First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering a serious illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation while awaiting for an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut. First aid is performed by someone with basic medical training. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to cover mental health. There are many situations which may require first aid, many countries have legislation, regulation, or guidance which specifies a minimum level of first aid provision in certain circumstances; this can include specific training or equipment to be available in the workplace, the provision of specialist first aid cover at public gatherings, or mandatory first aid training within schools.
First aid, does not require any particular equipment or prior knowledge, can involve improvisation with materials available at the time by untrained people. First aid can be performed on all mammals, although this article relates to the care of human patients. Skills of what is now known as first aid have been recorded throughout history in relation to warfare, where the care of both traumatic and medical cases is required in large numbers; the bandaging of battle wounds is shown on Classical Greek pottery from c. 500 BCE, whilst the parable of the Good Samaritan includes references to binding or dressing wounds. There are numerous references to first aid performed within the Roman army, with a system of first aid supported by surgeons, field ambulances, hospitals. Roman legions had the specific role of capsarii, who were responsible for first aid such as bandaging, are the forerunners of the modern combat medic. Further examples occur through history, still related to battle, with examples such as the Knights Hospitaller in the 11th century CE, providing care to pilgrims and knights in the Holy Land.
During the late 18th century, drowning as a cause of death was a major concern amongst the population. In 1767, a society for the preservation of life from accidents in water was started in Amsterdam, in 1773, physician William Hawes began publicizing the power of artificial respiration as means of resuscitation of those who appeared drowned; this led to the formation, in 1774, of the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned the Royal Humane Society, who did much to promote resuscitation. Napoleon's surgeon, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, is credited with creating an ambulance corps, which included medical assistants, tasked to administer first aid in battle. In 1859 Jean-Henri Dunant witnessed the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino, his work led to the formation of the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field"; the Red Cross and Red Crescent are still the largest provider of first aid worldwide. In 1870, Prussian military surgeon Friedrich von Esmarch introduced formalized first aid to the military, first coined the term "erste hilfe", including training for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War on care for wounded comrades using pre-learnt bandaging and splinting skills, making use of the Esmarch bandage which he designed.
The bandage was issued as standard to the Prussian combatants, included aide-memoire pictures showing common uses. In 1872, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England changed its focus from hospice care, set out to start a system of practical medical help, starting with making a grant towards the establishment of the UK's first ambulance service; this was followed by creating its own wheeled transport litter in 1875, in 1877 established the St John Ambulance Association "to train men and women for the benefit of the sick and wounded". In the UK, Surgeon-Major Peter Shepherd had seen the advantages of von Esmarch's new teaching of first aid, introduced an equivalent programme for the British Army, so being the first user of "first aid for the injured" in English, disseminating information through a series of lectures. Following this, in 1878, Shepherd and Colonel Francis Duncan took advantage of the newly charitable focus of St John, established the concept of teaching first aid skills to civilians.
The first classes were conducted in the hall of the Presbyterian school in Woolwich using a comprehensive first aid curriculum. First aid training began to spread through the British Empire through organisations such as St John starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways; the primary goal of first aid is to prevent death or serious injury from worsening. The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points, sometimes known as'the three Ps': The overriding aim of all medical care which includes first aid, is to save lives and minimize the threat of death. Prevent further harm sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous. First aid involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury,and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound
Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg)
The Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the Hospital at Jerusalem known as the Order of Saint John or the Johanniter Order, is the German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller, the oldest surviving chivalric order, considered to have been founded in Jerusalem in the year 1099 AD. The Order is led by Prince Oskar of Prussia; each of its knights, about four thousand men worldwide, is either a Knight of Justice or a Knight of Honor. Membership in the Order is by invitation only, individuals may not petition for admission. Although membership is no longer limited to the nobility, as it was until 1948, the majority of knights still are drawn from this class; the Order comprises seventeen commanderies in Germany, one each in Austria, France and Switzerland, a global commandery with subcommanderies in twelve other countries. Together with the London-based Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, the Swedish Johanniterorden i Sverige, the Dutch Johanniter Orde in Nederland, the Order is a member of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem.
Along with the Roman Catholic Sovereign Military Order of Malta, these four "Alliance Orders" represent the legitimate heirs of the Knights Hospitaller. They consider other orders using the name of Saint John to be imitative, the Alliance and the SMOM jointly formed a False Orders Committee, with representatives of each of the five orders, to expose and take action against such imitations; the Order and its affiliate orders in the Netherlands and Sweden, which became independent of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg after the Second World War, in 1946, are Protestant. The SMOM, headquartered in Rome, admits only women of the Catholic faith; the Venerable Order of Saint John, a recreation of the mediaeval English Langue of the Order of Saint John, was chiefly Anglican at its formation in the nineteenth century but since has opened its membership to men and women of any faith. Soon after the formation of the Order in Jerusalem, supporters in Western Europe began to donate farmland and other assets for the objectives of the order, the military protection and medical aid of Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land.
In time, these landholdings were gathered into regional administrative divisions known as commanderies, each headed by a senior knight, or knight commander of the Order. The first commandery in the Germanies was founded in the mid-twelfth century. By 1318, the Bailiwick of Brandenburg had been established in the northeastern parts of the Holy Roman Empire, an aggregation of commanderies of the Order under a bailiff, a high officer of the Order; the riches and influence of the Bailiwick were so sizeable that, in 1382, the Prior of the German Langue in what became known as the Accord of Heimbach recognized the right of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg to choose its own governor and preceptors. During the Protestant Reformation, large parts of the German Langue of the then-undivided Order of Saint John followed the leadership of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg and accepted Lutheran theology while continuing to recognize the headship of the grand master of the Order, with the majority of the knights, remained Roman Catholic.
The higher officials of the Order, now headquartered on the Mediterranean island of Malta after the successive losses of Jerusalem and Rhodes to Moslem Arabs and Turks, evinced a desire to maintain a relationship with the Protestant knights despite the theological and ecclesiological differences between the two groups. But in 1581 Grand Master Jean de la Cassière called Herrenmeister Martin von Hohenstein before the Chapter of the Order of Saint John in Malta. Though separated from the Roman Catholic main stem of the Order of Saint John, the Bailiwick of Brandenburg continued to flourish. Admitting only noblemen, principally from the Germanies, the Bailiwick maintained hospitals and other institutions to care for the poor, the sick, the injured. Elections of successive Herrenmeister were announced to the Grand Prior of Germany in the Roman Catholic Order of Malta and, in accordance with the requests from the governing authorities of the Order of Malta, responsions were paid to the Grand Priory.
The horrific Thirty Years' War devastated the Bailiwick, resulting in the deaths of many knights and the destruction of much of the wealth of the Bailiwick. By the terms of the Peace of Westphalia ending the conflict, the Bailiwick was placed under the protection of the Prince Electors of Brandenburg Kings of Prussia, members of the House of Hohenzollern. Under this protect
St John New Zealand
St John New Zealand is a charitable organisation providing healthcare services to the New Zealand public. The organisation provides ambulance services throughout New Zealand, plays an increasing role in meeting the broader health needs of New Zealand communities through a number of health services and products. St John services include emergency and non-emergency ambulance treatment and transport, event medical services, first aid training, the sale of first aid kits and supplies, programmes offering non-clinical support for patients and their family and friends, medical alarms, caring callers who phone to check on someone’s well-being and health shuttles to help people with impaired mobility attend essential appointments. St John provides ambulance services for 90% of New Zealand’s population; the only area where the organisation does not provide emergency ambulance services is the Greater Wellington region, where Wellington Free Ambulance is the provider. St John treated or transported 469,850 patients in the year ending 30 June 2017, attending more than 389,350 emergency incidents.
The 655 ambulances or operational vehicles, based at 205 stations, covered more than 18 million kilometres in the same time. The St John Ambulance Service comprises: Owning and running the 111 emergency Ambulance Communication Centres in Auckland and Christchurch and a third in Wellington, in a joint venture with Wellington Free Ambulance Emergency ambulance services Managing the PRIME programme; this project is funded by the Ministry of Health and ACC to provide both the coordinated response and appropriate management of emergencies in rural locations, using the skills of specially trained general practitioners and registered nurses Transporting patients for arranged hospital admissions and to hospital outpatient clinics Transferring patients between hospitals or from hospital to home Coordinating and staffing air ambulance flights and connections with the four Westpac rescue helicopter services operating in New Zealand Clinical education When a person dials 111 for an ambulance in New Zealand, the call goes to one of three Emergency Ambulance Control Centres located in Auckland and Christchurch.
St John runs the Ambulance Communication Centres in Auckland and Christchurch. The Wellington Ambulance Control Centre is run in a joint venture with Wellington Free Ambulance. Dispatchers at the centres have medical knowledge and are trained to dispatch and coordinate all land and air ambulance services. In addition to ambulance services, St John provide first aid training courses and supplies, automated external defibrillators and first aid smart phone applications. St John offers various levels of first aid training ranging from basic training courses for the general public, to courses which help businesses meet the requirements of the Health and Safety in Employment Act, to advanced resuscitation training for health professionals. St John offers specialised courses such as child, electrical workers and maritime first aid training. St John is registered with the New Zealand Qualifications Authority; the organisation is a member of the NZ Resuscitation Council and the Association of Emergency Care Training Providers.
Organisations can learn how to use them. St John sells first aid kits and supplies for home or business use. St John Youth programmes help young New Zealanders to develop first aid, health care and life skills. Penguins are aged 6 to 8, Cadets are aged 8 to 18; these programmes are funded by donations. St John Youth has 6,337 Youth Members and 1,119 Youth Leaders as of 30 June 2017 St John provides health shuttles, youth programmes, hospital friends, phone friends and pet outreach therapy to help people live independently, get the social connections they need and improve their wellbeing; these services are run by volunteers and are free of charge. The St John Health Shuttle is a free community service that transports people to essential medical and health-related appointments, brings them home again. Caring Caller is a service that St John provides for people who feel a bit lonely. Volunteers phone clients to check that everything is OK; this free service is funded by donations. St John runs hospital volunteer programmes called Hospital Friends.
Our people provide support to patients, their whanau and friends. Friends of the Emergency Department and Hospital Friends volunteers provide comfort and support to patients and their families in hospital emergency departments, as well as other departments and smaller hospitals; the ASB St John in Schools programme visits schools to give children an understanding of how to recognise, act appropriately in, a first aid emergency The topic range includes how to call an ambulance and basic first aid. The ASB St John in Schools programme visits schools in many parts of New Zealand to give children an understanding of how to recognise, act appropriately in, a first aid emergency; the topic range includes how to call an ambulance, basic first aid skills and familiarisation with ambulances and the people and equipment children may interact with in a first aid emergency. ASB St John in Schools caters to a broad age group - from late pre-school age through to intermediate. Topics and teaching strategies are all appropriate to the age of the children.
St John partners with other organisations to provide Healthline (a free 24x7 health advice helpline
Emergency medical services
Emergency medical services known as ambulance services or paramedic services, are emergency services which treat illnesses and injuries that require an urgent medical response, providing out-of-hospital treatment and transport to definitive care. They may be known as a first aid squad, FAST squad, emergency squad, rescue squad, ambulance squad, ambulance corps, life squad or by other initialisms such as EMAS or EMARS. In most places, the EMS can be summoned by members of the public via an emergency telephone number which puts them in contact with a control facility, which will dispatch a suitable resource to deal with the situation. Ambulances are the primary vehicles for delivering EMS, though some use cars, aircraft or boats. EMS agencies may operate the non-emergency patient transport service, some have units for technical rescue operations such as extrication, water rescue, search and rescue; as a first resort, the EMS provide treatment on the scene to those in need of urgent medical care.
If it is deemed necessary, they are tasked with transferring the patient to the next point of care. This is most an emergency department of a hospital. Ambulances only transported patients to care, this remains the case in parts of the developing world; the term "emergency medical service" was popularised when these services began to emphasise diagnosis and treatment at the scene. In some countries, a substantial portion of EMS calls do not result in a patient being taken to hospital. Training and qualification levels for members and employees of emergency medical services vary throughout the world. In some systems, members may be present who are qualified only to drive ambulances, with no medical training. In contrast, most systems have personnel who retain at least basic first aid certifications, such as basic life support. In English-speaking countries, they are known as emergency medical technicians and paramedics, with the latter having additional training such as advanced life support skills.
Physicians and nurses provide pre-hospital care to varying degrees in different countries. Emergency care in the field has been rendered in different forms since the beginning of recorded history; the New Testament contains the parable of the Good Samaritan, in which a man, beaten is cared for by a passing Samaritan. Luke 10:34 – "He went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine, he put the man on his own donkey, took him to an inn and took care of him." During the Middle Ages, the Knights Hospitaller were known for rendering assistance to wounded soldiers in the battlefield. The first use of the ambulance as a specialized vehicle, in battle came about with the ambulances volantes designed by Dominique Jean Larrey, Napoleon Bonaparte's chief surgeon. Larrey was present at the battle of Spires, between the French and Prussians, was distressed by the fact that wounded soldiers were not picked up by the numerous ambulances until after hostilities had ceased, set about developing a new ambulance system.
Having decided against using the Norman system of horse litters, he settled on two- or four-wheeled horse-drawn wagons, which were used to transport fallen soldiers from the battlefield after they had received early treatment in the field. Larrey's projects for'flying ambulances' were first approved by the Committee of Public Safety in 1794. Larrey subsequently entered Napoleon's service during the Italian campaigns in 1796, where his ambulances were used for the first time at Udine and Milan, he adapted his ambulances to the conditions developing a litter which could be carried by a camel for a campaign in Egypt. A major advance was made with the introduction of a transport carriage for cholera patients in London during 1832; the statement on the carriage, as printed in The Times, said "The curative process commences the instant the patient is put in to the carriage. This tenet of ambulances providing instant care, allowing hospitals to be spaced further apart, displays itself in modern emergency medical planning.
The first known hospital-based ambulance service operated out of Commercial Hospital, Ohio by 1865. This was soon followed by other services, notably the New York service provided out of Bellevue Hospital which started in 1869 with ambulances carrying medical equipment, such as splints, a stomach pump and brandy, reflecting contemporary medicine. Another early ambulance service was founded by Jaromir V. Mundy, Count J. N. Wilczek, Eduard Lamezan-Salins in Vienna after the disastrous fire at the Vienna Ringtheater in 1881. Named the "Vienna Voluntary Rescue Society," it served as a model for similar societies worldwide. In June 1887 the St John Ambulance Brigade was established to provide first aid and ambulance services at public events in London, it was modelled on a military-style discipline structure. In the late 19th century, the automobile was being developed, in addition to horse-drawn models, early 20th century ambulances were powered by steam and electricity, reflecting the competing automotive technologies in existence.
However, the first motorized ambulance was brought into service in the last year of the 19th century, with the Michael Reese Hospital, Ch
Hey Diddle Diddle
"Hey Diddle Diddle" is an English nursery rhyme. It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 19478. A common modern version of the rhyme is The rhyme is the source of the English expression "over the moon", meaning "delighted, thrilled happy"; the rhyme may date back to at least the sixteenth century. Some references suggest it dates back in some form a thousand or more years: in early medieval illuminated manuscripts a cat playing a fiddle was a popular image. There is a reference in Thomas Preston's play A lamentable tragedy mixed ful of pleasant mirth, conteyning the life of Cambises King of Percia, printed in 1569 that may refer to the rhyme: Another possible reference is in Alexander Montgomerie's The Cherry and the Slae from 1597: The name "Cat and the Fiddle" was a common name for inns, including one known to have been at Old Chaunge, London by 1587; the earliest recorded version of the poem resembling the modern form was printed around 1765 in London in Mother Goose's Melody with the lyrics: There are numerous theories about the origin of the rhyme, including: James Orchard Halliwell's suggestion that it was a corruption of ancient Greek advanced as a result of a deliberate hoax.
This profusion of unsupported explanations was satirised by J. R. R. Tolkien in his fictional explanations of'The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late'. Most scholarly commentators consider these to be unproven and state that the verse is meant to be nonsense; the melody associated with the rhyme was first recorded by the composer and nursery rhyme collector James William Elliott in his National Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Songs. There are several variants of the following joke: A pilot returning from a mission could not locate his aircraft carrier and in addition failed to establish secure communication. So he circled around the formation and radioed: "Rub-a-dub-dub, where is my tub?" And received: "Hey Diddle Diddle! Right here in the middle!"Some memoirs claim it was a real incident. In J. R. R. Tolkien’s classic fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings the character Frodo sings a modified version of the rhyme in a pub, claiming its lyrics belongs to his mentor Bilbo Baggins. Piggy In The Middle, a song by Beatles pastiche band The Rutles include the lyrics'Hey diddle diddle, the cat and the fiddle'.
The children's book Goodnight Moon features a bunny saying "good night" to everything around, including "Goodnight cow jumping over the moon". In the rock opera "Rent" the performances artist Maureen Johnson references the rhyme in the song "Over The Moon". "Ever since tha cat took up the fiddle that cow has been...jumpy. The dish and the spoon were evicted from the table and eloped!" The cow jumping over the moon is seen in the ending of CBC's children show The Friendly Giant List of nursery rhymes
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The TARDIS is a fictional time machine and spacecraft that appears in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who and its various spin-offs. The TV show Doctor Who features a single TARDIS used by the central character the Doctor. However, in the series other TARDISes are sometimes used; the Doctor's TARDIS has a number of features peculiar to it, notably due to its personality. While other TARDISes have the ability to change their appearance in order to blend in with their surroundings, the "chameleon circuit" in the Doctor's TARDIS is broken, it always resembles a police box. However, in the new series, a "perception filter" is used to make the Tardis blend in with the surroundings, so that it is ignored by passersby. While the exterior is of limited size, the TARDIS is much bigger on the inside, containing an infinite number of rooms and storage spaces. Doctor Who has become so much a part of British popular culture that the shape of the police box has become associated with the TARDIS rather than with its real-world inspiration.
The name TARDIS is a registered trademark of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The police box design has been registered as a trademark by the BBC, despite the design having been created by the Metropolitan Police; the word TARDIS is listed in the Oxford English Dictionary. When Doctor Who was being developed in 1963 the production staff discussed what the Doctor's time machine would look like. To keep the design within budget it was decided to make it resemble a police telephone box; this was explained in the context of the series as a disguise created by the ship's "chameleon circuit", a mechanism that changes the outside appearance of the ship the millisecond it lands in order to fit in with its environment. The First Doctor explains that if it were to land in the middle of the Indian Mutiny, it might take on the appearance of a howdah; the Ninth Doctor explains that if, for example, a TARDIS were to materialise in ancient Rome, it might disguise itself as a statue on a plinth. Within the context of the series the Doctor's TARDIS has a faulty chameleon circuit that keeps it permanently stuck in the police box form.
Despite being shown several times trying to repair it, the Doctor claims to have given up the attempt as he has grown accustomed to its appearance. The idea for the police-box disguise came from a BBC staff writer, Anthony Coburn, who rewrote the programme's first episode from a draft by C. E. Webber. In the first episode, "An Unearthly Child", the TARDIS is first seen in a junkyard in 1963, it subsequently malfunctions. The first police box prop to be built for the programme was designed by Peter Brachacki, who worked as designer on the first episode. One story has it that the box came from Z-Cars, while Doctor Who producer Steven Moffat has said that the original TARDIS prop was reused from Dixon of Dock Green, although this is explicitly contradicted by the research cited on the BBC's own website. Despite changes in the prop, the TARDIS has become the show's most recognisable visual element; the dimensions and colour of the TARDIS props used in the series have changed many times, as a result of damage and the requirements of the show, none of the BBC props has been a faithful replica of the original MacKenzie Trench model.
This was referenced on-screen in the episode "Blink", when the character Detective Inspector Shipton says the TARDIS "isn't a real. The phone's just a dummy, the windows are the wrong size." The production team conceived of the TARDIS travelling by dematerialising at one point and rematerialising elsewhere, although sometimes in the series it is shown to be capable of conventional space travel. In the 2006 Christmas special, "The Runaway Bride", the Doctor remarks that for a spaceship, the TARDIS does remarkably little flying; the ability to travel by fading into and out of different locations became one of the trademarks of the show, allowing for a great deal of versatility in setting and storytelling without a large expense in special effects. The distinctive accompanying sound effect – a cyclic wheezing, groaning noise – was created in the BBC Radiophonic Workshop by Brian Hodgson; when employed in the series, the sound is synchronised with the flashing light on top of the police box, or the fade-in and fade-out effects of a TARDIS.
Writer Patrick Ness has described the ship's distinctive dematerialisation noise as "a kind of haunted grinding sound", while the Doctor Who Magazine comic strips traditionally use the onomatopoeic phrase "vworp vworp vworp". In 1996 the BBC applied to the UK Intellectual Property Office to register the TARDIS as a trademark; this was challenged by the Metropolitan Police, who felt that they owned the rights to the police box image. However, the Patent Office found that there was no evidence that the Metropolitan Police – or any other police force – had registered the image as a trademark. In addition, the BBC had been selling merchandise based on the image for over three decades without complaint by the police; the Patent Office issued a ruling in favour of the BBC in 2002. TARDISes are grown, as stated by the Tenth Doctor in "The Impossible Planet", new TARDISes cannot be grown to replace a missing TARDIS unless the Doctor is on his home planet, Gallifrey, they draw their power from several sources, but from the Eye of Harmony, said to be the nucleus of a black hole created by the early Time Lords.
In The Edge of Destruction, the power source of the TARDIS (r