Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may be non-monolithic and intensely private and non-public. Sacred and holy structures often evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, while the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms, religious buildings increasingly became centres of worship, the Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself closely follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period, at least. Sacred geometry and the use of sophisticated semiotics such as signs, Sacred and/or religious architecture is sometimes called sacred space.
Architect Norman L. Koonce has suggested that the goal of sacred architecture is to make transparent the boundary between matter and mind and the spirit, Richard Kieckhefer suggests that entering into a religious building is a metaphor for entering into spiritual relationship. Sacred architecture spans a number of ancient architectural styles including Neolithic architecture, ancient Egyptian architecture, ancient religious buildings, particularly temples, were often viewed as the dwelling place, the temenos, of the gods and were used as the site of various kinds of sacrifice. Ancient tombs and burial structures are examples of architectural structures reflecting religious beliefs of their various societies. The Temple of Karnak at Thebes, Egypt was constructed across a period of 1300 years, ancient Egyptian religious architecture has fascinated archaeologists and captured the public imagination for millennia. Around 600 BCE the wooden columns of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were replaced by stone columns, with the spread of this process to other sanctuary structures a few stone buildings have survived through the ages.
Greek architecture preceded Hellenistic and Roman periods, since temples are the only buildings which survive in numbers, most of our concept of classical architecture is based on religious structures. The Parthenon which served as a building as well as a place for veneration of deity, is widely regarded as the greatest example of classical architecture. Indian architecture is related to the history and religions of the time periods as well as to the geography, the diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Indian architecture comprises a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types and technologies from West, Central Asia, buddhist architecture developed in South Asia beginning in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism and stupas, an existing example is at Nalanda. The initial function of the stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha, the earliest existing example of a stupa is in Sanchi.
In accordance with changes in practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas. These reached their highpoint in the first century BCE, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta, the pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa that is marked by a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Korea and other parts of Asia
A clock is an instrument to measure and indicate time. The word clock is derived from the Celtic words clagan and clocca meaning bell, a silent instrument missing such a striking mechanism has traditionally been known as a timepiece. In general usage today a clock refers to any device for measuring and displaying the time and other timepieces that can be carried on ones person are often distinguished from clocks. The clock is one of the oldest human inventions, meeting the need to measure intervals of time shorter than the natural units, the day, the lunar month. Devices operating on several physical processes have been used over the millennia, a sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a flat surface. There is a range of duration timers, an example being the hourglass. Water clocks, along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments, spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century. During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished, the next development in accuracy occurred after 1656 with the invention of the pendulum clock. A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation, the electric clock was patented in 1840.
The development of electronics in the 20th century led to clocks with no clockwork parts at all, the timekeeping element in every modern clock is a harmonic oscillator, a physical object that vibrates or oscillates at a particular frequency. This object can be a pendulum, a fork, a quartz crystal. Analog clocks usually indicate time using angles, Digital clocks display a numeric representation of time. Two numeric display formats are used on digital clocks, 24-hour notation. Most digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED, or VFD displays, for convenience, telephony or blindness, auditory clocks present the time as sounds. There are clocks for the blind that have displays that can be read by using the sense of touch, some of these are similar to normal analog displays, but are constructed so the hands can be felt without damaging them. The evolution of the technology of clocks continues today, the study of timekeeping is known as horology. The apparent position of the Sun in the sky moves over the course of a day, shadows cast by stationary objects move correspondingly, so their positions can be used to indicate the time of day. A sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a flat surface, sundials can be horizontal, vertical, or in other orientations
The French Quarter, known as the Vieux Carré, is the oldest neighborhood in the city of New Orleans. After New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, the city developed around the Vieux Carré, the district is more commonly called the French Quarter today, or simply The Quarter, related to changes in the city with American immigration after the Louisiana Purchase. The district as a whole has been designated as a National Historic Landmark and it is a prime tourist destination in the city, as well as attracting local residents. The French Quarter is located at 29°57′31″N 90°03′54″W and has an elevation of 1 foot, according to the United States Census Bureau, the district has a total area of 0.66 square miles. 0.49 square miles of which is land and 0.17 square miles of which is water, the most common definition of the French Quarter includes all the land stretching along the Mississippi River from Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue and inland to North Rampart Street.
It equals an area of 78 square blocks, louis Street and North Rampart Street to the west. The National Historic Landmark district is stated to be 85 square blocks, the Quarter is subdistrict of the French Quarter/CBD Area. Faubourg Marigny Mississippi River Central Business District Iberville Tremé As of the census of 2000, there were 4,176 people,2,908 households, the population density was 8,523 /mi². As of the census of 2010, there were 3,813 people,2,635 households, most of the French Quarters architecture was built during the late 18th century and the period of Spanish rule over the city, which is reflected in the architecture of the neighborhood. Their strict new fire codes mandated that all structures be physically adjacent, the old French peaked roofs were replaced with flat tiled ones, and wooden siding was banned in favor of fire-resistant stucco, painted in the pastel hues fashionable at the time. As a result, colorful walls and roofs and elaborately decorated ironwork balconies and galleries, from the late 18th, when Anglophone Americans began to move in after the Louisiana Purchase, they mostly built on available land upriver, across modern-day Canal Street.
This thoroughfare became the place of two cultures, one Francophone Creole and the other Anglophone American. The median of the boulevard became a place where the two contentious cultures could meet and do business in both French and English. As such, it known as the neutral ground. Even before the Civil War, French Creoles had become a minority in the French Quarter, in the late 19th century the Quarter became a less fashionable part of town, and many immigrants from southern Italy and Ireland settled there. In 1905, the Italian consul estimated that one-third to one-half of the Quarter’s population were Italian-born or second generation Italian-Americans, Irish immigrants settled heavily in the Esplanade area, which was called the Irish Channel. In 1917, the closure of Storyville sent much of the vice formerly concentrated therein back into the French Quarter, was the last straw, and they began to move uptown. This, combined with the loss of the French Opera House two years later, provided a bookend to the era of French Creole culture in the Quarter, many of the remaining French Creoles moved to the University area
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, officially in Latin Archidioecesis Novae Aureliae, is an ecclesiastical division of the Roman Catholic Church administered from New Orleans, Louisiana. It is the second-oldest diocese in the present-day United States, having been elevated to the rank of diocese on April 25,1793, led by an archbishop, the Archdiocese of New Orleans is the center of a larger ecclesiastical province that encompasses the entire state of Louisiana. The Metropolitan Province of New Orleans include the suffragan Dioceses of Alexandria, Baton Rouge, Houma-Thibodaux, Lake Charles, on June 12,2009, Pope Benedict XVI named Bishop Gregory Michael Aymond of the Diocese of Austin to be Archbishop of New Orleans. Archbishop Aymond was installed on August 20,2009 at Saint Louis Cathedral. The archdiocese encompasses eight civil parishes in the New Orleans metropolitan area, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, St. Tammany, and Washington. There are 137 church parishes in the archdiocese, ministered by 387 priests,187 permanent deacons,84 brothers, there are 372,037 Catholics on the census of the Archdiocese, 36% of the total population of the area.
The current head of the archdiocese is Archbishop Gregory Michael Aymond, there is one Archbishop Emeritus, Archbishop Alfred Clifton Hughes. There is one Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus, Bishop Dominic Carmon, in early 2009, the state of Maine passed a law allowing same-sex civil marriage. In July 2009 the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans contributed $2,000 of its money to a campaign to overturn that law. According to Maines Commission on Governmental Ethics & Election Practices, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Portland Maine spent over $553,000 to overturn the law, the Archdiocese of New Orleans $2,000 was part of that $553,000. The Catholic Church has had a presence in New Orleans since the founding of the city by the French in 1718, New Orleans and the rest of Louisiana west of the Mississippi were surrendered to the Spanish in 1763. From until 1783 the two Floridas were under British control, but as part of the Peace of Paris the two Florida colonies were regained from Great Britain. Thus, the parishes of New Orleans and Louisiana were incorporated into the Diocese of Louisiana.
The diocese originally encompassed the entire Louisiana Purchase, from the Gulf of Mexico to British North America, as well as the Florida peninsula and the Gulf Coast. The date of its establishment makes it the second-oldest diocese in the present-day United States, at the time of its establishment, the territory of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Two Floridas was part of the Archdiocese of San Cristobal de la Habana, based in Havana, Cuba. The diocese was divided into smaller dioceses several times, and many dioceses in the central United States were originally part of the Diocese of Louisiana. As capital of the Louisiana, the city was sold to the United States in 1803, the diocese was renamed the Diocese of New Orleans in 1826, and encompassed what is now Louisiana and Mississippi. New Orleans was elevated to an archdiocese in 1850, as the population of Louisiana grew, the Archdiocese of New Orleans was further subdivided into several additional dioceses
The Cabildo was the seat of Spanish colonial government in New Orleans, and is now a museum. The Cabildo is located along Jackson Square, adjacent to St. Louis Cathedral, the original Cabildo was destroyed in the Great New Orleans Fire. The Cabildo was rebuilt between 1795–99 as the home of the Spanish municipal government in New Orleans, and the floor with mansard roof was added. The building took its name from the body who met there — the Illustrious Cabildo. The Cabildo was the site of the Louisiana Purchase transfer ceremonies late in 1803, the buildings main hall, the Sala Capitular, was originally utilized as a courtroom. The Spanish used the courtroom from 1799–1803, and from 1803–1812 it was used by the Louisiana territorial superior court, after the American Civil War, it was the home of the Louisiana Supreme Court from 1868–1910. The Sala Capitular was the site of several court cases. In 1895 it was in a state of decay and proposed for demolition, in 1911 the Cabildo became the home of the Louisiana State Museum.
The museum displays exhibits about the history of Louisiana from its settlement up through the Reconstruction Era and it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. The Cabildo was extensively damaged by a fire on May 11,1988, which destroyed the cupola and the third floor. In 2005, the Cabildo survived Hurricane Katrina, the eye of which passed 30 miles east of downtown, days after Hurricane Katrina, the Louisiana State Police used the business offices of the Cabildo to set up what was called Troop N. The N was a designate for New Orleans, from the Cabildo, Louisiana State Troopers patrolled the streets of the city along with other state police agencies from New Mexico and New York
Saint Louis Cemetery
Saint Louis Cemetery is the name of three Roman Catholic cemeteries in New Orleans, Louisiana. Most of the graves are above-ground vaults constructed in the 18th and 19th centuries, Cemeteries No.1 and No.2 are included on the National Register of Historic Places and the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. St. Louis Cemetery No.1 is the oldest and most famous and it was opened in 1789, replacing the citys older St. Peter Cemetery as the main burial ground when the city was redesigned after a fire in 1788. It is 8 blocks from the Mississippi River, on the side of Basin Street. It borders the Iberville housing project and it has been in continuous use since its foundation. The nonprofit group Save Our Cemeteries and commercial businesses offer tours for a fee, the renowned Voodoo priestess Marie Laveau is believed to be interred in the Glapion family crypt. Delphine LaLaurie, the cruel slave owner, is believed to lie in rest here. Architect and engineer Benjamin Latrobe was buried at St. Louis No.1 after dying from fever in 1820.
In 2010, actor Nicolas Cage purchased a pyramid-shaped tomb to be his final resting place. The cemetery spans just one square block but is the place of many thousands. A Protestant section lies in the northwest section, effective March 1,2015, the Roman Catholic Diocese of New Orleans, which owns and manages this cemetery, has closed it to the general public, ostensibly because of the rise in vandalism there. However, in a move, the diocese is now charging tour companies for access. Families who own tombs can apply for a pass to visit, St. Louis No.2 is located some three blocks back from St. Louis No. A number of jazz and rhythm & blues musicians are buried here, including Danny Barker. Also entombed here is Andre Cailloux, African-American Union hero and martyr of the American Civil War, there are many notable citizens of 19th and 20th century New Orleans laid to rest here. These include the Venerable Mother Henriette DeLille, who is a candidate for sainthood by the Catholic Church and it was listed in National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
Other politicians and soldiers interred/entombed here, Jacques Villeré of St. Bernard Parish, second Governor of Louisiana after statehood, commander of the 1st Division, La. State Militia, at the Battle of New Orleans, pierre Soulé of New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Hurricane Katrina was the costliest natural disaster and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. The storm is ranked as the third most intense United States landfalling tropical cyclone. Overall, at least 1,245 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, total property damage was estimated at $108 billion, roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States. Early the following day, the new depression intensified into Tropical Storm Katrina, the cyclone headed generally westward toward Florida and strengthened into a hurricane only two hours before making landfall at Hallandale Beach and Aventura on August 25. After very briefly weakening to a storm, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August 26. The storm caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge, severe property damage occurred in coastal areas, such as Mississippi beachfront towns, over 90 percent of these were flooded.
Boats and casino barges rammed buildings, pushing cars and houses inland, over fifty breaches in New Orleanss hurricane surge protection were the cause of the majority of the death and destruction during Katrina on August 29,2005. Eventually 80% of the city and large tracts of neighboring parishes became flooded, according to a modeling exercise conducted by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, two-thirds of the deaths in Greater New Orleans were due to levee and floodwall failure. All of the studies concluded that the USACE, the designers and builders of the levee system as mandated by the Flood Control Act of 1965, is responsible. This is mainly due to a decision to use shorter steel sheet pilings in an effort to save money, exactly ten years after Katrina, J. Many other government officials were criticized for their responses, especially New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco, several agencies including the United States Coast Guard, National Hurricane Center, and National Weather Service were commended for their actions.
They provided accurate hurricane weather tracking forecasts with sufficient lead time, Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23,2005, as the result of an interaction of a tropical wave and the remains of Tropical Depression Ten. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Katrina on the morning of August 24, the tropical storm moved towards Florida, and became a hurricane only two hours before making landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura on the morning of August 25. The storm weakened over land, but it regained hurricane status about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico, on August 27, the storm reached Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, becoming the third major hurricane of the season. An eyewall replacement cycle disrupted the intensification, but caused the storm to nearly double in size, the storm rapidly intensified after entering the Gulf, growing from a Category 3 hurricane to a Category 5 hurricane in just nine hours.
This rapid growth was due to the movement over the unusually warm waters of the Loop Current. Katrina attained Category 5 status on the morning of August 28 and reached its peak strength at 1800 UTC that day, with sustained winds of 175 mph. However, this record was broken by Hurricane Rita
St. Andrews Pro-Cathedral in Glasgow has been the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Glasgow since 1889. The original Glasgow Cathedral however had been re-established as the Church of Scotland’s High Kirk of Glasgow after the Scottish Reformation, the Cathedral of the Holy Apostles, in Bristol, was previously the pro-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Clifton. The Parish Church of St. Helier in Jersey serves as the islands pro-cathedral, in Valletta, there is an Anglican St. Pauls Pro-Cathedral. In Poland, Carmelite Church, Warsaw served as a procathedral until the reconstruction of St. Johns Cathedral, in Baku, the Church of the Immaculate Conception is the pro-cathedral episcopal see of the Apostolic Prefecture of Baku. The Church of San Antonio de Motael was the pro-cathedral of Dili, the cathedral was reopened to the general public on April 9,2014. The Cathedral of the Holy Name, was previously the pro-cathedral of the Holy Name, in QuAppelle, the parish church of Saint Peters was the pro-cathedral for the Anglican southern Saskatchewan diocese until 1944.
From 1944 to 1979, St. Pauls Cathedral served as the pro-cathedral before it was elevated to cathedral status, in the United States, the church of St. Paul the Apostle in Savannah, Georgia, is the pro-cathedral for the Episcopal Diocese of Georgia. The Cathedral of the Incarnation was a pro-cathedral for 35 years before the Episcopal Diocese of Maryland passed a resolution in 1955 for it to become the diocesan cathedral, Holy Name of Mary Pro-Cathedral in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Marquette, St. Johns Pro-Cathedral served as the pro-cathedral in Perth, Western Australia
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
St. Patrick's Church (New Orleans, Louisiana)
St. Patricks Church is a Catholic church and parish in the Archdiocese of New Orleans, United States. The parish was founded in 1833, and the current structure was completed in 1840 and it is the second-oldest parish in New Orleans, located upriver from the French Quarter at 724 Camp Street in what is now the Central Business District. The building, a National Historic Landmark, is one of the nations earliest and finest examples of Gothic Revival architecture. The first major development in New Orleans outside of the Vieux Carré was Faubourg St. Mary, begun after 1788, the Faubourg came to be known as the American Quarter, as differentiated from the French Quarter. Irish immigration in the nineteenth century brought English-speaking Catholics to the city. By the 1830s, a church was needed for those who did not speak French, in 1833, Bishop Leo-Raymond de Neckere established a new parish in Faubourg St. Mary, St. Patricks Church. Construction of a permanent church building began in the decade and was completed in 1840, during the 1849-1851 rebuilding of St.
Louis Cathedral, the church was named pro-cathedral of the diocese. The decades after the churchs establishment saw anti-immigrant violence involving the Know Nothing Party, father James Mullon, whose portrait hangs in the back of the church, was pastor at the time and held significant clout in the city. Many nativists feared that he and the Irish were taking control of New Orleans from the establishment, during the war, the outspoken Mullon, who had been pastor by for decades, was accosted by Butler for refusing to preside at the funeral of a Union soldier. Mullon responded, in a moment of local lore, by apologizing and remarking that he would preside at the funerals of Butler. The church building was named a National Historic Landmark in 1975, a major restoration, lasting from 1978 to 1990, preserved the structure so that the parish could continue to serve the people of New Orleans as it had for 150 years. Located on relatively high ground near the river, St. Patricks was not in the zone during and after Hurricane Katrina.
Its parishioners and regular churchgoers come from throughout the archdiocese and were scattered by the hurricane like everyone else. In keeping with St. Patricks history as New Orleans second oldest parish, it and St. Louis Cathedral held the first masses in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina on Sunday, October 2,2005. The New York Times reported the reopening of churches, quoting one parishioner regarding the ringing of the bell in the tower, You can call this a homecoming bell for New Orleans. We have good news we want to get out, St. Patricks is in the Gothic style, with a fairly simple exterior but a highly ornate interior. Doorways, the organ, and the altar all conform to architectural design, the bell tower is 185 feet tall, some nineteenth century aerial views of New Orleans were painted from its roof. The interior of the nave is 85 feet tall, slender columns support the fan vaulting of the ceiling, which is particularly elaborate above the altar, incorporating sixteen stained glass windows in a half-dome