of producing waterspouts. There are four types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell cluster, multi-cell lines and supercells. Supercell thunderstorms are the most severe. Mesoscale convective systems formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics can be responsible for the development of hurricanes. Dry thunderstorms, with no precipitation, can cause the outbreak of wildfires from the heat generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them. Several means are used to study thunderstorms: weather radar, weather stations, video photography. Past civilizations held various myths concerning thunderstorms and their development as late as the 18th century. Beyond the Earth's atmosphere, thunderstorms have been observed on the planets of Jupiter, Saturn and Venus. Warm air has a lower density than cool air, so warmer air rises upwards and cooler air will settle at the bottom. Clouds form as warmer air, carrying moisture, rises within cooler air.
The moist air rises, and, as it does so, it cools and some of the water vapor in that rising air condenses. When the moisture condenses, it releases energy known as latent heat of condensation, which allows the rising packet of air to cool less than the cooler surrounding air continuing the cloud's ascension. If enough instability is present in the atmosphere, this process will continue long enough for cumulonimbus clouds to form and produce lightning and thunder. Meteorological indices such as convective available potential energy and the lifted index can be used to assist in determining potential upward vertical development of clouds. Thunderstorms require three conditions to form: Moisture An unstable airmass A lifting force All thunderstorms, regardless of type, go through three stages: the developing stage, the mature stage, the dissipation stage; the average thunderstorm has a 24 km diameter. Depending on the conditions present in the atmosphere, each of these three stages take an average of 30 minutes.
The first stage of a thunderstorm is developing stage. During this stage, masses of moisture are lifted upwards into the atmosphere; the trigger for this lift can be solar illumination, where the heating of the ground produces thermals, or where two winds converge forcing air upwards, or where winds blow over terrain of increasing elevation. The moisture carried upward cools into liquid drops of water due to lower temperatures at high altitude, which appear as cumulus clouds; as the water vapor condenses into liquid, latent heat is released, which warms the air, causing it to become less dense than the surrounding, drier air. The air tends to rise in an updraft through the process of convection; this process creates a low-pressure zone beneath the forming thunderstorm. In a typical thunderstorm 500 million kilograms of water vapor are lifted into the Earth's atmosphere. In the mature stage of a thunderstorm, the warmed air continues to rise until it reaches an area of warmer air and can rise no farther.
This'cap' is the tropopause. The air is instead forced to spread out; the resulting cloud is called cumulonimbus incus. The water droplets coalesce into heavier droplets and freeze to become ice particles; as these fall, they melt to become rain. If the updraft
White Mountains (Arizona)
The White Mountains of Arizona are a mountain range and mountainous region in the eastern part of the state, near the border with New Mexico. The White Mountains are a part of the Colorado Plateau high country of Northeast Arizona, the Navajo Nation, with the rest of the Plateau in eastern Utah, northwest New Mexico, southwestern Colorado. Nearby communities include Show Low, Pinetop-Lakeside, Springerville, McNary. Much of the range is within the Fort Apache Indian Reservation; the highest summit is Mount Baldy, with an elevation of 11,400 feet. The mountains are drained to the south by several tributaries of the Salt River, to the north by the Little Colorado River. There are several small lakes; the part of the White Mountains outside the reservation is in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests. Google Maps satellite photo
Erastus Snow was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1849 to until his death. Snow was a leading figure in Mormon colonization of Arizona and New Mexico. Born in St. Johnsbury, Snow joined the institutional predecessor of the LDS Church, the Church of Christ, in the early 1830s. One of the missionaries who taught him was Orson Pratt. Snow's brother, Zerubbabel Snow, joined the church prior to him. Snow moved to Kirtland, where the church was headquartered, but spent much of his time on missions in Pennsylvania, he served a mission to Salem, where he baptized several converts, including Nathaniel Ashby, a man with whom he shared a duplex when they both resided in Nauvoo, Illinois. Snow was in the first Mormon pioneer company to journey to the Salt Lake Valley, he and Orson Pratt were the first two Mormons. Snow was ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles on February 12, 1849. On the same day, Charles C. Rich, Lorenzo Snow, Franklin D. Richards were ordained.
At the October 1849 general conference, Snow was assigned to lead a mission to Scandinavia. He had Peter O. Hansen, who had joined the church in Boston, they focused most of their efforts in Denmark, but another convert had joined them, John E. Forsgren, who preached in Sweden. While serving as a missionary in Denmark, Snow baptized the first Icelanders to join the church, ordained them to the priesthood, sent them to Iceland to preach. Before the end of his mission, Snow began the publication of a church periodical in Danish. In the 1850s, Snow served as the presiding church authority in the midwest United States, using St. Louis as his headquarters, he engaged in farming. In 1860, Snow went with Orson Pratt on a mission to the Eastern States. By the time they reached the Eastern United States, Abraham Lincoln had been elected president. With the impending war, they were able to convince many church members to move to Utah. Much of this migration happened in 1861. After returning to Utah in 1861, Snow was made the apostle in charge of the Southern Utah Mormon settlements.
He lived in St. George, founded Kingman and Snowflake, Arizona. Erastus Snow is known to have had sixteen wives. One of Snow's daughters, became the wife of Anthony W. Ivins and the mother of Antoine R. Ivins. Snow died at Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, at age 69, he was buried at Salt Lake City Cemetery. Snow Canyon State Park, Snow College and the town of Snowflake, Arizona are named after Snow. Hurricane, Utah "Snow, Erastus" in the Utah History Encyclopedia
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, they give rise to different biomes. A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates as intermediates between desert climates and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are dominated by either grasses or shrubs. To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20 adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS. Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid". Hot semi-arid climates tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate; these climates tend to have hot, sometimes hot and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most found in Africa and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.
In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can be found in Europe, parts of North America, such as in Mexico, areas of the Southwestern United States, sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with rainless summers and wetter winters. Cold semi-arid climates tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate, they are found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters.
These areas see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C or more in that time frame; these large diurnal temperature variations are seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers wet winters, wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most found in Asia and North America. However, they can be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month, the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side.
As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean but mild winters. Continental climate Dust Bowl Goyder's Line Köppen climate classification Palliser's Triangle Ustic Wave height
Time in Arizona
Time in Arizona, as in all US states, is regulated by the United States Department of Transportation. Arizona is in the Mountain Time Zone and most of the state remains in Mountain Standard Time all year. Unlike most of the United States, Arizona does not observe daylight saving time, with the exception of the Navajo Nation, which does observe DST; the Hopi Reservation, not part of the Navajo Nation but is geographically surrounded within it, does not observe DST. The tz database version 2017c contains two time zones for Arizona: When daylight saving is not active, the time in Phoenix and Denver is the same, both are one hour ahead of San Diego; when daylight saving is active, the time in Phoenix and San Diego is the same, both are one hour behind Denver
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
U.S. Route 180
U. S. Route 180 is an east–west United States highway. Like many three-digit routes, US 180 no longer meets its "parent", US 80. US 80 was decommissioned west of Mesquite and was replaced in Texas by Interstate 20 and Interstate 10 resulting in U. S. 180 being longer than U. S. 80. The highway's eastern terminus is in Hudson Oaks, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 20, its western terminus is unclear. Signage at an intersection with State Route 64 in Valle, Arizona 40 miles northwest of Flagstaff indicates that the route ends at SR 64, consistent with the AASHTO U. S. Highway logs. However, many maps continue the US 180 designation to the south rim of the Grand Canyon at Grand Canyon Village. Signage at the SR 64 intersection as late as 2011 indicated that US 180 continues north concurrent with the route. However, no signage along the route exists past this intersection until SR 64 turns east towards Cameron, Arizona. At this intersection, signage makes no mention of US 180 nor is there any mention at the terminus of SR 64 at US 89.
Four National Parks can be accessed on the highway, Grand Canyon National Park, Petrified Forest National Park, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Carlsbad Caverns National Park. It passes through the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountains in Arizona. In Flagstaff, US 180 is concurrent with Interstate 40 Business and historic U. S. Route 66 for a short distance through the city. US 180 joins the former routing of Route 66 in the center of Flagstaff and follows the roadway to where it merges with Interstate 40 east of the city. From the western terminus of the overlap, the intersection with eastbound Interstate 40 is two miles to the east, the intersection with westbound Interstate 40 and with Interstate 17 is three miles to the southwest. US 180 shares numbering with Interstate 40 from Arizona, to Holbrook, Arizona. At Holbrook, US 180 follows Interstate 40 Business along South Navajo Boulevard. Shortly after following South Navajo Boulevard, however, US 180 follows a south-southeast route, running by the Petrified Forest National Park and continuing South-Southeast to and through a small branch of the Zuni Indian Reservation, to St. Johns, Apache County, Arizona where it meets U.
S. Route 191. After meeting up with US 191, US 180 continues south to the town of Eagar, Arizona where the two routes enter the Apache National Forest and split at the town of Alpine, Arizona 4–6 miles from the Arizona-New Mexico border. After entering New Mexico from just east of Alpine, Arizona, US 180 continues south until Silver City, New Mexico. From Silver City, US 180 travels just east for 4–6 miles, meeting up with New Mexico State Road 90, New Mexico State Road 15, New Mexico State Road 152. US 180 now travels southeast for 50 miles to Deming, New Mexico, where US 180 meets up with Interstate 10. From Deming, US 180 follows Interstate 10 through Las Cruces, New Mexico, enters Texas at Anthony, New Mexico; the route is concurrent with Interstate 10 through the west and central portions of El Paso and separates from I-10 at Paisano Drive, joining U. S. Route 62. US 62/180 is concurrent with Montana Avenue in East Central El Paso, continues to be called Montana Avenue until it reaches RM 2775.
US 62/180 travels east, going past the spur RM 2775 through the southern end of the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, past the southern face of Guadalupe Peak towards New Mexico and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Continuing though Carlsbad, New Mexico, US 180 and US 62 travels toward Texas running through Hobbs, New Mexico, exiting New Mexico just east of Hobbs. US 180 is now a divided highway west of Carlsbad where it used to be a two-lane highway until around 2008. US 180 is a divided highway in the entire state. Speed limit was now 70 west and 70 east of Carlsbad to about 15 miles west of Hobbs. After re-entering Texas from just east of Hobbs, New Mexico, US 180 splits from US 62 at Seminole, Texas. US 180 continues eastward running through the towns of: Lamesa, Snyder, Anson and Breckenridge. For the last portion of its length, the road runs through the scenic Palo Pinto Mountains, exiting them at Metcalf Gap. Towns in this final portion include Mineral Wells and Cool. US 180 comes into contact with Interstate 20 just east of Weatherford and ends in Hudson Oaks, Texas.
In Texas, US 180 intersects U. S. Highway 385, U. S. Highway 87, U. S. Highway 84, U. S. Highway 83, U. S. Highway 277, U. S. Highway 283, U. S. Highway 183, U. S. Highway 281, Interstate 20; the speed limit is 75 mph in Culberson counties except through Guadalupe Pass. Beginning just over 1/2 mile east of mile marker 52 to the state line at FM 652. U. S. Route 260 was a spur of U. S. Route 60, established in 1931, it connected Springerville and Holbrook, replaced the former western end of US 70. In 1935, US 260 was extended eastward to US 80 near New Mexico. In 1962, the entire route of US 260 became part of a western extension of US 180. Arizona SR 64 in Valle US 89 in Flagstaff I‑40 in Flagstaff; the highways travel concurrently to Holbrook. US 191 in St. Johns; the highways travel concurrently to Alpine. US 60 in Springerville; the highways travel concurrently through Springerville. New Mexico I‑10 / US 70 in Deming. I-10/US 180 travels concurrently to El Paso, Texas. US 70/US 180 travels concurrently to Las Cruces.
I‑25 / US 85 on the Las Cruces–University Park line. US 85/US 180 travels concurrently to Texas. Texas US