Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the most populous in Nigeria and on the African continent, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and one of the most populous urban agglomerations. Lagos is a major financial centre in Africa. Lagos emerged as a port city that originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere; this led to the classification of Lagos into two main areas: the Island, the initial city of Lagos, before it expanded into the area known as the Mainland. This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos City Council, until the creation of Lagos State in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos city into the present day seven Local Government Areas, an addition of other towns from the Western Region, to form the state.
Lagos, the capital of Nigeria since its amalgamation in 1914, went on to become the capital of Lagos State after its creation. However, the state capital was moved to Ikeja in 1976, the federal capital moved to Abuja in 1991. Though Lagos is still referred to as a city, the present day Lagos known as "Metropolitan Lagos", as "Lagos Metropolitan Area" is an urban agglomeration or conurbation, consisting of 20 LGAs, 32 LCDAs including Ikeja, the state capital of Lagos State; this conurbation makes up 37% of Lagos State's total land area, but houses about 85% of the state's total population. The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos is disputed. In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about 8 million people. However, the figure was disputed by the Lagos State Government, which released its own population data, putting the population of Lagos Metropolitan Area at 16 million; as at 2015, unofficial figures put the population of "Greater Metropolitan Lagos", which includes Lagos and its surrounding metro area, extending as far as into Ogun State, at 21 million.
Lagos was inhabited by the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba people in the 15th century. Under the leadership of the Oloye Olofin, the Awori moved to an island now called Iddo and to the larger Lagos Island. In the 16th century, the Awori settlement was conquered by the Benin Empire and the island became a Benin war-camp called "Eko" under Oba Orhogbua, the Oba of Benin at the time. Eko is still the native name for Lagos. Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese; the present-day Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori clan, who migrated to the area from Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups. Following its early settlement by the Awori nobility, its conquest by the Bini warlords of Benin, the state first came to the attention of the Portuguese in the 15th century. Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo. Another explanation is that Lagos was named for Lagos, Portugal—a maritime town that, at the time, was the main centre of Portuguese expeditions down the African coast.
In Britain's early 19th century fight against the transatlantic slave trade, its West Africa Squadron or Preventative Squadron as it was known, continued to pursue Portuguese, American and Cuban slave ships and to impose anti-slavery treaties with West African coastal chiefs with so much doggedness that they created a strong presence along the West African coast from Sierra Leone all the way to the Niger Delta and as far south as Congo. In 1849, Britain appointed John Beecroft Consul of the Bights of Benin and Biafra, a position he held until his death in 1854. John Duncan was located at Wydah. At the time of Beecroft's appointment, the Kingdom of Lagos was in the western part of the Consulate of the Bights of Benin and Biafra and was a key slave trading port. In 1851 and with pressure from liberated slaves who now wielded political and business influence, Britain intervened in Lagos in what is now known as the Bombardment of Lagos or Capture of Lagos resulting in the installation of Oba Akitoye and the ouster of Oba Kosoko.
Oba Akitoye signed the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos abolishing slavery. The signing of the 1852 treaty ushered in the Consular Period in Lagos' history wherein Britain provided military protection to Lagos. Following threats from Kosoko and the French who were positioned at Wydah, a decision was made by Lord Palmerston who noted in 1861, "the expediency of losing no time in assuming the formal Protectorate of Lagos". William McCoskry, the Acting Consul in Lagos with Commander Bedingfield convened a meeting with Oba Dosunmu on 30 July 1861 aboard HMS Prometheus where Britain's intent was explained and a response to the terms were required by August 1861. Dosunmu resisted the terms of the treaty but under the threat to unleash violence on Lagos by Commander Bedingfield, Dosunmu relented and signed the Lagos Treaty of Cession on 6 August 1861. Lagos was declared a colony on 5 Marc
The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held every four years, between nations around or close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe and Asia meet. The games are under the auspices of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games; the idea was proposed at the 1948 Summer Olympics by Muhammed Taher Pasha, chairman of the Egyptian Olympic Committee and vice-president of the International Olympic Committee, assisted by the Greek member of the I. O. C. Ioannis Ketseas. In 1949 an unofficial event was held in Istanbul, Turkey but the first official Mediterranean Games were held in Egypt in 1951; the Games were inaugurated in October 1951, in Alexandria, Egypt, in honour of Muhammed Taher Pasha, with contests being held in 13 sports along with the participation of 734 athletes from 10 countries. In 1955, in Barcelona, during the II Games, the set up was decided of a Supervisory and Controlling Body for the Games, a kind of Executive Committee; the decisions were materialized on 16 June 1961, the said Body was named, upon a Greek notion, ICMG.
Twelve countries were hosted for Mediterranean Games - four from Africa: Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The first 11 games took place always one year preceding the Summer Olympic Games. However, from 1993 on, they were held the year following the Olympic games; this transition meant that the only time the Mediterranean Games were not held four years after the previous Games was in 1993, when Languedoc-Roussillon in France hosted the Games just two years after Athens. The Mediterranean Games, in terms of the preparation and composition of the National Delegation, are held under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee and the Hellenic Olympic Committee. However, their establishment too must be credited to the HOC, for it held a leading part in their being founded despite all difficulties. Athens is the permanent seat of the ICMG and the Committee’s General Secretary is Greek; this comes as a further tribute to Greece, highlighting its leading role with regard to the function and strengthening of the institution.
Except that Greece bailed out of its 2013 Mediterranean Games commitment when the two cities of Volos and Larissa were supposed to host the 2013 edition of the Games. But because of Greece's financial troubles, they had to give that up and the 2013 honors went instead to Turkey, with the city of Mersin rescuing the 2013 edition of the Games instead; the logo of the games referred to as the "Mediterranean Olympics", is composed of three white rings symbolically representing Africa and Europe — the three continents that border the Mediterranean Sea. This logo has been used since the Split games in 1979, for which it was devised and afterwards accepted for the whole Games. During the closing ceremony, the flag of the games is transferred to the country of the city chosen for the organization of the next Mediterranean Games. At present, 26 countries participate in the games: Africa: Algeria, Libya and Tunisia Asia: Lebanon and Syria. Europe: Albania, Andorra and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Greece, Kosovo, Monaco, North Macedonia, San Marino, Slovenia and Turkey.
Kosovo was accepted as a member of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games in October 2015 and participated for the first time in the 2018 Mediterranean Games in Tarragona, Spain. Of all the National Olympic Committees within the Olympic Movement bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Palestine have not participated in the games, nor has Great Britain who represents the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. In the case of Israel, Allen Guttman in The Games Must Go On argued that Israel's exclusion is both antisemitic and politically motivated due to antagonism towards Israel by the participating Arab nations; the IOC's Avery Brundage was not supportive of Israel's desire to compete, saying: "I cannot understand why anyone wants to go where he is not wanted". The International Amateur Athletics Federation pushed the issue at the 1959 Mediterranean Games in Beirut by refusing to grant permission to hold an athletics competition unless Israel were allowed to compete. Lebanese games organizer Gabriel Gemayel conceded to this, but sidestepped the ruling by holding a parallel Lebanese Games comprising athletics events between the present nations alongside the official Mediterranean Games competitions.
There are countries not bordering the Mediterranean Sea which nonetheless participate: Portugal, Kosovo, San Marino and North Macedonia. The Hellenic Olympic Committee has suggested that nine more countries that do not satisfy geographic criteria could be allowed to participate, such as Bulgaria, some Arab countries such as Jordan and Iraq. Portugal competed in the 2018 Mediterranean Games after a decision which approved Portugal as effective National Olympic Committee; the symbol of the Mediterranean Games consists of three rings representing Asia and Europe, the three continents involved in this competition. The rings dissolve in a wavy line in their lower part, as if they were immersed in the Mediterranean Sea. During the closing ceremony, the flag is transferred to the country of the city chosen to host the next Mediterranean Games. No inland city has hosted the games. All but one of the host cities to date have been situated on the Mediterranean coast; the International Mediterranean Games Committee held a
Arthur Antunes Coimbra, better known as Zico, is a Brazilian coach and former footballer, who played as an attacking midfielder. Called the "White Pelé", he was a creative playmaker, with excellent technical skills, an eye for goal, considered one of the most clinical finishers and best passers as well as one of the greatest players of all time. Arguably the world's best player of the late 1970s and early 80s, he is regarded as one of the best playmakers and free kick specialists in history, able to bend the ball in all directions. In 1999, Zico came eighth in the FIFA Player of the Century grand jury vote, in 2004 was named in the FIFA 100 list of the world's greatest living players. According to Pelé, considered one of the best players "throughout the years, the one player that came closest to me was Zico". With 48 goals in 71 official appearances for Brazil, Zico is fifth highest goalscorer for his national team, he represented them in the 1982 and 1986 World Cups. They did not win any of those tournaments though the 1982 squad is considered one of the greatest Brazilian national squads ever.
Zico is considered one of the best players in football history not to have been on a World Cup winning squad. He was chosen as the 1983 Player of the Year. Zico has coached the Japanese national team, appearing in the 2006 FIFA World Cup and winning the Asian Cup 2004, Fenerbahçe, who were a quarter-finalist in 2007–08 in the Champions League under his command, he was announced as the head coach of CSKA Moscow in January 2009. On 16 September 2009, Zico was signed by Greek side Olympiacos for a two-year contract after the club's previous coach, Temuri Ketsbaia, was sacked, he was fired four months on 19 January 2010. He works as technical director at Kashima Antlers. Born in 1953, Zico came from a lower-middle-class family of Portuguese origin, in the neighbourhood of Quintino Bocaiúva, Rio de Janeiro. In common with many young Brazilians, he spent much of his youth dreaming of being a professional footballer and skipped school to play football on the streets, his passion for the sport made him famous in the neighbourhood, where people would gather to see the boy's brilliant performances against older children and teenagers.
At that time he was playing for Juventude, a local futsal street team run by his older brothers and friends, had begun to play for futsal club River Futebol Clube on Sundays. His nickname originated in Zico's own family, after shorter versions of Arthurzinho, which means "Little Arthur". Arthurzinho became Arthurzico Tuzico and Zico, a version created by his cousin Ermelinda "Linda" Rolim. In 1967, at 14 years old, he had a scheduled trial at América, where his brothers Antunes and Edu were professional players, but on a Sunday, during a River match, Zico scored 9 goals and caught the attention of radio reporter Celso Garcia, who asked Zico's father to take him to a trial at Flamengo instead. Being a Flamengo fan, Zico had his father's approval, beginning his path towards becoming one of the most admired players in the history of the sport. Zico was not physically strong, his story of determination and discipline began with a hard muscle and body development program conducted by the physical education teacher José Roberto Francalacci.
A combination of hard work and a special diet sponsored by his team enabled Zico to develop a strong body and become an athlete. This proved to be essential for his success. During 1971 and 1972, he shifted from youth to professional back. Coach Fleitas Solich had confidence in Zico's abilities and promoted him, on the other hand the situation changed when the Paraguayan coach left and Zagallo took over, he sent him back to the youth team. Things only improved for Zico when Joubert, his first coach at the youth team, was appointed the new coach for the seniors and promoted him after 116 matches and 81 goals in the youth team. While at Flamengo, Zico was a key player during the most glorious period of the team's history. Along with many other titles, in his first period at Flamengo he led the team to victory in the 1981 Copa Libertadores, the 1981 Intercontinental Cup, four national titles. On the field, Zico made goals in all imaginable ways, was a great assister and team organizer, was known for his excellent vision of the field.
He was an expert at free kicks. After receiving offers from A. S. Roma and A. C. Milan, moving to Italy seemed right and a four-million dollar proposal from Udinese was on the table; such an amount of money made bigger clubs pressure the FIGC that blocked the transfer expecting financial guarantees. This caused a commotion in Udine as enraged Friulians flocked to the streets in protest against the Italian federation and the federal government. Historical reasons would make them shout "O Zico, o Austria!". At the end of the controversy, the deal went through and though leaving Flamengo fans in sadness, Zico made the Friulians fans dream of better days. In the 1983–84 Serie A, his first in Italy, his partnership with Franco Causio promised to take Udinese to a higher level, gaining respect from giants Juventus and Roma, his free kicks caused such an impact. Despite his excellent performance, the club's season ended in disappointment as Udinese, in spite of scoring twice as many goals as the previous year, only gathered 32 points and was ninth in the final standing, losing three places in comparison to 1982–83.
Zico scored 19 goals, one fewer t
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Split is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia, with about 200,000 people living in its urban area. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in AD 305, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos in the 3rd or 2nd century BC, it became a prominent settlement around 650 when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities.
Venice prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943, it was re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia.
In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence. By a popular theory, the city draws its name from the spiny broom, after which the Greek colony of Aspálathos or Spálathos was named; the theory is dubious as it's Spanish broom, a frequent plant in the area. Given their similar flowers, it is understandable; as the city became a Roman possession, the Latin name became Spalatum or Aspalatum, which in the Middle Ages evolved into Aspalathum, Spalathum and Spalatro in the Dalmatian language of the city's Romance population. The Croatian term became Split or Spljet, while the Italian-language version, became universal in international usage by the Early Modern Period. In the late 19th century, the Croatian name came to prominence, replaced Spalato in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after World War I. For a significant period, the origin of the name was erroneously thought to be related to the Latin word for "palace", a reference to Diocletian's Palace which still forms the core of the city.
Various theories were developed, such as the notion that the name derives from S. Palatium, an abbreviation of Salonae Palatium; the erroneous "palace" etymologies were notably due to Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, were mentioned by Thomas the Archdeacon. The city, however, is several centuries older than the palace. Although the beginnings of Split are traditionally associated with the construction of Diocletian's Palace in 305, the city was founded several centuries earlier as the Greek colony of Aspálathos, or Spálathos, it was a colony of the polis of Issa, the modern-day town of Vis, itself a colony of the Sicilian city of Syracuse. The exact year the city was founded is not known, but it is estimated to have been in the 3rd or 2nd century BC; the Greek settlement lived off trade with the surrounding Illyrian tribes the Delmatae. After the Illyrian Wars of 229 and 219 BC, the city of Salona, only a short distance from Spálathos, became the capital of the Roman Province of Dalmatia.
The history of Spálathos becomes obscure for a while at this point, being overshadowed by that of nearby Salona, to which it would become successor. The Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293 began the construction of an opulent and fortified palace fronting the sea, near his home town of Salona, selecting the site of Spálathos; the Palace was built as a massive structure, much like a Roman military fortress. The palace and the city of Spalatum which formed its surroundings were at times inhabited by a population as large as 8,000 to 10,000 people. Between 475 and 480 the Palace hosted Flavius Julius Nepos, the last recognised Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Salona was lost to the Ostrogothic Kingdom in 493, along with most of Dalmatia, but the Emperor Justinian I regained Dalmatia in 535–536; the Pannonian Avars sacked and destroyed Salona in 639. The Dalmatian region and its shores were at this time settled by tribes of Croats, a South Slavic people subservient to the Avar khagans; the Salonitans regained the land under Severus the Great in 650 and settled the 300-year-old Palace of Diocletian, which could not be besieged by the Slavic tribes of the mainland.
The Emperor Constans II granted them an Imperial mandate to es
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Houari Boumédiène transcribed Boumediene, Boumedienne etc. served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death on 27 December 1978. Little is known about Boumédiène's life. Most sources state 1932 and Héliopolis as the date and place of his birth, but others say he was born in Guelma on August 23, 1927, or Clauzel near Guelma on August 23, 1927, or August 16, 1925 What is known with reasonable certainty of Boumedienne is that he was born in August 23 1932 near Guelma with the name of Mohammed Ben Brahim Boukharouba, that his father was an impoverished small wheat-farmer with seven children, an Arab and strict Muslim speaking no French. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, his family is Arabic speaking of Berber origins, he was educated at the Islamic Institute in Constantine. He joined the National Liberation Front in the Algerian War of Independence in 1955, adopting Houari Boumédiène as his nom-de-guerre.
He reached the rank of colonel the highest rank in the FLN forces, from 1960 he was chief of staff of the ALN, the FLN's military wing. He was married to Anissa al-Mansali. In 1961, after its vote of self-determination, Algeria declared independence and the French announced it was independent. Boumédiène headed a powerful military faction within the government, was made defence minister by the Algerian leader Ahmed Ben Bella, whose ascent to power he had assisted as chief of staff, he grew distrustful of Ben Bella's erratic style of government and ideological puritanism, in June 1965, Boumédiène seized power in a bloodless coup. The country's constitution and political institutions were abolished, he ruled through a Revolutionary Council of his own military supporters. Many of them had been his companions during the war years, when he was based around the Moroccan border town of Oujda, which caused analysts to speak of the "Oujda Group". One prominent member of this circle was Boumédiène's long-time foreign minister, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, since 1999, has been Algeria's president.
He was seen as a weak leader, with no significant power base except inside the army, it was not known to what extent he commanded the officer corps. He remained Algeria's undisputed leader until his death in 1978. No significant internal challenges emerged from inside the government after the 1967 coup attempt. Economically, Boumédiène turned away from Ben Bella's focus on rural Algeria and experiments in socialist cooperative businesses. Instead, he opted for a more systematic and planned programme of state-driven industrialization. Algeria had no advanced production at the time, but in 1971 Boumédiène nationalized the Algerian oil industry, increasing government revenue tremendously, he put the soaring oil and gas resources—enhanced by the oil price shock of 1973—into building heavy industry, hoping to make Algeria the Maghreb's industrial centre. His years in power were in fact marked by a reliable and consistent economic growth, but after his death, in the 1980s, the drop in oil prices and evident inefficiency of the country's state-run industries, prompted a change in policy towards gradual economical liberalization.
In the 1970s, along with the expansion of state industry and oil nationalization, Boumédiène declared a series of socialist revolutions, strengthened the leftist aspect of his administration. A side-effect of this was the rapprochement with the hitherto suppressed remnants of the Algerian Communist Party, whose members were now co-opted into the government, where it gained some limited intellectual influence, although without formal legalization of their party. Algeria formally remained a single-party state under the FLN. Political stability reigned, however, as attempts at challenging the state were nipped in the bud; as chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, Boumédiène and his associates ruled by decree. During the 1970s, constitutional rule was reinstated and civilian political institutions were restored and reorganized. Efforts were made to revive activity within the FLN, state institutions were reestablished systematically, starting with local assemblies and moving up through regional assemblies to the national level, with the election of a parliament.
The process culminated with the adoption of a constitution that laid down Algeria's political structure. This was preceded by a period of open debate on the merits of the government-backed proposal, although the constitution itself was adopted in a state-controlled referendum with no major changes; the constitution reintroduced the office of president, which Boumédiène entered after a single-candidate referendum in 1978. At the time of his death that year, the political and constitutional order in Algeria was entirely of FLN design; this structure remained unchanged until the late 1980s, when political pluralism was introduced and the FLN lost its role as dominant single party. However, throughout Boumédiène's era, the military remained the dominant force in the country's politics, military influence permeated civilian institutions such as the FLN, parliament and government, undercutting the constitutionalization of the countr