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Stage name

A stage name is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers, such as actors, comedians and musicians. Such titles are adopted for a wide variety of reasons and may be similar or nearly identical to an individual's birth name. In some situations, a performer will adopt their title as a legal name, although this is not the case. Nicknames are sometimes used as part of a person's professional name. A performer will take a stage name because their real name is considered unattractive, dull, or unintentionally amusing, is difficult to pronounce or spell, has been used by another notable individual, or projects an undesired image. Sometimes a performer adopts a name, unusual or outlandish to attract attention. Other performers use a stage name; the equivalent concept among writers is called a nom de pen name. In radio, the term "radio name" or "air name" is used; some individuals who are related to a celebrity take a different last name so they are not perceived to have received undue advantage from their family connection.

Actor Nicolas Cage, born Nicolas Coppola, chose a new last name to avoid comparisons with his uncle, director Francis Ford Coppola, who gave him his big break in the movie Peggy Sue Got Married. Conversely, individuals who wish to receive benefit from their family connections may take that person's first or last name. Lon Chaney Sr.'s son Creighton spent a number of years appearing in minor roles before renaming himself Lon Chaney, Jr. Emilio Estevez and his sister Renee chose not to take their father Martin Sheen’s professional name and use their birth names. Women who achieve fame after marriage use their married name as part of their professional name, while women who achieved fame before marriage may continue to use their maiden name or a Hyphenated surname. In some cases, the individual may adopt a stage name to avoid confusion with other family members who have similar names. Actor Mark Harmon uses his middle name professionally to avoid confusion with his father Heisman Trophy winner and former broadcaster Tom Harmon.

Guilds and associations that represent actors, such as the Screen Actors Guild in the United States and British Actors' Equity Association in the United Kingdom, stipulate that no two members may have identical working names. An actor whose name has been taken must choose a new name. Notable examples include: Nathan Lane, whose birth name was in use. Diane Keaton, whose birth name is Diane Hall, took her mother's maiden name as a stage name after learning that there was a registered actress named Diane Hall in the Actors' Equity Association. Ugly Betty actress Vanessa Williams uses "Vanessa L. Williams" due to SAG guidelines, although the other actress with same first and last name is arguably less notable. David Walliams changed one letter in his surname due to there being another "David Williams". Terry O'Quinn of Lost fame changed his surname from Quinn to O'Quinn as another registered actor had the name Terrance Quinn. Long-time Simpsons writer and Futurama executive producer David X. Cohen changed his middle initial from S to X because there was a David S. Cohen registered with the Writer's Guild of America.

Julianne Moore was born Julie Anne Smith but found that all variations of that name were used by other actors. A middle name may be adopted in preference to changing a name. In some cases, attaching a generational suffix is sufficient for guild rules. A person hoping to become successful as an entertainer who has a name identical to a name familiar to the public may change his/her name in order to avoid having his/her name evoke the other person with the same name. Singer Katy Perry, born Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson, released her self-titled album under the name Katy Hudson, but used her mother's maiden name to avoid confusion with actress Kate Hudson. A performer may have had their stage name chosen for them by their agent – such was the case with Barbara Eden, born Barbara Jean Huffman – or, in the heyday of the Hollywood studios, by a movie studio. Joan Rivers went one step further and named herself after a former agent, Tony Rivers, after he told her to change her name. In the non English-speaking world, an example is the Taiwanese Mandopop girl group S.

H. E, whose members' English names were chosen by their manager after taking personality tests. Former child star Patty Duke had her stage name chosen for her by her first managers, their choice of the name "Patty" was inspired by another child actress named Patty McCormack (Patty Duke entitled her autobiography Call Me Anna. Cary Grant had his name selected for him by Paramount Pictures, he had been using the name "Cary Lockwood", but the studio decided against it, deeming it too similar to another actor working at the time. Cary and the studio settled on "Cary Grant" (Grant thought the letters "C" and "G" to be lucky: they had brought previous success for both Clark Gable and

Chicago: City on the Make

Chicago: City on the Make is a book-length essay by Nelson Algren published in 1951. Greeted with scorn by critics and newspaper editors in the city of its gaze, it is now regarded by scholars as the definitive prose portrait of the city of Chicago, although it has never rivaled the literary status of Carl Sandburg's 1916 poem "Chicago". Algren leans on the imagery and themes developed by Sandburg, to whom Algren dedicated the book. Curiously, he quietly leans upon a poem about New York called "The City" by Ben Maddow, from whom Algren lifted powerful images of urban life. Subsequent portraits of Chicago, such as Studs Terkel's 1985 Chicago, have leaned upon Algren's work. In the 12,000-word lyrical essay, Algren summarizes 120 years of Chicago history as a tangle of hustlers and corrupt politicians, but he declares his love for the city with these famous lines from Chapter 2: "It's every man for himself in this hired air. / Yet once you've come to be part of this particular patch, you'll never love another.

Like loving a woman with a broken nose, you may well find lovelier lovelies. But never a lovely so real." Algren locates the city's heart in the "nobodies nobody knows," the ginsoaks, stew bums, shell-shocked veterans who lurk in the alleys and linger in the weedy wastes underneath the'L' tracks. Unrivaled in its depiction of Chicago's downtrodden, the essay recounts the repeated ways Chicago sells out its dreams and disappoints its dreamers, including the 1919 Black Sox scandal, in which eight Chicago White Sox players were accused of accepting bribes to throw the world series. Indeed, Algren writes, the whole city has always been "a rigged ball game." The University of Chicago Press issued a new edition of the essay upon its 50th anniversary in 2001, it remains one of Chicago's most popular local books. Nostalgia for Chicago's colorful history may explain the essay's continued success. In a 2002 reassessment of the essay, University of Chicago scholar Jeff McMahon wrote, "Why does Algren's textual Chicago continue to resonate with Chicago readers today?

In sentences that assess Algren's legacy as a Chicago writer — sentences in which Algren serves as subject, Chicago as object — one verb recurs. As Mike Royko writes in'Algren's Golden Pen,' Algren captures Chicago. From the discourse on this essay emerges the argument that the text contains some captured aspect of Chicago that still applies to the city today." Algren, Nelson. Chicago: City on the Make. Fiftieth Anniversary Edition, annotated by David Schmittgens and Bill Savage. Drew, Bettina. Nelson Algren: A Life on the Wild Side.. Horvath, Understanding Nelson Algren. McMahon, Jeff, "Nelson Algren's Secret Muse: The True Story Behind City on the Make," in Newcity magazine, vol. 17, no. 765, January 30, 2003, p. 5-7. Petri Liukkonen. "Nelson Algren". Books and Writers

List of Cambodian districts and sections

This is a list of Cambodia's 165 districts, 26 municipalities, 14 sections, organized by province or municipality. Each district has a code in parentheses displaying the first two digits as the province and the last two as the district representing that province. Chamkar Mon Section Doun Penh Section Prampir Makara Section Tuol Kouk Section Dangkao Section Mean Chey Section Russey Keo Section Sen Sok Section Pou Senchey Section Chrouy Changvar Section Prek Pnov Section Chbar Ampov Section Boeng Keng Kang Section Kombol Section Mongkol Borei Phnum Srok Preah Netr Preah Ou Chrov Serei Saophoan Municipality Thma Puok Svay Chek Malai Paoy Paet Municipality Banan Thma Koul Battambang Municipality Bavel Ek Phnom Moung Ruessi Rotanak Mondol Sangkae Samlout Sampov Loun Phnum Proek Kamrieng Koas Krala Rukhak Kiri Batheay Chamkar Leu Cheung Prey Kampong Cham Municipality Kampong Siem Kang Meas Koh Sotin Prey Chhor Srey Santhor Stueng Trang Baribour Chol Kiri Kampong Chhnang Municipality Kampong Leaeng Kampong Tralach Rolea B'ier Sameakki Mean Chey Tuek Phos Basedth Chbar Mon Municipality Kong Pisei Aoral Odongk Phnom Sruoch Samraong Tong Thpong Baray Kampong Svay Stueng Saen Municipality Prasat Balangk Prasat Sambour Sandaan Santuk Stoung Angkor Chey Banteay Meas Chhuk Chum Kiri Dang Tong Kampong Trach Tuek Chhou Kampot Municipality Kandal Stueng Kien Svay Khsach Kandal Kaoh Thum Leuk Daek Lvea Aem Mukh Kampul Angk Snuol Ponhea Lueu S'ang Ta Khmau Municipality Damnak Chang'aeur Kep Municipality Botum Sakor Kiri Sakor Khemara Phoumin Municipality Smach Mean Chey Mondol Seima Srae Ambel Thma Bang Chhloung Kratié Municipality Preaek Prasab Sambour Snuol Chitr Borie Kaev Seima Kaoh Nheaek Ou Reang Pechr Chenda Saen Monourom Municipality Anlong Veaeng Banteay Ampil Chong Kal Samraong Municipality Trapeang Prasat Pailin Municipality Sala Krau Chey Saen Chhaeb Choam Khsant Kuleaen Rovieng Sangkum Thmei Tbaeng Mean Chey Preah Vihear Municipality Bakan Kandieng Krakor Phnum Kravanh Pursat Municipality Veal Veaeng Talou Sen Chey Ba Phnum Kamchay Mear Kampong Trabaek Kanhchriech Me Sang Peam Chor Peam Ro Pea Reang Preah Sdach Prey Veaeng Municipality Kampong Leav Sithor Kandal Pea Reang Neak Loeung Svay Antor Andoung Meas Banlung Municipality Bar Kaev Koun Mom Lumphat Ou Chum Ou Ya Dav Ta Veaeng Veun Sai Angkor Chum Angkor Thom Banteay Srei Chi Kraeng Kralanh Puok Prasat Bakong Siem Reap Municipality Sout Nikom Srei Snam Svay Leu Varin Preah Sihanouk Municipality Prey Nob Stueng Hav Kampong Seila Sesan Siem Bouk Siem Pang Stung Treng Municipality Thala Barivat Borei O'Svay Sen Chey Chantrea Kampong Rou Rumduol Romeas Haek Svay Chrum Svay Rieng Municipality Svay Teab Bavet Municipality Angkor Borei Bati Bourei Cholsar Kiri Vong Kaoh Andaet Prey Kabbas Samraong Doun Kaev Municipality Tram Kak Treang Dambae Krouch Chhmar Memot Ou Reang Ov Ponhea Kraek Tboung Khmum Suong Municipality "Provinces of Cambodia".

Statoids. "Districts of Cambodia". Statoids

Fran├žois Tortebat

François Tortebat was a French portrait painter and engraver. Born to Louis Tortebat and Marguerite de Nameur, Tortebat joined the studio of Simon Vouet around 1631, married his teacher's eldest daughter, Francoise, on November 9, 1643 with whom he had thirteen children. Tortebat is recorded as being in Rome between 1635 and 1640, making large copies of Raphael Cartoons as the result of a commission from Cardinal Antonio Barberini. Tortebat rejoined Vouet's studio upon his return to France. After Vouet's death in 1649, Tortebat collaborated with his teacher's other son-in-law, Michel Dorigny, gaining exclusive rights to reproduce Vouet's works in print form, designing the sets for Louis XIV's return to Paris with his new wife Maria Theresa of Spain in 1660. Tortebat became a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1663, where his reception piece was a posthumous portrait of Vouet. Tortebat published a series of etching after paintings by The Carracci from the Palazzo Magnani in Bologna.

Tortebat died in Paris in 1690. Clark, Jr. Alvin L. “A New Attribution to François Tortebat.” Master Drawings, vol. 44, no. 4, 2006, pp. 493–497. JSTOR, Oxford profile

Amphiprion akindynos

Amphiprion akindynos, the Barrier Reef anemonefish, is a species of anemonefish, principally found in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, but in nearby locations in the Western Pacific. The species name'akindynos' is Greek, meaning'safe' or'without danger' in reference to the safety afforded amongst the tentacles of its host anemone. Like all anemonefishes it forms a symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones and is unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone, it is a sequential hermaphrodite with a strict size-based dominance hierarchy: the female is largest, the breeding male is second largest, the male non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy descends. They exhibit protandry, meaning the breeding male will change to female if the sole breeding female dies, with the largest non-breeder becomes the breeding male; the fish's natural diet includes zooplankton. Adults are an orange-brown colour with two white bars with black edging encircling the body; the first bar may be thin and broken.

The second bar is on the body below the dorsal fin. The caudal peduncle and caudal fin are white. Juveniles are brown with three white stripes. In sub-adults the colouring changes to a dull yellow with two white stripes, they have 2 anal spines. They reach a maximum length of 12–13 cm; some anemonefish species have colour variations based on geographic location and host anemone. A. akindynos does not show any of these variations. The white bars on A. akindynos are narrower than A. clarkii and lacks the abrupt transition between the body colour and white caudal fin. A. clarkii may have a yellow caudal fin. Adult A. chrysopterus are darker while the head bar is not constricted or discontinuous. Traditionally A. akindynos was included in the clarkii complex, however genetic analysis has shown that it is different from any of the other species in the clarkii complex and instead is part of a clade with A. mccullochi. Further study suggested an evolutionary connectivity among between samples of A. akindynos and A. mccullochi.

Historical hybridization and introgression in the evolutionary past resulted in a complex mitochondrial DNA structure. There were two evolutionary groups with individuals of both species detected in both, thus the species lacked reciprocal monophyly. There were no shared haplotypes between species; the Barrier Reef anemonefish is found in lagoons and outer reefs in the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, northern New South Wales, New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands and Tonga. A. akindynos has been thought to be limited to depths of less than 25 m, however surveys using autonomous underwater vehicles of mesophotic reefs at Viper Reef and Hydrographers Passage in the central Great Barrier Reef observed A. akindynos at depths between 50 and 65 m. The relationship between anemonefish and their host sea anemones is not random and instead is nested in structure. A. akindynos is a generalist, being hosted by the following 6 out of the 10 host anemones: Entacmaea quadricolor Bubble-tip anemone Heteractis aurora beaded sea anemone Heteractis crispa Sebae anemone Heteractis magnifica magnificent sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni Stichodactyla mertensii Mertens' carpet sea anemone The Barrier Reef anemonefish is a nesting fish.

A few days before mating, aggression from the dominant male towards the female increases, at the same time he begins clearing a nest site on a rock close to the host anemone. The rock is cleaned of algae, sometimes with the assistance of the female; when spawning takes place the female zig-zags over the nest site and the male follows fertilizing the eggs which have been deposited. Between 100 and 1000 elliptical eggs of between 3 and 4 mm in length may be laid, they are attached to the nest site by a mass of short filaments. The male aerates the eggs for 6 to 7 days until they hatch; the larvae are dispersed by currents and swimming. Larvae mortality is high, with most of the surviving larvae settling on the original reef; the diet of the Barrier Reef anemonefish consists of algae and zooplankton. The dominant pair in the social hierarchy tend to travel farther from the host anemone in order to find food; the host anemone may benefit from small pieces of food. Anemonefish and their host anemones face similar environmental issues.

Like corals, anemone's contain intracellular endosymbionts and can suffer from bleaching due to triggers such as increased water temperature or acidification. The other threat to anemonefish is collection for the marine aquarium trade; the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority manages collection by zoning reefs as open or closed and a breeding pair of adults or sub-adults is removed, leaving at least one anemonefish behind. While bleaching was found to be a cause of anemone and anemonefish decline in the Keppel Islands and anemonefish were still present on bleached reefs in the closed zones however they were absent from bleached reefs in the open zones, suggesting that collection compounds the impact of bleaching. A survey published in 2014 found 58% of sites surveyed on the Great Barrier Reef did not have anemones or anemonefishes, at sites where they were present, numbers were low and suggested that current regulations may not be sufficient to prevent localised extinctions nor to ensure that reproductive success is not adversely impacted.

This species was not evaluated in the 2012 release of the IUCN Red List. The Barrier Reef anemonefish was named as the state aquatic emblem of Queensland in March, 2005. "Amphiprion akindynos". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 30 Janu

Becher's Brook

Becher's Brook is a fence jumped during the Grand National, a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse near Liverpool, England. It is jumped twice during the race, as the sixth and 22nd fence, as well as on four other occasions during the year, it has always been a notorious and controversial obstacle, because of the size and angle of the 6 ft 9in drop on the landing side. Some jockeys have compared it to "jumping off the edge of the world."After the deaths of Dark Ivy in the 1987 Grand National and Seeandem and Brown Trix in the 1989 Grand National, all at Becher's Brook, Aintree bowed to pressure from animal rights groups and undertook extensive modifications to the fence. Further changes were made after two horses and Dooneys Gate, died during the 2011 Grand National, the latter at Becher's; the incident involving Dooneys Gate resulted in the fence being jumped only once for the first time in the race's history. The fence took its name from Captain Martin Becher, who fell there from his mount, Conrad, in the first official Grand National in 1839, took shelter in the brook to avoid injury.

The jump consisted of an 8 ft-wide brook with a fence set back a yard in front of the water, the ground on the landing side 3 ft lower than the take-off side. Slight amendments were made to the landing side of Becher's Brook in 1954 after recommendations were made to the National Hunt Committee, but the most significant modifications took place following the 1987 and 1989 Grand Nationals. In 1987, Dark Ivy, a grey horse, fell at the fence and landed perpendicular, incurring a cervical fracture which killed him instantly. In 1989, six horses fell at Becher's on the first circuit. Seeandem, ridden by Liam Cusack, broke his back and had to be euthanised, while Brown Trix, ridden by amateur jockey David Pitcher, fractured a shoulder and rolled down into the water-filled brook where he drowned, he was euthanised. By the time the remaining runners reached Becher's Brook on the second circuit, course officials had been unable to remove the bodies in time. Audiences were given a clear view of Brown Trix's body at one end of the fence and a green tarpaulin covering Seeandem's body at the other end of the fence.

Following an outcry, Aintree made several changes to the fence: The sloped ground leading into the brook on the landing side was levelled off significantly. The brook itself was raised by 30 inches to include only 1 inch of water. Outside running rails were splayed out to allow more room for horses landing wide. After an eight-horse pile up on the first circuit of the 2004 Grand National where some horses rolled back towards the filled-in brook, the brook was rebuilt in 2005, it was built deeper and included running water for the first time since 1989 but was covered over with rubber matting in an effort to make the jump less hazardous for horses that had fallen. In 2009, the Grand National course was widened so there is enough room for runners to bypass fences if required, including Becher's Brook; the new bypass lane at Becher's was used for the first time during the 2011 Grand National as marshals waved flags and diverted the remaining contenders around the fence on the second circuit while veterinary staff attended to a fatally injured horse, Dooneys Gate, who had broken his back.

On 15 August 2011, Aintree announced new modifications to Becher's Brook following a review of the course in the aftermath of the 2011 National. Amongst the changes to the course, the landing side of Becher's was re-profiled to reduce the current drop by between 4 and 5 inches across the width of the fence; the drop is now 10 inches on the inside of the course and 6 inches on the outside of the course. This difference in drop from the inside to the outside of the fence has been retained to encourage riders to spread out across the width of the fence and to retain the unique characteristics of the fence; the height of the fence remains unaltered at 4 ft 10 inches. The following table shows the number of fallers at Becher's Brook during the main Grand National race, including those who unseated their riders or were brought down, but not including those that pulled up, were carried out, or refused at the fence. *Jumped only on first circuit. List of equine fatalities in the Grand National Canal Turn Foinavon The Chair National Velvet