Kafé 44 is a café, concert venue, anarchist bookstore in Stockholm. Based in the Kapsylen work cooperative, founded by an artist group in 1976, the café Dagfiket opened in its basement in the early 1980s, was followed by the music venue Scen 44 in 1990, the anarchist bookstore Bokhandeln INFO a few years later. Official website Kapsylen page
Entheogenic use of cannabis
Cannabis has been used in an entheogenic context—a chemical substance used in a religious or spiritual context—in the Indian subcontinent since the Vedic period dating back to 1500 BCE, but as far back as 2000 BCE. Cannabis has been used by shamanic and pagan cultures to ponder religious and philosophical subjects related to their tribe or society, to achieve a form of enlightenment, to unravel unknown facts and realms of the human mind and subconscious, as an aphrodisiac during rituals or orgies. There are several references in Greek mythology to a powerful drug that eliminated anguish and sorrow. Herodotus wrote about early ceremonial practices by the Scythians, thought to have occurred from the 5th to 2nd century BCE. Itinerant Hindu saints have used it in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Over the last few decades hundreds of archaeological and anthropological items of evidence have come out of Mexican and Aztec cultures that suggest cannabis, along with magic mushrooms and other psychoactive plants were used in cultural shamanic and religious rituals.
Mexican-Indian communities use cannabis in religious ceremonies by leaving bundles of it on church altars to be consumed by the attendees. The earliest known reports regarding the sacred status of cannabis in the Indian subcontinent come from the Atharva Veda estimated to have been written sometime around 2000–1400 BCE, which mentions cannabis as one of the "five sacred plants... which release us from anxiety" and that a guardian angel resides in its leaves. The Vedas refer to it as a "source of happiness," "joy-giver" and "liberator," and in the Raja Valabba, the gods send hemp to the human race so that they might attain delight, lose fear and have sexual desires. Many households in India own and grow a cannabis plant to be able to offer cannabis to a passing sadhu, during some evening devotional services it is not uncommon for cannabis to be smoked by everyone present. Cannabis was consumed in weddings or festivals honoring Shiva, said to have brought it down from the Himalayas, it is still offered to Shiva in temples on Shivaratri day, while devotional meetings called bhajans, although not associated with Shiva, are occasions for devotees to consume the drug liberally.
Yogis or sadhus along with other Hindu mystics have been known to smoke a mixture of cannabis sativa and tobacco in order to enhance meditation. This is common during the festival of Diwali and Kumbha Mela. There are three types of cannabis used in the Indian subcontinent; the first, bhang, a type of cannabis edible, consists of the leaves and plant tops of the marijuana plant. It is consumed as an infusion in beverage form, varies in strength according to how much cannabis is used in the preparation; the second, consisting of the leaves and the plant tops, is smoked. The third, called charas or hashish, consists of the resinous buds and/or extracted resin from the leaves of the marijuana plant. Bhang is the most used form of cannabis in religious festivals. In Tantric Buddhism, which originated in the TIbeto-Himalayan region, cannabis serves as an important part of a traditional ritual. Cannabis is taken to facilitate meditation and heighten awareness of all aspects of the ceremony, with a large oral dosage being taken in time with the ceremony so that the climax of the "high" coincides with the climax of the ceremony.
The sinologist and historian Joseph Needham concluded "the hallucinogenic properties of hemp were common knowledge in Chinese medical and Taoist circles for two millennia or more", other scholars associated Chinese wu with the entheogenic use of cannabis in Central Asian shamanism. The oldest texts of Traditional Chinese Medicine listed herbal uses for cannabis and noted some psychodynamic effects; the Chinese pharmacopeia Shennong Ben Cao Jing described the use of mafen 麻蕡 "cannabis fruit/seeds": To take much makes people see demons and throw themselves about like maniacs. But if one takes it over a long period of time one can communicate with the spirits, one's body becomes light. A Taoist priest in the fifth century A. D. wrote in the Ming-I Pieh Lu that: Cannabis is used by necromancers, in combination with ginseng to set forward time in order to reveal future events. Pharmacopia repeated this description, for instance the Zhenglei bencao 證類本草: If taken in excess it produces hallucinations and a staggering gait.
If taken over a long term, it lightens one's body. The dietary therapy book Shiliao bencao 食療本草 prescribes daily consumption of cannabis in the following case: "those who wish to see demons should take it for up to a hundred days." Cannabis has been cultivated in China since Neolithic times, for instance, hemp cords were used to create the characteristic line designs on Yangshao culture pottery). Early Chinese classics have many references to using the plant for clothing and food, but none to its psychotropic properties; some researchers think Chinese associations of cannabis with "indigenous central Asian shamanistic practices" can explain this "peculiar silence". The botanist Li Hui-lin noted linguistic evidence that the "stupefying effect of the hemp plant was known from early times".
Barricade, from the French barrique, is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. Adopted as a military term, a barricade denotes any improvised field fortification, such as on city streets during urban warfare. Barricades include temporary traffic barricades designed with the goal of dissuading passage into a protected or hazardous area or large slabs of cement whose goal is to prevent forcible passage by a vehicle. Stripes on barricades and panel devices slope downward in the direction traffic must travel. There are pedestrian barricades - sometimes called bike rack barricades for their resemblance to a now obsolete form of bicycle stand, or police barriers, they originated in France 50 years ago and are now produced around the world. They were first produced in the U. S. 40 years ago by Friedrichs Mfg for New Orleans's Mardi Gras parades. Anti-vehicle barriers and blast barriers are sturdy barricades that can counter vehicle and bomb attacks.
The origins of the barricade are erroneously traced back to the "First Day of the Barricades", a confrontation that occurred in Paris on 12 May 1588 in which the supporters of the Duke of Guise and the ultra-Catholic Holy League challenged the authority of King Henri III. In actuality, although barricades came to widespread public awareness in that uprising, none of several conflicting claims concerning who may have "invented" the barricade stand up to close scrutiny for the simple reason that Blaise de Monluc had documented insurgents' use of the technique at least as early as 1569 in religiously based conflicts in southwestern France. Although barricade construction began in France in the sixteenth century and remained an French practice for two centuries, the nineteenth century remained the classic era of the barricade. Contrary to a number of historical sources, barricades were present in various incidents of the great French Revolution of 1789, but they never played a central role in those events.
They were, however, a visible and consequential element in many of the insurrections that occurred in France throughout the 1800s, including in the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 Other Parisian events included the June Rebellion of 1832, smaller in scale, but rendered famous by Victor Hugo's account in Les Misérables, the combat that ended the Paris Commune in May 1871, the more symbolic structures created in May 1968. The barricade began its diffusion outside France in the 1780s and played a significant role in the Belgian Revolution of 1830, but it was only in the course of the upheaval of 1848 that it became international in scope, its spread across the Continent was aided by the circulation of students, political refugees, itinerant workers through the French capital, where many gained first-hand experience of one or another Parisian insurrection. The barricade had, by the middle of the nineteenth century, become the preeminent symbol of a revolutionary tradition that would spread worldwide.
Barricade references appear in many colloquial expressions and are used metaphorically, in poems and songs celebrating radical social movements. Barricades are used for crowd control applications at public events or during exceptionally busy shopping times. Different types of barricade are designed to fit the environment and use cases the organizer decides on. Bridge Feet Typically used for outdoor use, where the ground is not flat; the bridge design of the feet allows for better stability. Flat Feet Used on surfaces such as streets and tarmacs these barricades are designed for use on flat surfaces. Heavy Duty Feet Similar to flat feet, but larger in size and made of heavy duty steel, allowing for more durability and support. Barricade Gates These gates swing open like a doorway, allowing for passage of people of goods through a run of barricades. Expanding Barricades Designed for indoor use and for use on sites where construction or work is occurring. Easy to move and store these barricades serve as a temporary barricade.
Bulwark Border barrier Rampart Jersey barrier Visi-Flash Barricade Lights
Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme
CIRA is a library of anarchist material in all languages based in Lausanne, Switzerland. CIRA was founded in 1957 in Geneva, it moved to Lausanne in 1964, where it was run by Marie-Christine Mikhaïlo and her daughter Marianne Enckell. It returned to Geneva between 1989, whereupon it was again moved to Lausanne. There are CIRA-Marseille in France and CIRA in Japan. CIRA has as its aim the collection of all materials relevant to anarchist theory; the library holds 18,000 books and pamphlets and 4,000 periodicals. The Archive's catalog is available online; the CIRA does not have any means of purchasing materials, so all its stock is donated. André Bösiger, Souvenirs d’un rebelle: soixante ans de lutte d’un libertaire jurassien Collectif, Refuser de parvenir: idées et pratiques Albert Minnig, Edi Gmür: Pour le bien de la révolution Marianne Enckell, Eric Jarry: Les anarchistes à l'écran / Anarchists on screen, 1901-2003 CIRA Un siècle de chansons CIRA has published a yearly bulletin since 1959, available to subscribers and online.
The bulletin contains a list of acquisitions and information about research and conferences. Anarchy Archives Kate Sharpley Library Official website
Crack cocaine known as crack or rock, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. Crack offers a intense high to smokers; the Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine. Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Baltimore, Washington, D. C. Los Angeles, Miami in late 1984 and 1985. In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges, with a higher density than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form. A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic, numbing the mouth only where directly placed. Purer forms of crack will melt at the edges when near a flame. Crack cocaine as sold on the streets may be adulterated or "cut" with other substances mimicking the appearance of crack cocaine to increase bulk. Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole has been documented. Sodium bicarbonate is a base used in preparation of crack, although other weak bases may substitute for it.
The net reaction when using sodium bicarbonate is Coc-H+Cl− + NaHCO3 → Coc + H2O + CO2 + NaClWith Ammonium bicarbonate: Coc-H+Cl− + NH4HCO3 → Coc + NH4Cl + CO2 + H2OWith Ammonium carbonate: 2 + 2CO3 → 2 Coc + 2 NH4Cl + CO2 + H2OCrack cocaine is purchased in rock form, although it is not uncommon for some users to "wash up" or "cook" powder cocaine into crack themselves. This process is done with baking soda, a spoon. Once mixed and heated, the bicarbonate reacts with the hydrochloride of the powder cocaine, forming free base cocaine and carbonic acid in a reversible acid-base reaction; the heating accelerates the degradation of carbonic acid into carbon water. Loss of CO2 prevents the reaction from reversing back to cocaine hydrochloride. Free base cocaine separates as floating on the top of the now leftover aqueous phase, it is at this point that the oil is picked up usually with a pin or long thin object. This pulls the oil up and spins it, allowing air to set and dry the oil, allows the maker to roll the oil into the rock-like shape.
Crack vaporizes near temperature 90 °C, much lower than the cocaine hydrochloride melting point of 190 °C. Whereas cocaine hydrochloride cannot be smoked, crack cocaine when smoked allows for quick absorption into the blood stream, reaches the brain in 8 seconds. Crack cocaine can be injected intravenously with the same effect as powder cocaine. However, whereas powder cocaine dissolves in water, crack must be dissolved in an acidic solution such as lemon juice or white vinegar, a process that reverses the original conversion of powder cocaine to crack. Crack cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Effects of crack cocaine include euphoria, supreme confidence, loss of appetite, alertness, increased energy, a craving for more cocaine, potential paranoia, its initial effect is to release a large amount of dopamine, a brain chemical inducing feelings of euphoria. The high lasts from 5–10 minutes, after which time dopamine levels in the brain plummet, leaving the user feeling depressed and low; when cocaine is dissolved and injected, the absorption into the bloodstream is at least as rapid as the absorption of the drug which occurs when crack cocaine is smoked, similar euphoria may be experienced.
Because crack is an illicit drug, users may consume impure or fake drug, which may pose additional health risks. The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, increased temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness and anxiety. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Cocaine-related deaths are a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest. Like other forms of cocaine, smoking crack can increase heart rate and blood pressure, leading to long-term cardiovascular problems; some research suggests that smoking crack or freebase cocaine has additional health risks compared to other methods of taking cocaine. Many of these issues relate to the release of methylecgonidine and its effect on the heart and liver. Toxic adulterants: Many substances may have been added in order to expand the weight and volume of a batch, while still appearing to be pure crack.
Toxic substances are used, with a range of corresponding short and long-term health risks. Adulturants used with crack and cocaine include milk powder, sugars such as glucose, caffeine, benzocaine, amphetamine and strychnine. Smoking problems: Any route of administration poses its own set of health risks. Crack users tend to smoke the drug because that has a higher bioavailability than other routes used for drugs of abuse such as insufflation. Crack has a melting point of around 90 °C, the smoke does not remain potent for long. Therefore, crack pipes are very short, to minimize the time between evaporating and ingestion. Having a hot pipe pressed against the lips causes cracked and blistered lips, colloquially known as "crack lip"; the use of "convenience store crack pipes" – glass tubes which ori
A bailiff is a manager, overseer or custodian. Bailiffs are of various kinds and their offices and duties vary greatly. Another official sometimes referred to. In the Holy Roman Empire a similar function was performed by the Amtmann. Bailiff was the term used by the Normans for what the Saxons had called a reeve: the officer responsible for executing the decisions of a court; the duty of the bailiff would thus include serving summonses and orders, executing all warrants issued out of the corresponding court. The district within which the bailiff operated was called his bailiwick to the present day. Bailiffs were outsiders and free men, that is, they were not from the bailiwick for which they were responsible. Throughout Norman England, the Saxon and Norman populations mixed, reeve came to be limited to shire-level courts, while bailiff was used in relation to the lower courts. Bailiff referred to the officer executing the decisions of manorial courts, the hundred courts. In Scotland a bailie was the chief officer of a barony, in the Channel Islands they were the principal civil officers.
With the introduction of justices of the peace, magistrates' courts acquired their own bailiffs. Courts were not only concerned with legal matters, decided administrative matters for the area within their jurisdiction. A bailiff of a manor, would oversee the manor's lands and buildings, collect its rents, manage its accounts, run its farms. In the 19th century, the administrative functions of courts were replaced by the creation of elected local authorities; the term bailiff is retained as a title by the chief officers of various towns and the keepers of royal castles, such as the High Bailiff of Westminster and the Bailiff of Dover Castle. In Scotland, bailie now refers to a municipal officer corresponding to an English alderman. In the 20th century, the court system in England was drastically re-organised, with the assize courts taking some of the powers of the shire courts, becoming the High Court of Justice; the High Court acquired the sheriffs, the county courts the bailiffs. Bailiffs were removable by the Lord Chancellor.
A bailiff could, for practical reasons, delegate his responsibilities, in regard to some particular court instruction, to other individuals. As the population expanded, the need for the services of a bailiff arose from financial disputes. By Shakespeare's time, they had acquired the nickname bum-bailiffs because they followed debtors closely behind them. To avoid confusion with their underlings, the County Courts Act 1888 renamed bailifs as high bailiffs; this act formally acknowledged right of the high bailiffs to appoint under-bailiffs as they wished, establishing that the high bailiffs retain ultimate responsibility for their actions. The High Bailiff became a purely ceremonial role, the court's clerk liaising with under-bailiffs directly; the Law of Distress Amendment Act 1888 enacts that no person may act as an under-bailiff to levy any distress for rent unless he is authorized by a county court judge to act as an under-bailiff. The County Courts Act 1888 restricted the hours an under-bailiff could execute a possession warrant, to only be between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m..
It limited the ability to bring a legal complaint against a bailiff. In the Channel Islands the bailiff is the first civil officer in each of the two bailiwicks, he is appointed by the Crown, holds office until retirement. He presides as a judge in the royal court, takes the opinions of the jurats; the bailiff in each island must, be a qualified lawyer. In England and Wales, there are a number of offices either formally titled, or referred to, as "bailiffs"; some of these bailiffs are concerned with executing the orders of the courts around the collection of debts, some exercise semi-official supervisory powers over certain activities. Those concerned with the execution of court orders are referred to as bailiffs, although reforms to the law in 2014 have renamed all these positions to alternative titles. With the 19th century renaming of bailiffs to high bailiff, their under-bailiffs came to be referred to as bailiffs themselves; the powers and responsibilities of these bailiffs depend on which type of court they take orders from.
In emulation of these responsibilities, a number of roles established by 19th century statute laws have been named bailiffs, despite not having a connection to a court. Civilian enforcement officers are employees of Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, can seize and sell goods to recover money owed under a fine and community penalty notice, execute warrants of arrest, committal and control; these functions can be carried out by employees of private companies a