History of Quebec City
Quebec City, capital of the province of Quebec, Canada, is one of the oldest European settlements in North America. Quebec City was founded by the French explorer and navigator Samuel de Champlain in 1608, commencing a string of French colonies along the St. Lawrence River, creating a region named le Canada. Prior to the arrival of the French, the location that would become Quebec City was the home of a small Iroquois village called Stadacona. Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, was the first European to ascend the St. Lawrence Gulf, jacques Cartier and his crew spent a harsh winter near Stadacona during his second voyage in 1535. The word Kebec is an Algonquin word meaning where the river narrows, by the time Champlain came to this site, the Iroquois population had disappeared and been replaced by Innu and Algonquins. Champlain and his crew built a fort which they called lhabitation within only a few days of their arrival. This early fort and trading post exists today as a site in Old Quebec.
After the settlement of Port Royal in Acadia, the colonization effort by the French occurred in 1608. Samuel de Champlain built lHabitation to house 28 people, the first winter proved formidable, and 20 of 28 men died. By 1615, the first four arrived in Quebec. Among the first successful French settlers were Marie Rollet and her husband, Louis Hebert, the first French child born in Quebec was Helene Desportes, in 1620, to Pierre Desportes and Francoise Langlois, whose father was a member of the Hundred Associates. The population of Quebec City arrived at 100 in 1627, less than a dozen of whom were women, with the invasion of Quebec by David Kirke and his brothers in 1628, Champlain returned to France with approximately 60 out of 80 settlers. When the French returned to Quebec in 1632, they constructed a city based on the framework of a traditional French ville in which the 17th century city was a reflection of its society, Quebec remained an outpost until well into the 1650s. As in other locations throughout New France, the population could be split into the colonial elites, including clergy and government officials, the craftsmen and artisans, and the engagés.
The city contained only about thirty homes in 1650, and one hundred by 1663, Jean Bourdon, the first engineer and surveyor of New France, helped plan the city, almost from his arrival in 1634. However, despite attempts to utilize urban planning, the city outgrew its planned area. Population continually increased, with the city boasting 1300 inhabitants by 1681, the city quickly experienced overcrowding, especially in the lower town, which contained two-thirds of the population of the city by 1700. The numbers became more evenly distributed by 1744, with the town housing only a third of the population
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain, The Father of New France, was a French navigator, draftsman, explorer, ethnologist and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3,1608 and he is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements. Born into a family of mariners, while still a man, began exploring North America in 1603 under the guidance of François Gravé Du Pont. Then, in 1608, he established the French settlement that is now Quebec City, Champlain was the first European to explore and describe the Great Lakes, and published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives. He formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu and with others farther west, with Algonquin and with Huron Wendat, in 1620, Louis XIII of France ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, and devote himself to the administration of the country. In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France and he established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the St.
Lawrence River valley until his death in 1635. The most notable of these is Lake Champlain, which straddles the border between northern New York and Vermont, extending slightly across the border into Canada. Champlain was born to Antoine Champlain and Marguerite Le Roy, in either Hiers-Brouage, or the city of La Rochelle. He was born on or before August 13,1574 according to a recent baptism record found by Jean-Marie Germe, although Léopold Delayant wrote as early as 1867 that Rainguets estimate was wrong, the books of Rainguet and Laverdière have had a significant influence. The 1567 date was carved on numerous monuments dedicated to Champlain and is regarded as accurate. In the first half of the 20th century, some authors disagreed, in 1978 Jean Liebel published groundbreaking research about these estimates of Champlains birth year and concluded, Samuel Champlain was born about 1580 in Brouage, France. Liebel asserts that some authors, including the Catholic priests Rainguet and Laverdière, Champlain claimed to be from Brouage in the title of his 1603 book, and to be Saintongeois in the title of his second book.
The exact location of his birth is not known with certainty. Born into a family of mariners, Samuel Champlain learned to navigate, make nautical charts and his education did not include Ancient Greek or Latin, so he did not read or learn from any ancient literature. During this time he claimed to go on a secret voyage for the king. By 1597 he was a capitaine dune compagnie serving in a garrison near Quimper, in 1598, his uncle-in-law, a navigator whose ship Saint-Julien was chartered to transport Spanish troops to Cádiz pursuant to the Treaty of Vervins, gave Champlain the opportunity to accompany him. After a difficult passage, he spent some time in Cadiz before his uncle, whose ship was chartered to accompany a large Spanish fleet to the West Indies. His uncle, who gave command of the ship to Jeronimo de Valaebrera and this journey lasted two years, and gave Champlain the opportunity to see or hear about Spanish holdings from the Caribbean to Mexico City
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. The Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their cultures as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, the historic Erie, Wyandot, and St. Lawrence Iroquoians, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian languages. In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, the most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin. The first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, other spellings occurring in the earliest sources include Erocoise, Hyroquoise, Iriquois, Iroquaes and Yroquois. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that the Charlevoix etymology was dubious, Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, and was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa they who smoke or Cayuga iakwai a bear. Hewitt responded to Hales etymology in 1888 by expressing doubt that either of those words even exist in the respective languages, a more modern etymology is that advocated by Gordon M.
Day in 1968, who elaborates upon an earlier etymology given by Charles Arnaud in 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning terrible man, Day proposes a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning a man, an Iroquois, as the origin of this term. More recently, Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for Iroquois. g and he proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil to kill, ko, and a. He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as the killer people, a different term, Haudenosaunee, is the designation more commonly used by the Iroquois to refer to themselves. It is preferred by scholars of Native American history who consider the name Iroquois to be derogatory in origin. An alternate designation, Ganonsyoni, is encountered as well. More transparently, the Iroquois confederacy is referred to simply as the Six Nations.
The history of the Iroquois Confederacy goes back to its formation by the Peacemaker in 1142, each nation within the Iroquoian family had a distinct language and function in the League. Iroquois influence extended into present-day Canada, westward along the Great Lakes, the League is governed by a Grand Council, an assembly of fifty chiefs or sachems, each representing one of the clans of one of the nations. The original Iroquois League or Five Nations, occupied areas of present-day New York State up to the St. Lawrence River, west of the Hudson River. The League was composed of the Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, in or close to 1722, the Tuscarora tribe joined the League, having migrated from the Carolinas after being displaced by Anglo-European settlement
Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms and empires.
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Chile, Greenland, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America.
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age
Quebec City, Ville de Québec, officially Québec) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The citys landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and La Citadelle, the National Assembly of Quebec, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, and the Musée de la civilisation are found within or near Vieux-Québec. Thus, Québec is officially spelled with an accented é in both Canadian English and French, although the accent is not used in common English usage. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America, while many of the major cities in Latin America date from the sixteenth century, among cities in Canada and the U. S. few were created earlier than Quebec City. Also, Quebecs Old Town is the only North American fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist, French explorer Jacques Cartier built a fort at the site in 1535, where he stayed for the winter before going back to France in spring 1536.
He came back in 1541 with the goal of building a permanent settlement, Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat on 3 July 1608, and at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain, called The Father of New France, served as its administrator for the rest of his life, the name Canada refers to this settlement. Although called the cradle of the Francophone population in North America, the place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony. In 1629 there was the surrender of Quebec, without battle, Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had already ended, he worked to have the lands returned to France. As part of the negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city, one-quarter of the people were members of religious orders, secular priests, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu.
Quebec City was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French, in the last war, the French and Indian War, Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763. France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763, at the end of French rule in 1763, villages and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants. The town distinguished itself by its architecture, affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city markets, during the American Revolution revolutionary troops from the southern colonies assaulted the British garrison in an attempt to liberate Quebec City, in a conflict now known as the Battle of Quebec
Hochelaga was a St. Lawrence Iroquoian 16th century fortified village at the heart of, or in the immediate vicinity of Mount Royal in present-day Montreal, Canada. Jacques Cartier arrived by boat on October 2,1535, he visited the village on the following day and he was greeted well by the Iroquians, and named the mountain he saw nearby, Mount Royal. Several names in and around Montreal and the Hochelaga Archipelago are due to him, a stone marker recalling the former village was placed in 1925 on land adjacent to McGill University, believed to be in the vicinity of the location of the village visited by Cartier in 1535. The site of the marker is designated a National Historic Site of Canada and we know of a plan titled La Terra de Hochelaga nella Nova Francia illustrating, in the European manner of the period, Cartiers visit. Drawn by Giacomo Gastaldi, he illustrates volume III of Delle Navigationi et viaggi, in fact, if the plan faithfully illustrates the notes of the French explorer, it offers little resemblance to the ethno-historical reality.
A reproduction of La Terra de Hochelaga by Paul-Émile Borduas decorates the walls of the Grand Chalet of Mount Royal Park and it was doubtlessly destroyed afterwards, because it was not mentioned by Jacques Cartier on his return visit to the island in 1541. He spoke about two villages, but only one, was named, war has been suggested as the cause of the disappearance of Hochelaga, possibly coming from Stadacona. However, according to Archéobec, villages that were abandoned, following a cycle of land exhaustion. At the time of Samuel de Champlains arrival, both Algonquins and Mohawks hunted in the Saint Lawrence Valley and conducted raids, but neither had any permanent settlements, W. D. Lighthall held that Hochelaga was at the Dawson site, discovered in 1860 close to McGill University. The site appears to correspond to a preceding the foundation of Ville-Marie by one or two centuries, but didnt have a palisade and seems to be too cramped. Another proposed location is Outremont, north of the mountain, likely if J.
Cartier arrived via the rivière des Prairies. The urbanist Pierre Larouche, based on the topometric data deduced from the Gastaldi illustration, has proposed that the village was situated on the summit of the mountain and this hypothesis isnt very well supported, since La Terra de Hochelaga is a second-hand reconstruction. The archaeological excavations undertaken recently on the summit of the mountain, the exact location of Hochelaga remains unknown. Under a mandate from Francis I to find a waterway to Cathay and to Cypango, encouraged, he quickly continued on further into the interior, but the rapids surrounding Montreal blocked his route. He would visit Hochelaga, which he described in Bref Recit meaning brief account, in 1611, the European explorer Samuel de Champlain returned to it. For a long time it was considered obvious that Jacques Cartier had continuously followed the Saint-Lawrence river and had identified the rapids he mentions as the Lachine Rapids, some think the description better corresponds to the Sault-au-Récollet rapids in the Rivière des Prairies.
It constituted a direct waterway connecting to the Rivière des Outaouais. Therefore, its possibly via this river that Jacques Cartier got to Hochelaga, the three rapids described by Cartier on a subsequent expedition are easier to locate on the Rivière des Prairies, the so-called three saults river, than on the Saint Lawrence river
The Mohawk people are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America, the Mohawk were historically based in the Mohawk Valley in present-day upstate New York west of the Hudson River, their territory ranged north to the St. As one of the five members of the Iroquois League. For hundreds of years, they guarded the Iroquois Confederation against invasion from that direction by tribes from the New England and their current major settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York. In the Mohawk language, the say that they are from Kanienkehá. The Mohawk became wealthy traders as other nations in their confederacy needed their flint for tool making and their Algonquian-speaking neighbors, the people of Muh-heck Haeek Ing, a name transliterated by the Dutch as Mohican or Mahican, referred to the People of Ka-nee-en Ka as Maw Unk Lin. The Dutch heard and wrote this term as Mohawk, and referred to the Mohawk as Egil or Maqua, the French colonists adapted these latter terms as Aignier and Maqui, respectively.
They referred to the people by the generic Iroquois, a French derivation of the Algonquian term for the Five Nations, the Algonquians and Iroquois were traditional competitors and enemies. The Mohawk had extended their own influence into the St. Lawrence River Valley and they are believed to have defeated the St. Lawrence Iroquoians in the 16th century, and kept control of their territory. In addition to hunting and fishing, for centuries the Mohawk cultivated productive maize fields on the floodplains along the Mohawk River. The Dutch were primarily merchants and the French conducted fur trading and their Jesuit missionaries were active among First Nations and Native Americans, seeking converts to Catholicism. In 1614, the Dutch opened a trading post at Fort Nassau, the Dutch initially traded for furs with the local Mahican, who occupied the territory along the Hudson River. European contact resulted in a smallpox epidemic among the Mohawk in 1635. For instance, Johannes Megapolensis, a Dutch minister, recorded the spelling of the three villages as Asserué, and Thenondiogo.
While the Dutch established settlements in present-day Schenectady and Schoharie, further west in the Mohawk Valley, Schenectady was established essentially as a farming settlement, where Dutch took over some of the former Mohawk maize fields in the floodplain along the river. Through trading, the Mohawk and Dutch became allies of a kind, during their alliance, the Mohawks allowed Dutch Protestant missionary Johannes Megapolensis to come into their tribe and teach the Christian message. He operated from the Fort Nassau area about six years, writing a record in 1644 of his observations of the Mohawk, their language, and their culture. While he noted their ritual of torture of captives, he recognized that their society had few other killings, especially compared to the Netherlands of that period
St. Lawrence Iroquoians
They spoke Laurentian languages, a branch of the Iroquoian family. They were believed to have numbered up to 120,000 people in 25 nations, this much higher estimate of the number Lawrence Iroquoians is disputed. The traditional view is that they disappeared because of late 16th century warfare by the Mohawk nation of the Haudenosaunee, but other possibilities, including climate change, wars with various Algonquin tribes and exposure to European diseases, may have been equally important. Knowledge about the St. Archaeological evidence has established this was a distinct from the other regional Iroquoian peoples, the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee. Recent archaeological finds suggest distinctly separate groups may have existed among the St. Lawrence Iroquoians as well, an increasing amount of archaeological evidence since the 1950s has settled some of the debate. Since the 1990s, they have concluded that there may have been as many as 25 tribes among the St. Lawrence Iroquoians and they lived in the river lowlands and east of the Great Lakes, including in present-day northern New York and New England.
Since the 18th century, several theories have proposed for the identity of the St. Lawrence River peoples. The issue is important not only for historical understanding but because of Iroquois, there has not been sufficient documentation to support this conclusion according to 20th-century standards. In addition, archaeological finds and linguistic studies since the 1950s have discredited this theory, Pendergast says that attribution of Stadacona or Hochelaga as Mohawk, Onondaga or Oneida has not been supported by the archaeological data. Laurentian Iroquoian and Laurentian Iroquois Identity, based on studies, with material added since 1940. The St. Lawrence Iroquoians appear to have disappeared from the St. Lawrence valley some time prior to 1580, Champlain reported no evidence of Native habitation in the valley. By the Haudenosaunee used it as a ground and avenue for war parties. As the historian Pendergast argues, the determination of identity for the St, the richness of the soil in the St. Lawrence valley, along with the abundance of fisheries nearby and of forests rich in game animals, provided a good place for northeastern Iroquoian settlements.
By approximately 1300, their settlement patterns began to resemble the large fortified villages which Cartier described as characteristic of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, the people lived in villages that were usually located a few kilometres inland from the Saint-Lawrence River, outside the immediate floodplain. The settlements were often enclosed by a palisade for defense. Up to 2000 persons lived in the larger villages, although Cartier mentioned the longhouses in Hochelaga, he left no further description of Stadacona or the other nearby villages. The Basques referred to them as Canaleses and American natives of the Labrador-Saint Lawrence area developed a simplified language for the mutual understanding, but it shows a strong Mikmaq imprint. Their use appear to have related to diplomatic visits among the peoples
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Ontario, Canadas most populous province, was named for the lake, in the Wyandot language, ontarío means “Lake of Shining Waters”. Its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie, the last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area and it is the 14th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake has a shoreline that is 712 miles long. As the last lake in the Great Lakes hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level,326 feet lower than its neighbor upstream. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its width is 53 statute miles. The lakes average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lakes primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles.
As with all the Great Lakes, water levels both within the year and among years. These water level fluctuations are a part of lake ecology. The lake has an important freshwater fishery, although it has negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors, mostly near Prince Edward County, perhaps the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour. Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presquile Bay, the bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park. These sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species. Presquile, on the shore of Lake Ontario, is particularly significant in this regard. The lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age, the action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had approximately the same orientation as todays basin.
As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet and this stage is known as Lake Iroquois