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Staffordshire Hoard

The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork yet found. It consists of over 3,500 items, amounting to a total of 5.1 kg of gold, 1.4 kg of silver and some 3,500 pieces of garnet cloisonné jewellery. The hoard was most deposited in the 7th century, contains artefacts manufactured during the 6th and 7th centuries, it was discovered in 2009 in a field near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England. The location was in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia at the time of the hoard's deposition; the hoard is of "radical" importance in Anglo-Saxon archaeology. The artefacts contain no objects specific to female uses; the average quality of the workmanship is high and remarkable in view of the large number of individual objects, such as swords and a helmet, from which many of the fragments in the hoard came. The hoard was purchased jointly by the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery for £3.285 million under the Treasure Act 1996.

The hoard includes 3,490 metal fragments, totalling 5.094 kg of gold and 1.442 kg of silver, with 3,500 cloisonné garnets and is the largest treasure of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver objects discovered to date, eclipsing, at least in quantity, the 1.5 kg hoard found in the Sutton Hoo ship burial in 1939. Apart from three religious objects the items in the hoard are military, there are no domestic objects, such as vessels or eating utensils, or feminine jewellery, which are the more common Anglo-Saxon gold finds; the contents "show every sign of being selected". There is broad agreement that the typical object in the hoard was made in the 7th century, with the date of the deposition of the hoard of course post-dating the manufacture of the latest object it includes. Along with other discoveries, examination of the hoard showed Saxon goldsmiths were able to alter the surface of the gold by depletion gilding to give the appearance of a higher gold content, a technique not credited to them; as with other Anglo-Saxon jewellery, the garnets in 28 pieces may have come from as far away as Sri Lanka or Afghanistan in the Roman period.

A summary of the preliminary contents of the hoard, as of late 2009, is shown in the table below. This excludes items such as the gold horse's head that were in one of the 33 soil blocks that had not been examined at the time of publication of these figures; the contents include many finely worked silver and gold sword decorations removed from weaponry, including 66 gold sword hilt collars and many gold hilt plates, some with inlays of cloisonné garnet in zoomorphic designs. The 86 sword pommels found constitute the largest discovery of pommels in a single context, with many different types supporting the idea that the pommels were manufactured over a wide range of time; the Staffordshire Hoard official press statement notes that the only items in the hoard that are non-martial are two crosses. Sharp has shown there are many pieces with a Christian connection and the hoard is a mixture of many Christian and non-martial items; the largest of the three crosses otherwise remains intact. It may have been an processional cross.

It could have been attached to the front of a book, such as a Gospel Book. Yet the cross is folded; as to the reason or reasons for this, three explanations have been put forward. One is that the folding was done prior to burial "to make it fit into a small space". A second explanation suggests that this is a sign that the burial deposit was made by pagans, who had no particular esteem for the Christian character of the objects. A third view runs in an opposite direction, that this was done with reverence by Christians in order to remove the sacred character of this cross, other Christian pieces, prior to burying them. A gold and garnet fitting, made for the corner of a flat rectangular object, may be for the corner of a book-cover, which in this context would certainly have been a Gospel Book. One of the most intriguing items in the hoard is a small strip of gold, measuring 179 mm × 15.8 mm × 2.1 mm when unfolded, inscribed with a biblical quotation, from Numbers 10:35, in insular majuscule, on both sides, as URGE:DNE:DISEPENTURINIMICITUIE/T | UGENT QUIODERUNTTEAFACIETUA SURGE DNE DISEPINTUR ITUIE/TFUGIUQUIO DE | UNTTE AF ACIE TUDIUIE NOS The Nova Vulgata reading of this passage is: Surge Domine et dissipentur inimici tui et fugiant qui oderunt te a facie tua The reading of the additional words on the second version of the text, diuie nos, is unclear.

The passage is quoted often, notably in the Life of the Mercian Saint Guthlac, most composed in the 730s. The passage occurs in the context of Guthlac's meeting with Æthelbald, the king of Mercia, in which the saint foretells that the king's enemy would "flee from your face"; the parallel verse from Psalm 67, verse 2, occurs when Guthlac is driving away demons who appeared to him in a vision. Sharp has suggested the inscription shows angst in the face of a great threat and this could only have been the Viking invasion; the incised strip appears to be the stem of a cross and this indicates a Viking threat

United Nations Conference on International Organization

The United Nations Conference on International Organization known as the San Francisco Conference, was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, United States of America. At this convention, the delegates reviewed and rewrote the Dumbarton Oaks agreements of the previous year; the convention resulted in the creation of the United Nations Charter, opened for signature on 26 June, the last day of the conference. The conference was held at various locations the War Memorial Opera House, with the Charter being signed on 26 June at the Herbst Theatre in Civic Center. A square adjacent to the city's Civic Center, called "UN Plaza," commemorates the conference; the idea for the proposed United Nations began as part of the vision of U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in which the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and China would lead the post-World War II international order; these countries, with the addition of France, would assume the permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council.

At the February 1945 conference in Malta, it was proposed that the permanent members have veto power. This proposal was adopted shortly after at the Yalta conference. While at Yalta, they began sending invitations to the San Francisco conference on international organization. A total of 46 countries were invited to San Francisco, all of which had declared war on Germany and Japan, having signed the Declaration by United Nations; the conference directly invited four additional countries: Denmark and the Soviet republics of Belarus and Ukraine. The participation of these countries was not without controversy; the decision on the participation of Argentina was troubled because of Soviet opposition to Argentina membership, arguing that Argentina had supported the Axis Powers during the war. Several Latin American countries opposed the inclusion of Belarus and Ukraine unless Argentina was admitted. In the end, Argentina was admitted to the conference with support from the United States and the desire for the participation of the Soviet Union at the conference was maintained.

The participation of Belarus and Ukraine at the conference came as a result of Roosevelt and Churchill's concession to Joseph Stalin, the leader of USSR. Stalin had requested that all republics of the Soviet Union have membership in the United Nations, but the US government launched a counterproposal in which all US states obtain membership in the United Nations; this counterproposal encouraged Stalin to attend the Yalta conference by accepting Ukraine and Belarus's admission to the United Nations. This was intended to ensure a balance of power within the United Nations, which, in the opinion of the Soviets, was unbalanced in favor of the Western countries. For this purpose, modifications were made to the constitutions of the two republics in question, so that Belarus and Ukraine's international legal subjects were limited, while they were still part of the Soviet Union. Poland, despite having signed the Declaration by United Nations, did not attend the conference because there was no consensus on the formation of the postwar Polish government.

Therefore, a space was left blank for the Polish signature. The new Polish government was formed after the conference and signed the United Nations Charter on 15 October, which made Poland one of the founding countries of the United Nations. On 25 April, the conference started in San Francisco, United States. 850 delegates, along with advisors and staff of the secretariat, attended the conference, totaling 3,500 attendees. In addition, the conference was attended by 2,500 representatives of the media and observers from numerous organizations and societies. Earl Warren the Governor of California, set the tone for the conference in his welcome speech:We recognize that our future is linked with a world future in which the term “good neighbor” has become a global consideration. We have learned, and that true understanding comes only as a product of free consultation. This conference is proof in itself of the new conception of neighborliness and unity which must be recognized in world affairs. Due to the fact that President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, supposed to host the conference, died on 12 April 1945, the delegates held a commemorative ceremony on 19 May among the tall Redwood trees in Muir Woods National Monument Cathedral Grove, where a dedication plaque was placed in his honor.

A steering committee, composed of heads of delegations, was formed. This committee decided on all important matters relating to rules. Although each country had one representative, the membership was too much for the detailed work. Therefore, it commissioned an executive committee of 14 heads of delegation to submit recommendations to the steering committee; the draft of the United Nations Charter was divided into four sections, each of, studied by a commission. The first of these was responsible for the organization's purposes, membership and the question of amendments to the Charter; the second considered functions of the General Assembly. The third dealt with the Security Council; the fourth dealt with the assessment of the draft Statute of the International Court of Justice. This statute had been drafted by a team of legal experts from 44 countries, meeting in Washington in April 1945. At the conference, delegates reviewed and sometimes rewrote the text agreed upon at the Dumbarton Oaks conference.

The delegations agreed on a role for regional organizations under the "umbrella" of the United Nations. The delineation of the responsibilities of the Se

Eradicator (video game)

Eradicator is a 1996 science fiction computer game developed by Accolade for MS-DOS. The game was re-released on Steam in 2014 and on Gog.com in 2016 with support for Windows, macOS, Linux. Players choose to play as one of three characters: Kamchak the alien Treydan warrior, human mine engineer Dan Blaze, mercenary Eleena Brynstaarl. Players have to complete a series of unique objectives and puzzles within each level. Perspective can be set between first and third-person, as well as additional options such as picture-in-picture; the game allows for the use of twenty different weapons through twenty five levels set within a mysteriously reactivated alien fortress on the planet Ioxia, source of the valuable mineral element Mazrium. Eradicator features the ability to remotely control various apparatus and projectiles, among other unique power ups. Areas are themed as defense and miscellaneous bases and refineries, biological research laboratories. Enemies are ground- and air-based cybernetic mechanisms and alien creatures.

Visually and mechanically, the game is sector-based 2.5D, comparable to Doom and the contemporary Duke Nukem 3D. Multiplayer gameplay over modem and LAN is supported. Tommo purchased the rights to this game and digitally publishes it through its Retroism brand in 2015. On February 26, 2016 it was released onto DRM-free retailer GOG.com with support for Microsoft Windows, OS X and Linux through Dosbox. Despite its limited uptake, the game received positive reviews from GameSpot and Game Revolution, as well as Coming Soon Magazine, The Computer Show and VrEOnline; the game was conceived by Joe Ybarra's Creative Insights as “Marble Madness with a 3rd-person view” with the player character being a frog, but this was scrapped in favour of the final darker design upon the project's purchase by Accolade. This brought about the game's conversion to first-person primacy, although the original wholly third-person design lived on in the game's emphasis on platforming; some developers from the game went on to create a similar third/first person hybrid.

Voice actors were brought in from the game Deadlock: Planetary Conquest. Eradicator product page from Retroism Eradicator at MobyGames Eradicator at Giant Bomb Eradicator demo at the Internet Archive