Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel. Known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish; the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. The name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark; the term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land. It referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii; the area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider.
The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, linguistically identical with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain; the Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or to either Denmark or Germany, or have been independent of both nations; the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago.
Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part; this would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen; the German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig.
This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation; these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled.
This began the First Schleswig War. In 1863, conflict broke out again. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX; the transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein; the promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, an
The Reeperbahn is a street and entertainment district in Hamburg's St. Pauli district, one of the two centres of Hamburg's nightlife and the city's major red-light district. In German, it is nicknamed die sündigste Meile and Kiez; the Reeperbahn Festival is among the largest club festivals. The name Reeperbahn means ropewalk, a place where ropes are made; until the 1620s Hamburg's ropewalks had been located in the Neustadt quarter of the inner city close to the Elbe, which became a densely built up area. Therefore, the ropewalks "had to be relocated outside the city walls on the country road leading toward Altona – which took on the street name'Reperbahn'." The street was a ropewalk in the 18th centuries. The street is lined with restaurants, night clubs and bars. There are strip clubs, sex shops and similar businesses. Between 1997 and 2007 the Erotic Art Museum was open on Nobistor, a street running between the Reeperbahn and Louise-Schroeder-Straße; the Operettenhaus, a musical theatre, is located at the Reeperbahn.
It played Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats for many years, after that Mamma Mia!, an ABBA-musical, followed by "Ich war noch niemals in New York", featuring hit songs by Austrian singer/songwriter Udo Jürgens Sister Act and Rocky, based on the Stallone film. There are other theatres at the Reeperbahn and several Cabarets/Varietés. A famous landmark is the Davidwache, a police station located on the South side of the Reeperbahn at the cross street Davidstraße. Street prostitution is legal during certain times of the day on Davidstraße; the Herbertstraße, a short side street off the Davidstraße, has sex workers displaying themselves behind windows, waiting for customers. Since 1933, large screens block the view into Herbertstraße from the adjacent streets. Since the 1970s, there have been signs saying that entrance to the street is prohibited for women and juveniles. Many pubs, street-based sex workers, can be found on the square of Hans-Albers-Platz south of the Reeperbahn; the Große Freiheit is a cross street on the North Side with several bars, clubs and a Catholic church.
In former years, several sex theatres here would show live sex acts on stage. As of 2007, until its closure in 2013, the Safari was the only live sex theatre left in Germany; the popular table dance club Dollhouse now takes the place of the Salambo. Hotel Luxor, Hamburg's oldest brothel that had operated on this street for 60 years, was closed in 2008; the street's name comes from the fact that Catholics were allowed to practise their religion here at a time when this district did not yet belong to Hamburg. In 1967, Europe's largest brothel at the time, the six-floor Eros Center, was opened on the Reeperbahn, it was closed in the late 1980s amidst the AIDS scare. At a major trial during 2006 and 2007 ten members of the "Marek Gang", which controls brothels on and near the Reeperbahn, were charged with pimping; the judge rejected the charge of forming a criminal gang and handed out suspended sentences: the men had started relationships with young women in local discotheques in order to recruit them to work in their brothels, an illegal practice if the women are under 21 years of age.
Because of the problems with the high crime rate, in 2007 the Senate of Hamburg enacted a ban on weapons in the Reeperbahn area. The only other such area with a weapons ban in Hamburg is St. Georg; the St Pauli Preservation Society decries the ongoing gentrification of the area. Several old-timers blamed the decline of the Reeperbahn's sex industry on the rise of discotheques and cheap bars that attract teenage customers. In 2013, the Dancing Towers were built at the eastern end of Reeperbahn, symbolizing a couple dancing tango; the increasing number of these and other modern buildings erected at the Reeperbahn attracted criticism by some St. Pauli inhabitants. In the early 1960s, The Beatles played in several clubs around the Reeperbahn, including the Star-Club, Top Ten and Indra. Stories about the band's residencies and offstage antics are legendary. A fellow musician, Ted "Kingsize" Taylor, made a crude tape recording of their last New Year's Eve show, at the Star-Club in December 1962. Famously John Lennon is quoted: "I might have been born in Liverpool – but I grew up in Hamburg".
In memory of this time a Beatles-Platz was built at the cross of Große Freiheit. The popular 1944 movie Große Freiheit Nr. 7 tells the story of a singer who works in a Reeperbahn club and falls in love with a girl played by Ilse Werner. Hans Albers and Heinz Rühmann played in the 1954 movie Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um halb eins. In 1958, Trinidadian calypso artiste, Lord Invader recorded a track entitled "My Experience On The Reeperbahn", it recalls a time. "You cannot tell a man from a woman. I was a man
Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe
The Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe is a biennial high-level conference on Sino-European economic relations held in Hamburg. The Hamburg Chamber of Commerce initiated the first "Hamburg Summit" in 2004 to set up a platform for an open dialogue between Europe and China and to improve their economic relations. In discussions between the former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, mayors of Hamburg and the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce Commerce the idea was born to organise a conference in Hamburg to intensify the economic and political dialogue between Europe and China and improve the economic relationship. Hamburg as venue for the conference was a consequential choice because of the strong economic relations between the hanseatic city and the People's Republic of China. With more than 550 companies from China Hamburg is one of Europe's most important locations for Chinese companies. In addition to port-oriented companies Hamburg hosts European headquarters of Chinese industrial companies or Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industries.
With the Bank of China and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the two largest Chinese banks are represented in Hamburg. On the other side over 700 Hamburg companies maintain business relations with China. For Northern and Eastern Europe Hamburg has a central role in business with China, as Hamburg is the transit station for most of the imports from China and a distribution center for onward transport to the new EU accession countries, but to Russia and Western and Southern Europe. Indeed, about one third of the container traffic in the port of Hamburg is related to China. 2004 In the presence of former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt over 350 decision makers from politics and academia discussed the current state of Sino-European relations during the first “Hamburg Summit”. The Chinese guest of honour was Deputy Prime Minister Zeng Peiyan. 2006 Already at the second "Hamburg Summit" Wen Jiabao, the Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China, was present as guest of honour, who stressed the importance of the conference.
Furthermore, Singapore's founding father Lee Kuan Yew, the former German chancellors Helmut Kohl and Helmut Schmidt took part. 2008 The third "Hamburg Summit" took place after the Sino-German diplomatic irritations caused by a meeting between German Chancellor Angela Merkel and the Dalai Lama in September 2007. In fall 2008 the "Hamburg Summit" was the occasion for the first visit of a senior Chinese politician in Germany after the crisis. Guests of honour in 2008 were Frank-Walter Steinmeier German Foreign Minister, Vice-Chancellor, Zhang Dejiang, Deputy Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China, EU Commissioner László Kovács 2010 Over 400 participants attended the fourth "Hamburg Summit” which took place under the impression of the aftermath of the economic and financial crises and its impact the Sino-European economic relations; as Chinese guest of honour the “Hamburg Summit” welcomed the Secretary General of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Ma Kai. Additional guests of honour were the German Foreign Minister and former Vice Chancellor Dr. Guido Westerwelle, as well as the Vice President of the European Commission and Commissioner for Competition, Joaquin Almunia.
2012 The fifth “Hamburg Summit” was held from 28 to 30 November 2012 at the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. At the opening of the fifth “Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe”, the Chinese Minister of Science Wan Gang, Germany's Research Minister Annette Schavan and Professor Georgios Papastamkos, Vice President of the European Parliament, spoke about their views of European-Chinese economic relations; the state of the global economy, trade relations between the EU and China, the liberalisation of the Chinese currency, smart cities, safeguarding raw materials and strategies for Europe and China in a multipolar world were dealt with in six panel discussions. However, all speeches and discussions focused on the effects of the change of leadership in China and the sovereign debt crisis in Europe; the highlight for many participants was the discussion between former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and former US Secretary of State Dr Henry Kissinger, on the role of China and the US in the global power structure.
Some 440 participants from 21 nations and 200 members of the press registered for the “Hamburg Summit” in 2012. 2014 The sixth “Hamburg Summit” took place on October 10 and 11, 2014 at the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. As guests of honour, Li Keqiang, Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China, Xavier Bettel, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, Martin Schulz, President of the European Parliament, Dr Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany, Karel De Gucht EU Commissioner for Trade attended the conference. In his speech, Premier Li Keqiang stressed the importance of Europe as a partner for Chinas reform programme and gave important impulses for the bilateral cooperation between China and Europe in the future. Besides the high-ranking guests of honour, over 600 international participants attended the sixth “Hamburg Summit”. 2016 The seventh "Hamburg Summit" took place on November 23 and 24, 2016 at the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. Liu Yandong, Vice-Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Jyrki Katainen, Vice-President of the EU-Commission and Federal Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier, attended the conference as guests of honour.
Furthermore, 560 participants from 14 different countries attended the “Hamburg Summit” 2016. 2018 The eight “Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe” will most take place in autumn 2018 at the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. Updated information can be found on the conference website: www.hamburg-summit.com.<
Kiez is a German word that refers to a city neighbourhood, a small community within a larger town. The word is used in Berlin and northern Germany. Similar quarters are called Veedel in Grätzl in Vienna; the word Kietz originated in the time of the eastward expansion of German settlers in the Middle Ages into West Slavic territories, when in many places both communities existed side by side. The word is of Slavonic origin and referred to a Slavic settlement near a German town; some placenames are reminiscent of this meaning, for example Küstrin-Kietz or the Kietz quarter of Berlin-Köpenick. Medieval Kietz settlements were first documented in the 14th century, they were located near a castle or a river crossing and inhabited by Slavic vassals. They were prevalent in the Margraviate of Brandenburg as well as in Mecklenburg and in the Duchy of Pomerania. For a long time Kietze formed a distinct community beside the neighbouring peasant villages, though evidences of a specific Slavic population become rare in the course of an increasing Germanisation.
From the late 18th century onwards, the denotation Kietz was applied to fishermen's villages and remote settlements. In its transferred sense, the word became a denotation for Berlin neighbourhoods. A "Kiez" is never defined by the municipality or government, but rather by the inhabitants, therefore doesn't coincide with administrative divisions. In some cases, such definitions have been picked up in official documents, this including State legislation. In Berlin the term has a positive connotation, as inhabitants identify with the "Kiez" they live in. There is a rising number of 20 unofficial "Kiez"-areas in Berlin, most in and around the city centre. A Berliner "Kiez" consists of pre-war buildings and upholds its own commercial and cultural infrastructure. Outside Berlin, "Kiez" may be considered by some as somewhat slangy. In Hamburg, der Kiez refers to the area around the Reeperbahn in the St. Pauli quarter, the city's nightlife and red-light district, it is the most well known "Kiez" in Germany and is sometimes mistakenly considered to be the first or original "Kiez".
In other towns, such as Hanover, red-light districts are sometimes referred to as the "Kiez" following Hamburg's example. In smaller cities, some districts may be referred to as a "Kiez" when there are vital scenes of culture and clubs - an example being the KTV, a district of Rostock; the more standard German term for a neighborhood in the sense of "where one lives" is "Viertel"
A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, adult theaters, are found. Areas in many big cities around the world have acquired an international reputation as red-light districts; the term red-light district originates from the red lights. Red-light districts are mentioned in the 1882 minutes of a Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting in the United States; the Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known appearance of the term "red light district" in print as an 1894 article from the Sandusky Register, a newspaper in Sandusky, OhioAuthor Paul Wellman suggests that this and other terms associated with the American Old West originated in Dodge City, home to a well-known prostitution district during the 19th century, which included the Red Light House saloon. This has not been proven, but the Dodge City use was responsible for the term becoming pervasive. A widespread folk etymology claims that early railroad workers took red lanterns with them when they visited brothels so their crew could find them in the event of an emergency.
However, folklorist Barbara Mikkelson regards this as unfounded. One of the many terms used for a red-light district in Japanese is akasen meaning "red-line". Japanese police drew a red line on maps to indicate the boundaries of legal red-light districts. In Japanese, the term aosen meaning "blue-line" exists, indicating an illegal district. In the United States during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the term "sporting district" became popular for legal red-light districts. Municipal governments defined such districts explicitly to contain and regulate prostitution; some red-light districts are places which are designated by authorities for legal and regulated prostitution. These red-light districts were formed by authorities to help regulate prostitution and other related activities, such that they were confined to a single area; some red-light districts are under video surveillance. This can help counter illegal forms of prostitution, in these areas that do allow regular prostitution to occur.
List of red-light districts Media related to Red-light districts at Wikimedia Commons
Eimsbüttel is one of the seven boroughs of Hamburg, Germany. In 2016 the population was 262,130. On March 1, 2008 Eimsbüttel lost part of its area to the borough Altona where it formed the Sternschanze quarter. In 2006 according to the statistical office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, the borough Eimsbüttel has a total area of 50.1 km². The borough Eimsbüttel is split into nine quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel, Hoheluft-West, Niendorf and Stellingen. Located within this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel. In 2006 in the borough Eimsbüttel were living 246,087 people; the population density was 4,915/km2. 19.3% were children under the age of 18, 18.6% were 65 years of age or older. 13% were immigrants. 10,042 people were registered as unemployed. In 1999 there were 140,694 households and 51.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The University of Hamburg is located in the borough. In 2006 there were 20 secondary schools in Eimsbüttel; the Eimsbütteler TV is one of the sports clubs using the facilities in the Eimsbüttel borough.
Founded in 1889 it is one of the older sports clubs of Hamburg with a widespread offer on departments. The Diakonie Klinikum Hamburg has several branches in Eimsbüttel borough and provides 450 beds in total; the hospital branch Alten Eichen, Jütländer Allee 48, with 208 beds and 5 departments is a branch of the Diakonie Klinikum Hamburg and provides the capacity to dispatch emergency medical services. The hospital Jerusalem, Moorkamp 2, is a lutheran hospital with 105 visiting consultants' beds in 9 departments. In 2006, there were 172 day-care centers for children, 742 physicians in private practice and 69 pharmacies. Hamburg Dammtor railway station for long distance and city trains is located in the quarter Rotherbaum. Eimsbüttel borough is serviced by the rapid transit system of the city train and the underground railway with several other stations. Public transport is provided by the buses of the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund; the Bundesautobahn 7 is here the European route E45 connecting Kaaresuvanto in Finland, with Gela in Italy, passes the borough from the North to the South into the quarter Bahrenfeld.
The Bundesautobahn 23 starts in Eimsbüttel borough and connects Hamburg with the town of Heide, Schleswig-Holstein. The exits Hamburg-Stellingen, Hamburg-Schnelsen and Hamburg-Schnelsen-Nord for the A7 and the exit Hamburg-Eidelstedt for the A23 are located in Eimsbüttel borough. According to the Department of Motor Vehicles, in the borough Eimsbüttel were 91,871 private cars registered. Stadt Hamburg: Bezirk Eimsbüttel
FC St. Pauli
Fußball-Club St Pauli von 1910 e. V. known as FC St Pauli, is a German sports club based in the St. Pauli quarter of Hamburg; the football department is part of a larger sports club that has departments in rugby, bowling, chess, handball, roller derby, skittles and table tennis and since 2011 Marathon. Until the end of 2013, the club had a department in American football, but it was dissolved because it lacked the youth team required in order to hold a men's team. FC St. Pauli has 27,000 members as of November 2018; the men's professional football team dropped down to the Regionalliga in 2003, at that time the third highest football division in Germany and remained there for four years. In 2007, they won promotion back to the 2. Bundesliga and in 2010 they were promoted to the highest division. After relegation, since the 2011–12 season they have played in 2. Bundesliga, the second-highest division in Germany. FC St Pauli has a cross-city rivalry with Hamburger SV; the club has a more recent rivalry with Hansa Rostock.
While the footballers have enjoyed only modest success on the field, the club is recognised for its distinctive social culture and has a large popular following as one of the country's "Kult" clubs, which has now developed beyond Germany. FC St. Pauli supporters are identified with their support of left wing politics.. The club began its existence in 1899 as a loose, informal group of football enthusiasts within the Hamburg-St. Pauli Turn-Verein 1862; this group did not play its first match until 1907, when they faced a similar side assembled from the local Aegir swimming club. Established on 15 May 1910, the club played as St. Pauli TV in the Kreisliga Groß-Hamburg until 1924, when a separate football side called St. Pauli was formed; the team played as an undistinguished lower-to-mid table side until making their first appearance in 1934 in the top-flight Gauliga Nordmark, 1 of 16 premier level divisions created in the re-organization of German football that took place under the Third Reich.
They were relegated, but returned to the top flight in 1936. Relegated again in 1940, St. Pauli re-appeared in the Gauliga Hamburg in 1942, played there until the end of World War II. After the war, the club resumed play in the Oberliga Nord in 1947. A second-place finish in the 1947–48 season led St. Pauli to its first appearance in the national championship rounds, they advanced as far as the semi-finals, where they were knocked out 2–3 by eventual champions 1. FC Nürnberg; the club continued to play well throughout the early 1950s, but were unable to overtake rivals Hamburger SV, finishing in second place in five of the next seven seasons, going out in the early rounds in each of their championship-round appearances from 1949 to 1951. In the late 1950s and into the early 1960s, St. Pauli were overtaken by rivals such as Werder Bremen and VfL Osnabrück, but finished fourth a number of times. In 1963, the Bundesliga – West Germany's new top-flight professional league – was formed. Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Eintracht Braunschweig joined the new circuit as the top-finishers from the Oberliga Nord, while St. Pauli found themselves in the second-tier Regionalliga Nord.
Nearly a decade-and-a-half of frustration followed. St. Pauli won their division in 1964, but finished bottom of their group in the promotion play-off round, they took their next Regionalliga Nord title in 1966 and, while they performed far better in the play-offs, still failed to advance to the top-flight, losing out to Rot-Weiss Essen on goal difference, having conceded two more goals. Division championships in 1972 and 1973, runner-up finishes in 1971 and 1974, were each followed by promotion-round play-off disappointment; the success of the Bundesliga, the growth of professional football in West Germany, led to the formation of the 2. Bundesliga in 1974. St. Pauli was part of the new second-tier professional circuit in the 2. Bundesliga Nord and in 1977, they advanced to the top flight as winners of their division; the team survived just one season at the highest level in the Bundesliga. The club's return to the 2. Bundesliga Nord was short-lived. On the verge on bankruptcy in 1979, they were denied a license for the following season and were sent down to the Oberliga Nord.
Strong performances that set the team atop that division in 1981 and 1983 were marred by poor financial health. By 1984, the club had recovered sufficiently to return to the 2. Bundesliga, overtaking Werder Bremen's amateur side who, despite finishing two points ahead of St. Pauli, were ineligible for promotion, it was in the mid-1980s that St. Pauli's transition from a standard traditional club into a "Kult" club began; the club was able to turn the location of its ground in the dock area part of town, near Hamburg's famous Reeperbahn – centre of the city's night life and its red-light district – to its advantage. An alternative fan scene emerged, built around left-leaning politics, social activism and the event and party atmosphere of the club's matches. Supporters adopted the skull and crossbones as their own unofficial emblem. St. Pauli became the first team in Germany to ban right-wing nationalist activities and displays in its stadium in an era when fascist-inspired football hooliganism threatened the game across Europe.
In 1981, the team was averaging small crowds of only 1,600 spectators, but by the late 1990s they were selling out their entire 20,000-capacity ground. The skull and crossbones symbol had always been associated with St Pauli in another. Hamburg