Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Marlow is a town and civil parish within Wycombe district in south Buckinghamshire, England. It is located on the River Thames, 4 miles south south-west of High Wycombe, 5 miles west north-west of Maidenhead and 33 miles west of central London; the name is recorded in 1015 as Mere lafan, meaning "Land left after the draining of a pond" in Old English. From Norman times the manor and borough were formally known as Great Marlow, distinguishing them from Little Marlow; the ancient parish was large, including rural areas west of the town. In 1896 the civil parish of Great Marlow, created in the 19th century from the ancient parish, was divided into Great Marlow Urban District and Great Marlow civil parish. In 1897 the urban district was renamed Marlow Urban District, the town has been known as Marlow. Marlow is recorded in the Domesday Book as Merlaue. Magna Britannia includes the following entry for Marlow: "The manor of Marlow, which had belonged to the Earls of Mercia, was given by William the Conqueror, to his Queen Matilda.
Henry the First, bestowed it on his natural son, Robert de Melhent, afterwards Earl of Gloucester, from whom it passed, with that title, to the Clares and Despencers, from the latter, by female heirs, to the Beauchamps and Nevilles, Earls of Warwick. It continued in the crown from the time of Richard III's marriage with Anne Neville, until Queen Mary granted it to William Lord Paget, in whose family it continued more than a century, it is now the property of Sir William Clayton bart. A descendant of the last purchaser". Marlow owed its importance to its location on the River Thames, where the road from Reading to High Wycombe crosses the river, it had its own market by 1227, although the market lapsed before 1600. From 1301 to 1307 the town had its own Member of Parliament, it returned two members from 1624 to 1867. Marlow is adjoined by a mile to the north. Little Marlow is nearby to the east along the A4155 Little Marlow Road and Bourne End is further along the same road. To the south across the Thames are Bisham and Cookham Dean, both in Berkshire, There has been a bridge over the Thames at Marlow since the reign of King Edward III The current bridge is a suspension bridge, designed by William Tierney Clark in 1832, was a prototype for and is twinned with the much larger Széchenyi Chain Bridge across the River Danube in Budapest.
The Junior Wing of the Royal Military College moved to Sandhurst on the borders of Berkshire and Surrey, was once based in West Street, Marlow, at Remnantz, a large house built in the early 18th century which served as the Junior Department of the College from 1801 until 1812. The weather vane on the building may date from that period; the building is now owned by the Bosley family. The Hand & Flowers, the first gastropub to hold two Michelin stars, is located on West Street, it is one of several local pubs serving award-winning beers brewed locally in Marlow Bottom by the Rebellion Beer Company. Marlow is the location of Marlow Lock, originating from the 14th century. Marlow is twinned with Marly-le-Roi, since 1980. Budavár, a district of Budapest, Hungary; the A4155 road runs through Marlow town centre, with the A404 lying one mile to the east, the M40 motorway further to the north, the M4 motorway to the south. Marlow is served by a railway station, the terminus of a single-track branch line from Maidenhead.
The train service is known as the Marlow Donkey, the nickname given to the steam locomotives that once operated on the line. There is a pub with the same name, located close to the railway station. Bus services are provided by Arriva to neighbouring towns, including High Wycombe, Henley-on-Thames and Reading. Education is provided by several schools, including: Great Marlow School Sir William Borlase's Grammar School Burford School Danesfield School Foxes Piece School Holy Trinity Church of England School Marlow Church of England Infant School Spinfield School St Peter's Catholic Primary School Marlow Rowing Club, founded in 1871, is one of Britain's premier rowing clubs and has produced many Olympic oarsmen including Sir Steve Redgrave; the club exercises above and below the lock. The Olympic lightweight men's double-sculls gold medallist at Beijing 2008, Zac Purchase, is a former member of Marlow Rowing Club. Marlow F. C. is the oldest football club in the town playing in Tier 8 Southern Football League Division One Central.
It finished 4th of 22 in the 2016/17 season. Another local football club, Marlow United F. C. plays in Tier 11 Thames Valley Premier League Premier Division and finished 2nd of 14 in the 2016/17 season. Marlow Rugby Club plays at Riverwoods Drive, it was founded in 1947 and runs a range of senior and mini-rugby teams. The England Rugby team had its training base at Marlow RFC until the late 1990s, when it moved to nearby Bisham Abbey. There are two cricket clubs, Marlow Park CC, Marlow Cricket Club, founded in 1829 and is now part of Marlow Sports Club. Marlow Cricket Club plays in the Thames Valley League; the Sports Club caters to field hockey, running, junior football and softball. There are two regattas associated with Marlow. Earliest records indicate a regatta took place annually on the River Th
Field Marshal Sir John Greer Dill, was a senior British Army officer with service in both the First World War and the Second World War. From May 1940 to December 1941 he was the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, subsequently in Washington, D. C. as Chief of the British Joint Staff Mission and Senior British Representative on the Combined Chiefs of Staff, played a significant role during the Second World War in the formation of the "Special Relationship" between the United Kingdom and the United States. Born in Lurgan, County Armagh, Ireland in 1881, his father was the local bank manager and his mother was a Greer from Woodville, Lurgan. Always intended for a career in the services, Dill attended the Methodist College Belfast, Cheltenham College and the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. On 8 May 1901 he was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the 1st battalion the Leinster Regiment and was posted to South Africa to see out the Second Boer War.
After the end of the war in June 1902, Dill left Cape Town with other men of his battalion on the SS Englishman in late September 1902, arriving at Southampton the following month, from where they were posted to Fermoy. Dill was appointed regimental adjutant on 15 August 1906, having been assistant adjutant from 1902. Promoted captain on 12 July 1911, he was seconded to study at the Staff College, Camberley from 1 February 1913, was still there on the outbreak of the First World War eighteen months later. After serving on the Staff of Southern Command he became brigade major of the 25th Brigade in France where he was present at Neuve Chapelle and won the Distinguished Service Order. During 1916 Dill served on the General Staff of the 55th Division and Canadian Corps, before being promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and Chief of Staff of the 37th Division in January 1917, he was moved to the General Staff at General Headquarters in October of that year as part of the Training Section but was soon shifted to the Operations Section.
By the end of the war he had been Mentioned in Despatches eight times. From the spring of 1918 he was Head of Operations at GHQ, an important promotion after the sacking of many of Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig's senior staff following the Battle of Cambrai, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of St George in the 1918 New Year Honours. He received a number of foreign decorations for his service, including the Officer of the Legion of Honour, the French Croix de guerre, Commander of the Order of the Crown of Belgium, Officer of the Order of the Crown of Romania. After the war he gained a reputation as a gifted army instructor. In the 1928 New Year Honours he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath. In 1929 he was posted to India and in 1930 was promoted to major general before returning to appointments at the Staff College and to the War Office as Director of Military Operations and Intelligence, holding that post until 1 September 1936. Alongside his other positions, he was appointed to the honorary role of Colonel of the East Lancashire Regiment on 24 December 1932, a position he held until his death.
Following his service on the General Staff, Dill was sent to Palestine, during the Arab revolt, where he was appointed General Officer Commanding of the British forces in Palestine on 8 September 1936, holding the post until 1937. He was knighted in the 1937 Coronation Honours with his promotion to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, he was appointed General Officer Commanding, Aldershot Command; the same year he was interviewed by Leslie Hore-Belisha, Secretary of State for War, for the post of Chief of the Imperial General Staff, but lost out to Lord Gort, five years his junior. At the outbreak of the Second World War he hoped to be appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force, but the position again went to Gort; the resulting vacancy as Chief of the Imperial General Staff was filled by Sir Edmund Ironside, leaving Dill to be posted as commander of I Corps in France on 3 September 1939. He was promoted to general on 1 October 1939. On returning to the UK in April 1940, Dill was appointed Vice Chief of the Imperial General Staff, under Ironside, by the Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
On 27 May 1940, after Chamberlain had been replaced by Churchill, Dill replaced Ironside as CIGS. Faced with the prospect of a German invasion, Dill produced a memorandum on 15 June advocating the use chemical warfare against an enemy landing. Although acknowledging that first use of chemical weapons would alienate the United States and invite retaliation, he concluded that "at a time when our National existence is at stake... we should not hesitate to adopt whatever means appear to offer the best chance of success."After criticism from the Director of Home Defence and other offices Dill withdrew the memorandum. The proposal was endorsed by Churchill on 30 June and it was ordered that the Royal Air Force begin preparations for deploying mustard gas, although he added that actual employment would need to be ordered by Cabinet. Dill was promoted field marshal on 18 November 1941, but by this time it was clear how poorly he and Churchill got on. Dill gained a reputation as obstructionist. Keen to get him out of the way, Churchill at the end of 1941 had Dill advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath and posted him to Washington as his personal representative where he became Chief of the British Joint Staff Mission Senio
Major General Sir Charles William Gwynn, KCB, CMG, DSO, FRGS was an Irish born British Army officer, geographer and author of works on military history and theory. Charles William Gwynn was the fourth son of John Gwynn, Regius Professor of Divinity at Trinity College and his wife, Lucy Josephine daughter of the Irish nationalist William Smith O'Brien, he was born at County Donegal, while his father was rector of the local church. He was educated at St. Columba's College, Dublin and at the Royal Military Academy and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers on 15 February 1889. Promoted to lieutenant on 15 February 1892, he saw active service in West Africa 1893–94 in operations against the Sofas, in 1897 joined the geographical section of the Intelligence Branch of the War Office. Following the reconquest of Sudan from the Mahdi, Gwynn undertook survey work there, remaining until 1904, he was promoted to captain on 15 February 1900, received a brevet promotion to major on the following day, was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George for his survey work determining the Sudanese/Abyssinian border.
He attended the Staff College, Camberley from 1905 to 1906. In June 1911, he was detailed to Australia as an instructor at the Royal Military College, where he served as the director of military art, instructing cadets in tactics and military history, with the local rank of lieutenant colonel. During much of his time there he acted as Commandant while the head of the College, Brigadier General W. T. Bridges, was away on tour. With the outbreak of World War I, he returned to England, where he unsuccessfully sought a posting to France. In July 1915, he was sent to the Middle East and was appointed General staff Officer Grade 1 of the Australian 2nd Division at Gallipoli, he was posted to serve as the Chief of Staff of the II Anzac Corps, a position he held until the end of the war. He was present at the battle of Messines in June 1917, his brother and Stephen's son, Dennis served in the Great War. Gwynn was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1918. During the Great War he was mentioned in dispatches six times, received the brevet ranks of lieutenant-colonel and colonel, was awarded the Belgian Croix de Guerre and the French Légion d'honneur.
After World War I, he served in a variety of staff assignments, culminating in May 1926 when he was made Commandant of the Staff College, Camberley. Upon his retirement in 1931, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. After his retirement, in 1934, Major General Gwynn wrote Imperial Policing, now regarded as a classic in the field of low intensity conflict and small wars. Gwynn was of medium wiry in build, he had a slight stammer. The Frontiers of Abyssinia: a retrospect Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 36, No. 143, pp. 150–161 Imperial Policing London: Macmillan, 1934 British Army Officers 1939−1945
Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside
Field Marshal William Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside, was a senior officer of the British Army, who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff during the first year of the Second World War. Ironside joined the Royal Artillery in 1899, served throughout the Second Boer War; this was followed by a brief period spying on the German colonial forces in South-West Africa. Returning to regular duty, he served on the staff of the 6th Infantry Division during the first two years of the First World War, before being appointed to a position on the staff of the newly raised 4th Canadian Division in 1916. In 1918, he was given command of a brigade on the Western Front. In 1919, he was promoted to command the Allied intervention force in northern Russia. Ironside was assigned to an Allied force occupying Turkey, assigned to British forces based in Persia in 1921, he was offered the post of the commander of British forces in Iraq, but was unable to take up the role due to injuries in a flying accident.
He returned to the Army as Commandant of the Staff College, where he advocated the ideas of J. F. C. Fuller, a proponent of mechanisation, he commanded a division, military districts in both Britain and India, but his youth and his blunt approach limited his career prospects, after being passed over for the role of Chief of the Imperial General Staff in 1937 he became Governor of Gibraltar, a traditional staging post to retirement. He was recalled from "exile" in mid-1939, being appointed as Inspector-General of Overseas Forces, a role which led most observers to expect he would be given the command of the British Expeditionary Force on the outbreak of war. However, after some political manoeuvring, General Gort was given this command and Ironside was appointed as the new Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Ironside himself believed that he was temperamentally unsuited to the job, but felt obliged to accept it. In early 1940 he argued for Allied intervention in Scandinavia, but this plan was shelved at the last minute when the Finnish-Soviet Winter War ended.
During the invasion of Norway and the Battle of France he played little part. He was replaced as CIGS at the end of May, given a role to which he was more suited: Commander-in-Chief Home Forces, responsible for anti-invasion defences and for commanding the Army in the event of German landings. However, he served less than two months in this role before being replaced. After this, Ironside was raised to the peerage as Baron Ironside. Lord Ironside retired to Morley Old Hall in Norfolk to write, never again saw active service or held any official position. Ironside was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 6 May 1880, his father, Surgeon-Major William Ironside of the Royal Horse Artillery, died shortly afterwards, leaving his widowed wife to bring up their son on a limited military pension. As the cost of living in the late nineteenth century was lower in mainland Europe than in Britain, she travelled extensively around the Continent, where the young Edmund began learning various foreign languages; this grasp of language would become one of the defining features of his character.
He was educated at schools in St Andrews before being sent to Tonbridge School in Kent for his secondary education. At Woolwich he flourished, working hard at his sports, he was built for both of these sports, six feet four inches tall and weighing seventeen stone, for which he was nicknamed "Tiny" by his fellow students. The name stuck, he was known by it for the rest of his life. After attending the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich he was commissioned into the army as a second lieutenant with the Royal Artillery on 25 June 1899; that year his unit, 44th Battery Royal Field Artillery, was despatched to South Africa. He fought throughout the Second Boer War being wounded three times, was decorated and mentioned in despatches in 1901, he was promoted lieutenant on 16 February 1901. At the end of the war in May 1902, he was a member of the small force which escorted Jan Smuts to the peace negotiations, he disguised himself as an Afrikaans-speaking Boer, taking a job as a wagon driver working for the German colonial forces in South West Africa.
This intelligence work managed to escape. This escapade led to claims that he became the model for Richard Hannay, a character in the novels of John Buchan, he left Cape Town on the HMT Britannic in early October 1902, arrived at Southampton the same month. Ironside was subsequently posted to India, where he served with I Battery Royal Horse Artillery, South Africa, with Y Battery RHA, he was promoted to captain in February 1908, appointed to the Staff in September of the same year, as a Brigade-Major in June 1909. He returned home in September 1912, in order to attend Camberley. Ironside's two-year course at the Staff College, which he found unstimulating, was cut short by the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914.
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort
Field Marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, was a senior British Army officer. As a young officer during the First World War he was decorated with the Victoria Cross for his actions during the Battle of the Canal du Nord. During the 1930s he served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff, he is most famous for commanding the British Expeditionary Force sent to France in the first year of the Second World War, evacuated from Dunkirk. Gort served as Governor of Gibraltar and Malta, High Commissioner for Palestine and Transjordan. John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker was born in London, his mother was Eleanor, Viscountess Gort née Surtees, a daughter of writer Robert Smith Surtees. J. S. S. P. Vereker's father was 5th Viscount Gort; the title of Viscount Gort, which J. S. S. P. Vereker inherited upon the death of his father, was named after Gort, a town in the West of Ireland and the Prendergast Vereker family were members of the Anglo-Irish nobility, his father was a descendant of figures prominent in the British American colonies, including Thomas Gage and Margaret Kemble, as well as the Schuyler, Van Cortlandt, Delancey families.
J. S. S. P. Vereker grew up in the Isle of Wight, he was educated at Malvern Link Preparatory School, Harrow School, entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich in January 1904. As Viscount Gort, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards on 16 August 1905, promoted to lieutenant on 1 April 1907. In November 1908, Gort visited his uncle, Jeffrey Edward Prendergast Vereker, a retired British army major, living in Canada, at Kenora, Ontario. During a moose hunting trip, Gort slipped off a large boulder. Gort returned to England. Gort commanded the detachment of Grenadier Guards that bore the coffin at the funeral of King Edward VII in May 1910, he was made a Member of the Royal Victorian Order for his services in that role. On 22 February 1911, Gort married his second cousin, their eldest son, Charles Standish Vereker, was born on 23 February 1912, served as a lieutenant with the Grenadier Guards, before committing suicide. A second son, Jocelyn Cecil Vereker, died before his second birthday.
Gort's daughter, Jacqueline Corinne Yvonne Vereker, born on 20 October 1914, married The Honourable William Sidney the 1st Viscount De L'Isle. On 5 August 1914, Gort was promoted to captain, he went to France with the British Expeditionary Force and fought on the Western Front, taking part in the retreat from Mons in August 1914. He became a staff officer with the First Army in December 1914 and became Brigade Major of the 4th Brigade in April 1915, he was awarded the Military Cross in June 1915. Promoted to the brevet rank of major in June 1916, he became a staff officer at the Headquarters of the British Expeditionary Force and fought at the Battle of the Somme throughout the autumn of 1916, he was given the acting rank of lieutenant colonel in April 1917 on appointment as Commanding Officer of 4th Battalion Grenadier Guards and, having been awarded the Distinguished Service Order in June 1917, he led his battalion at the Battle of Passchendaele, earning a Bar to his DSO in September 1917.
On 27 November 1918, Gort was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces, for his actions on 27 September 1918 at the Battle of the Canal du Nord, near Flesquieres, France. Victoria Cross citation Captain, 1st Battalion The Grenadier Guards Citation: For most conspicuous bravery, skilful leading and devotion to duty during the attack of the Guards Division on 27th September 1918, across the Canal du Nord, near Flesquieres, when in command of the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards, the leading battalion of the 3rd Guards Brigade. Under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire he led his battalion with great skill and determination to the "forming-up" ground, where severe fire from artillery and machine guns was again encountered. Although wounded, he grasped the situation, directed a platoon to proceed down a sunken road to make a flanking attack, under terrific fire, went across open ground to obtain the assistance of a Tank, which he led and directed to the best possible advantage.
While thus fearlessly exposing himself, he was again wounded by a shell. Notwithstanding considerable loss of blood, after lying on a stretcher for awhile, he insisted on getting up and directing the further attack. By his magnificent example of devotion to duty and utter disregard of personal safety all ranks were inspired to exert themselves to the utmost, the attack resulted in the capture of over 200 prisoners, two batteries of field guns and numerous machine guns. Lt.-Col. Viscount Gort proceeded to organise the defence of the captured position until he collapsed; the successful advance of the battalion was due to the valour and leadership of this gallant officer. Subsequent to this he became known as "Tiger" Gort, he won a second Bar to his DSO in January 1919. He was mentioned in despatches eight times during the war. Gort was promoted to the substantive rank of major on 21 Octo
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
The Royal Military College, founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies. The RMC was reorganised at the outbreak of the Second World War, but some of its units remained operational at Sandhurst and Aldershot. In 1947, the Royal Military College was merged with the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, to form the present-day all-purpose Royal Military Academy Sandhurst; the Royal Military College was conceived by Colonel John Le Marchant, whose scheme for establishing schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow first met strong resistance on the grounds of cost. However, in 1801 Parliament voted a grant of £30,000 for it, in 1802 Le Marchant, appointed as the first Lieutenant Governor of the College, opened its Junior Department at a large house in West Street, Great Marlow, to train gentleman cadets for the infantry and cavalry regiments of the British Army and for the presidency armies of British India, 1802 was the same year as the founding of the French Army's Saint-Cyr and of West Point in the United States.
General Sir William Harcourt was appointed as the first Governor of the Royal Military College at Great Marlow and continued in post until 1811. In 1799, a school for staff officers had been established at High Wycombe, in 1801 this became the Senior Department of the Military College. In 1812, the College's Junior Department moved from Great Marlow into purpose-built buildings at Sandhurst designed by James Wyatt, was soon joined there by the Senior Department, migrating from High Wycombe. In 1858 this became the Staff College. On the outbreak of the Second World War, many of the cadets and staff of the Royal Military College were mobilised for active service, but the buildings at Sandhurst remained the home of the RMC's 161 Infantry Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1942, this unit moved to Mons Barracks and for the rest of the war the Sandhurst campus was used as a Royal Armoured Corps Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1947, a new Royal Military Academy Sandhurst was formed on the site of the Royal Military College, merging the Royal Military Academy and the Royal Military College, with the objective of providing officer training for all arms and services.
The college was a training facility for cavalry and infantry officers of the British and Indian Armies teaching military science and athletics. Unlike other military colleges, such as West Point, it never granted degrees or other academic qualifications. See List of Governors and Commandants of SandhurstThe Royal Military College was led by a Governor, a figurehead non-resident, a Lieutenant Governor, who had actual day-to-day command of the college, a Commandant, the officer in charge of the cadets. In 1812, the posts of Lieutenant Governor and Commandant were merged into the role of Commandant. In 1888 the two remaining senior posts and Commandant, were merged into the single appointment of Governor and Commandant, which in 1902 was retitled as "Commandant". See Category:Graduates of the Royal Military College, SandhurstThe most notable cadets of RMC Sandhurst include: Sir William Denison, Governor of New South Wales Field Marshal Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar Field Marshal Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, Governor General of Canada King Alfonso XII of Spain Field Marshal Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer John Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow, Governor-General of Australia Ronald Munro Ferguson, 1st Viscount Novar, Governor-General of Australia Field Marshal Viscount Allenby Sir Charles Fergusson, 7th Baronet, Governor-General of New Zealand Field Marshal Earl Haig Sir Winston Churchill Prince Alexander of Teck the Earl of Athlone, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa and Governor General of Canada Field Marshal Earl Wavell, Viceroy of India Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein Sir Oswald Mosley Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa, First native-Indian full General of the Indian Army Field Marshal Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, Governor General of Australia Field Marshal Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond David Niven, novelist Brigadier John Amadu Bangura, CBE, Governor-General of Sierra Leone