1910 United States Census
The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation. The column titles in the form are as follows, LOCATION. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation, Number of family in order of visitation. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15,1910, was in this family, enter surname first, the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15,1910, omit children born since April 15,1910. Relationship of this person to the head of the family, whether single, widowed, or divorced. Number of years of present marriage, Mother of how many children, Number born. Mother of how children, Number now living. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated, if born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country, place of birth of this Person. Place of birth of Father of this person, place of birth of Mother of this person. Year of immigration to the United States, whether able to speak English, or, if not, give language spoken.
Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by person, as spinner, laborer. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account, whether out of work on April 15,1910. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909, attended school any time since September 1,1909. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy, special Notation, In 1912, New Mexico and Arizona would become the 47th and 48th states admitted to the Union. The 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301 and 204,354 respectively
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the Southeastern United States, on the Atlantic coast in northeastern Florida. It is the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement within the borders of the continental United States, the county seat of St. Johns County, it is part of Floridas First Coast region and the Jacksonville metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 12,975, the United States Census Bureaus 2013 estimate of the citys population was 13,679, while the urban area had a population of 69,173 in 2012. Saint Augustine was founded on September 8,1565, by Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Floridas first governor. He named the settlement San Agustín, as his ships bearing settlers and supplies from Spain had first sighted land in Florida eleven days earlier on August 28, the feast day of St. Augustine. The city served as the capital of Spanish Florida for over 200 years, since the late 19th century, St. Augustines distinct historical character has made the city a major tourist attraction, and it is the headquarters for the Florida National Guard.
Founded in 1565 by the Spanish conquistador, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, in 1562, a group of Huguenots led by Jean Ribault arrived in Spanish Florida to establish a colony in the territory claimed by Spain. They explored the mouth of the St. Johns River, calling it la Rivière de Mai, sailed northward, Spain learned of this French expedition through its spies at ports on the Atlantic coast of France. The Huguenot nobleman René de Laudonnière, who had participated in the expedition and he arrived at the mouth of the River May on June 22,1564, sailed up it a few miles, and founded Fort Caroline. He was ordered as well to drive away any intruders who were not subjects of the Spanish crown. On July 28, Menéndez set sail from Cádiz with a led by his 600-ton flagship, the San Pelayo, accompanied by several smaller ships, and carrying over 1,000 sailors, soldiers. On the feast day of St. Augustine, August 28, Menéndez sailed north and confronted Ribaults fleet outside the bar of the River May in a brief skirmish.
On September 6, he returned to the site of his first landfall, naming it after the Catholic saint, disembarked his troops, and quickly constructed fortifications to protect his people and supplies. Menéndez marched his soldiers overland for an attack on Fort Caroline. Jean Ribault had already put out to sea with his ships for an assault on St. Augustine, there they were confronted by the Spaniard and his men on the opposite side. After several parleys with the Spanish, Jean Ribault and the Frenchmen with him surrendered, almost all of them were executed in the dunes near the inlet, in 1572, the settlement was relocated to the mainland, in the area just south of the future town plaza. Confident that he had fulfilled the conditions of his contract with the King, including the building of forts along the coast of La Florida. After several more transatlantic crossings, Menéndez fell ill and died on September 17,1574, succeeding governors of the province maintained a peaceful coexistence with the local Native Americans, allowing the isolated outpost of St.
Augustine some stability for a few years
Spanish missions in Florida
Augustine to the area around Tallahassee, southeastern Georgia, and some coastal settlements, such as Pensacola, Florida. A few short-lived missions were established in locations, including Mission Santa Elena in present-day South Carolina, around the Florida peninsula. The missions of what are now northern Florida and southeastern Georgia were divided into four provinces where the bulk of missionary effort took place. These provinces roughly corresponded to the areas where those dialects were spoken among the varying Native American peoples, there were ephemeral attempts to establish missions elsewhere, particularly further south into Florida. It ended in failure after six weeks with de Cancers death at the hands of the Tocobaga natives, the first Spanish missions to the Indians of Florida, starting with the foundation of St. Augustine in 1565, were attached to presidios. Between 1565 and 1567 ten presidios were established at major harbors from Port Royal Sound to Tampa Bay to prevent other European powers from establishing bases in the area, most of the presidios were unsustainable.
By 1573 the only remaining presidios in Florida were St. Augustine and Santa Elena, the missions at the presidios were staffed by the Jesuits. Due to the hostility of the Indians, which resulted in the murder of several of the missionaries, franciscan friars entered into La Florida in 1573, but at first confined their activities to the immediate vicinity of St. Augustine. The Franciscans began taking their mission to the Guale and Timucua Indians along the Atlantic coast in 1587, starting in 1606 the Franciscans expanded their mission efforts westward across Timucua territory, and by 1633 had established missions in Apalachee Province. The network of missions took its heaviest blow with Carolina Governor James Moores raids into the area during Queen Annes War, most of the Spanish missions in the Apalachee Province were wiped out during the Apalachee massacre. The mission buildings of La Florida were built with posts set into the ground, the walls were palmetto thatch and daub or plank, or left open.
The floors were clay, and scholars believe the roofs were thatched, the church buildings in the missions averaged some 20 m by 11 m. Other buildings situated within a palisade included a convento to house the missionaries, a barracks for the soldiers, the Spanish used the term province for the territory of a tribe or chiefdom. There was no fixed definition of province boundaries, as tribes and chiefdoms lost population and importance, the provinces associated with them would no longer appear in the records. Other provinces expanded to take in their territories, most of the people taken into the mission system were Timucua speakers. Three major groups that other languages were taken into the mission system. The Guale Province was the territory the Guale, and covered what is now coastal Georgia, the Guale were among the first people to be taken into the mission system, in the 1580s. Later in the 17th century, Guale Province was sometimes referred to as extending southward, the Apalachee Province included the Apalachee people, who spoke a Muskogean language, and were brought into the mission system in the 1630s
Duval County, Florida
Duval County is a county located in the State of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 864,263 and its county seat is Jacksonville, with which the Duval County government has been consolidated since 1968. Duval County was established in 1822, and is named for William Pope Duval, Duval County is included in the Jacksonville, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. This area had settled by varying cultures of indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European contact. Within the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve in Jacksonville, archeologists have excavated remains of some of the oldest pottery in the United States, prior to European contact, the area was inhabited by the Mocama, a Timucuan-speaking group who lived throughout the coastal areas of northern Florida. At the time Europeans arrived, much of what is now Duval County was controlled by the Saturiwa, Duval County was created in 1822 from St. Johns County. It was named for William Pope Duval, Governor of Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834, alachua and Nassau counties were created out of parts of Duval County in 1824.
Clay County was created from part of Duval County in 1858, part of St. Johns County south and east of the lower reaches of the St. Johns River was transferred to Duval County in the 1840s. On October 1,1968, the government of Duval County was consolidated with the government of the city of Jacksonville. The Duval County cities of Atlantic Beach, Jacksonville Beach, and Neptune Beach, are not included in the limits of Jacksonville. All services that would normally be provided by a county government are provided by the city of Jacksonville. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 918 square miles. The topography is plain, however there are some rolling hills. 24. 85% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 05% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was out with 23. 5% under the age of 18,10. 5% from 18 to 24,28. 4% from 25 to 44,26. 4% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 35.8 years, for every 100 females there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males, the median income for a household in the county was $49,463, and the median income for a family was $60,114. Males had an income of $42,752 versus $34,512 for females
Florida's 4th congressional district
NOTE, This districts boundaries were changed in 2016. This map is not presently accurate, Floridas 4th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Florida. The district takes in most of Jacksonville, along parts of that citys northern and western suburbs. The district includes all of Baker and Nassau counties and portions of Duval County, the district is currently represented by Republican John Rutherford who was elected after the retirement of fellow Republican Ander Crenshaw. Before 1993, most of the now in the 4th district was the 3rd district. He had held the seat and its predecessors since 1949, and was facing a stiff reelection contest against Republican Tillie K. Fowler in the 1992, Bennett retired after his wife fell ill, and Fowler easily defeated an underfunded replacement candidate. She became the first Republican woman to represent the district, from 1967 to 1993, the 4th district stretched from the southern Jacksonville suburbs to the northern Orlando suburbs.
Much of this became the 7th District after redistricting, and is now the 6th District. As of January 2017, there is one member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Floridas 4th congressional district who is currently living at this time. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, the Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Rep. Ander Crenshaws official House of Representatives website
Jacksonville is a seaport city and the seat of Duval County, United States. With an estimated 868,031 residents as of 2015, Jacksonville is the most populous city in both the state of Florida and the southeastern United States. It is estimated to be the 12th most populous city in the United States and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Jacksonville metropolitan area has a population of 1,603,497 and is the 34th largest in the United States and fourth largest in the state of Florida. The city is situated on the banks of the St. Johns River, in the First Coast region of North Florida, prior to European settlement, the Jacksonville area was inhabited by Native American people known as the Timucua. In 1564, the French established the colony of Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St. Johns River. In 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain, Jacksonville is the cultural and financial center of North Florida. A major military and civilian deep-water port, the citys riverine location supports two United States Navy bases and the Port of Jacksonville, Floridas third largest seaport.
The two US Navy bases, Blount Island Command and the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Jacksonville is home to several colleges and universities, including University of North Florida, Jacksonville University and Florida State College at Jacksonville. The area of the city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years. In the 16th century, the beginning of the era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama. At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered around the mouth of the St. Johns River. One early map shows a village called Ossachite at the site of what is now downtown Jacksonville, French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Johns River in 1562 calling it the River of May because he discovered it in May. Ribault erected a column near present-day Jacksonville claiming the newly discovered land for France. In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement, Fort Caroline, philip II of Spain ordered Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to protect the interest of Spain by attacking the French presence at Fort Caroline.
On September 20,1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, the Spanish renamed the fort San Mateo, and following the ejection of the French, St. Augustines position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified. The location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate but a reconstruction of the fort was established on the St. Johns River in 1964. Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763 after the French and Indian War, the British introduced the cultivation of sugar cane and fruits as well the export of lumber
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Castillo de San Marcos
The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States. Located on the shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida. Construction began in 1672,107 years after the founding by Spanish Admiral and conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. The forts construction was ordered by Governor Francisco de la Guerra y de la Vega after the raid of the English privateer Robert Searles in 1668. Work proceeded under the administration of Guerras successor, Manuel de Cendoya in 1671, the construction of the core of the current fortress was completed in 1695, though it would undergo many alterations and renovations over the centuries. The fort was declared a National Monument in 1924, and after 251 years of continuous military possession, was deactivated in 1933, the 20. 48-acre site was turned over to the United States National Park Service. In 1942 the original name Castillo de San Marcos, was restored by an Act of Congress, Castillo de San Marcos was twice besieged, first by English colonial forces led by Carolina Colony Governor James Moore in 1702, and by Georgia colonial Governor James Oglethorpe in 1740.
The Native American art form known as Ledger Art had its origins at the fort during the imprisonment of members of the Plains tribes such as Howling Wolf of the southern Cheyenne. The European city of St. Augustine was founded by the admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés for the Spanish Crown in 1565 on the site of a former Native American village called Seloy. Over the next century, the Spanish built nine wooden forts for the defense of the town in various locations, the need for fortifications was recognized after it was attacked by Sir Francis Drake and his fleet of 22 ships in 1586. Following the 1668 attack of the English pirate Robert Searle, Queen Regent of Spain, the Castillo is a masonry star fort made of a stone called coquina, made of ancient shells that have bonded together to form a type of stone similar to limestone. Workers were brought in from Havana, Cuba, to construct the fort in addition to Native American laborers. The coquina was quarried from the Kings Quarry on Anastasia Island in what is today Anastasia State Park across Matanzas Bay from the Castillo, construction began on October 2,1672 and lasted twenty-three years, with completion in 1695.
The fort has four bastions named San Pedro, San Agustín, San Carlos, multiple embrasures were built into the curtain wall along the top of the fort as well as into the bastions for the deployment of cannon of various calibers. Infantry embrasures were built into the walls below the level of the terreplein for the deployment of muskets by the forts defenders. It was through one of these embrasures that twenty Seminoles held as prisoners would escape in 1837, in 1670, Charles Town was founded by English colonists. As it was just two days sail from St. Augustine, the English settlement and encroachment of English traders into Spanish territory spurred the Spanish in their construction of a fort. In 1702, English colonial forces under the command of Carolina Governor Governor James Moore embarked on an expedition to capture St. Augustine early in Queen Annes War, the English laid siege to St. Augustine in November 1702
San Juan del Puerto, Florida
San Juan del Puerto was a Spanish Franciscan mission founded before 1587 on Fort George Island, near the mouth of the St. Johns River in what is now Jacksonville, Florida. It was founded to serve the Saturiwa, a Timucua tribe who lived around the mouth of the St. Johns and it was organized by separating them into nine smaller villages. It has an important place in the study of the Timucua, the Saturiwa were one of the chiefdoms of the Mocama, the Timucua-speaking people who lived in the coastal areas of what is now northern Florida and southeastern Georgia. The Saturiwa were allied with the French of Fort Caroline, and were initially hostile to the Spanish – who ousted the French colonists from the Florida coast in 1565. However, the Saturiwa soon made peace with the Spaniards, father Francisco Pareja worked at this mission and at San Pedro de Mocama. He devised a system of writing for Timucuan and taught some of the Mocama, in 1612, he printed a catechism in Spanish and Timucua, the first book printed in an indigenous language of the Americas.
After 1650, Guale refugees from the next chiefdom to the north along the Georgia coast were settled at the mission, the Spanish abandoned the mission around 1702, partly in response to raids from Native Americans and allied English colonists from South Carolina during Queen Annes War. Spanish missions in Florida St. Johns County - history St. Johns River Ashley, straddling the Florida-Georgia State Line, Ceramic Chronology of the St. Marys Region. In Kathleen Deagan and David Hurst Thomas, From Santa Elena to St. Augustine, Indigenous Ceramic Variability, new York, American Museum of Natural History McEwan, Bonnie G. Ed. The Spanish Missions of La Florida
Florida's 6th congressional district
NOTE, This districts boundaries were changed in 2016. This map is not presently accurate, Floridas 6th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Florida. The district stretches from the southern Jacksonville suburbs to New Smyrna Beach and it includes the cities of St. Augustine and Daytona Beach. From 2003 to 2013 the district stretched from the St and it included all of Bradford and Gilchrist counties and portions of Alachua, Duval, Lake and Marion counties. The district is represented by Republican Ron DeSantis. The district contains over 525,000 registered voters, of whom just over 39% are Democratic, as of January 2017, these are two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Floridas 6th congressional district who are currently living at this time. The most recent representative to die was Bill Young on October 18,2013 Martis, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The Suwannee River is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States. It is a blackwater river, about 246 miles long. The Suwannee River is the site of the prehistoric Suwanee Straits which separated peninsular Florida from the panhandle, the headwaters of the Suwanee River are in the Okefenokee Swamp in the town of Fargo, Georgia. The river runs southwestward into the Florida Panhandle, drops in elevation through limestone layers into a rare Florida whitewater rapid. Past the rapid, the Suwanee turns west near the town of White Springs, connects to the confluences of the Alapaha River, starting at the confluences of those three rivers, that confluence forms the southern borderline of Hamilton County, Florida. The Suwanee bends southward near the town of Ellaville, Florida followed by Luraville, Florida joins together with the Santa Fe River from the east south of the town of Branford, Florida. The river ends and drains into the Gulf of Mexico on the outskirts of Suwannee, the Spanish recorded the native Timucua name of Guacara for the river that would become known as the Suwannee.
Different etymologies have suggested for the modern name. Brinton first suggested in his 1889 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula that Suwannee was a corruption of the Spanish San Juan. This theory is supported by Jerald Milanich, who states that Suwannee developed through San Juan-ee from the 17th-century Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara, The migrations of the Shawnee throughout the South have been connected to the name Suwannee. As early as 1820, the Indian agent John Johnson said the Suwaney river was named after the Shawanoese. Echo, In 1884, Albert S. Gatschet claimed that Suwannee derives from the Creek word sawani, meaning echo, gatschets etymology survives in more recent publications, often mistaking the language of translation. For example, a University of South Florida website states that the Timucuan Indian word Suwani means Echo River, River of Reeds, Deep Water, or Crooked Black Water. In 2004, William Bright repeats it again, now attributing the name Suwanee to a Cherokee village of Sawani, the Suwannee River area has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years.
By 1633, the Spanish had established the missions of San Juan de Guacara, San Francisco de Chuaquin, in the 18th century, Seminoles lived by the river. The steamboat Madison operated on the river before the Civil War, and this river is the subject of the Stephen Foster song Old Folks at Home, in which he calls it the Swanee Ribber. Foster had named the Pedee River of South Carolina in his first lyrics and it has been called Swanee River because Foster had used an alternative contemporary spelling of the name. Foster never actually saw the river he made world-famous, george Gershwins song, with lyrics by Irving Caesar, and made popular by Al Jolson, is spelled Swanee and boasts that the folks up North will see me no more when I get to that Swanee shore