Durham Priory was a Benedictine priory associated with Durham Cathedral, in Durham in the north-east of England. Its head was the Prior of Durham, it was founded in 1083 and when dissolved in 1540 was succeeded by a chapter of secular canons led by a dean. Durham Priory was one of the most important land owners in County Durham along with the Bishop of Durham until the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII; until Durham Priory was home to between 50 and 100 Benedictine monks. Durham was the richest of the monasteries associated with Durham.
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
Tower houses in Britain and Ireland
The tower house appeared in the British Isles, starting from the High Middle Ages. Such buildings were constructed in the wilder parts of Great Britain and Ireland in Scotland, throughout Ireland, until at least up to the 17th century; the remains of such structures are dotted around the Irish and Scottish countryside, with a particular concentration in the Scottish Borders where they include peel towers and bastle houses. Some are still intact and inhabited today, while others stand as ruined shells. Tower houses are called castles, despite their characteristic compact footprint size, they are formidable habitations and there is no clear distinction between a castle and a tower house. In Scotland a classification system has been accepted based on ground plan, such as the L-plan castle style, one example being the original layout of Muchalls Castle in Scotland; the few surviving round Scottish Iron Age towers known as brochs are compared to tower houses, having mural passages and a basebatter, although the entrances to Brochs are far less ostentatious.
Irish archaeologist Tom Finan has stated that while the precise origins of the Irish tower house is "shady", he makes the case that "the Irish hall house is in fact the parent of the Irish tower house". Tadhg O'Keefe has stressed that there remain issues over the use of terms halls,'hall-houses', and'tower-houses' have become needlessly entangled and argues for a clearer understanding of the terms, where they apply. In Ireland, there are well over two thousand tower houses extant, with many more many built between the 15th and 17th centuries. After 1500 many lords built fortified houses, although the introduction of cannons rendered such defenses obsolete, it is possible many were built after King Henry VI of England introduced a building subsidy of £10 in 1429 to every man in the Pale who wished to build a castle within 10 years. However recent studies have undermined the significance of this grant, demonstrating that there were many similar grants at different times and in different areas, because many were built in areas outside English control.
They were built by both the Anglo-Irish and Gaelic Irish, with some constructed by English and Scottish immigrants during successive conquests of Ireland between the 1570s and 1690s. Many were positioned within sight of each other and a system of visual communication is said to have been established between them, based on line of sight from the uppermost levels, although this may be a result of their high density. County Kilkenny has several examples of this arrangement such as Neigham. County Clare is known to have had two hundred and thirty tower houses in the 17th century, some of which were surveyed by the notable Irish antiquarian Thomas Johnson Westropp in the 1890s; the Irish tower house was used for both defensive and residential reasons, with many lordly dynasties building them on their demesne lands in order to assert status and provide a residence for the senior lineage of the family. Many had a defensive wall around the building, known as a bawn. Architecture in early modern Scotland#Vernacular architecture Bawn Scottish Vernacular Vernacular architecture https://www.academia.edu/9284251/Hall_Houses_Church_and_State_in_Thirteenth_Century_Roscommon_The_Origins_of_the_Irish_Tower_House
Peterlee is a small town in County Durham, founded in 1948, built under the auspices of the New Towns Act 1946. It has economic and community ties with Sunderland and Durham; the case for Peterlee was put forth in Farewell Squalor by Easington Rural District Council Surveyor C. W. Clarke, who proposed that the town was named after the celebrated Durham miners' leader Peter Lee. Peterlee is one of the few places in the British Isles to be directly named after an individual, is unique among the new towns which came into being after the Second World War, in that it was the only new town requested by the people through their MP. A deputation if not all working miners, met with the Minister of Town and Country Planning after the Second World War to put the case for a new town in the district; the Minister, Lewis Silkin, responded by offering a half-size new town of 30,000 residents. The subsequent new residents came from the surrounding villages in the District of Easington; the Peterlee Development Corporation was established in 1948, first under the direction of A V Williams under Dr. Monica Felton.
The original master-plan for towering blocks of flats by Berthold Lubetkin was rejected as unsuitable for the geology of the area, weakened by mining works, he resigned in 1950. George Grenfell Baines replaced Lubetkin and began to build resulting in buildings of poor-quality construction. Williams invited an artist Victor Pasmore to be head of the design team for the landscaping. Peterlee Town Council Durham County Council The Apollo Pavilion, designed by Victor Pasmore, was completed in 1970, it provided a focal point for the Sunny Blunts estate as well as a bridge across a water-course. It was named after the Apollo moon missions. From the late 1970s, the Pavilion became a target for anti-social behaviour. Original murals on the building faded, to discourage anti-social behaviour, staircases were removed in the 1980s. In 1996, there was a failed attempt to list the Pavilion. English Heritage described it as "an internationally important masterpiece". However, some local residents and councillors saw Pavilion as an eyesore and campaigned to have it demolished.
The campaign appeared to have been successful when demolition was proposed in 2000. However, in July 2009, a six-month revamp programme was completed at a cost of £400,000; as part of this, original features such as the murals and stairs were reinstated. In December 2011, English Heritage gave the pavilion a Grade-II* listing. Peterlee is served by two main roads, The A19 runs to the west of the town leading to Sunderland in the north and Teesside in the south, the A1086 runs to the east of the town leading to Easington in the north and Hartlepool to the south; the B1320 runs through the town centre linking the town to Horden and the A1086 in the east and Shotton Colliery and the A19 in the west. The B1432 to the north from the town centre leads to Easington Village and Seaham on the route of the old A19; the A181 runs to the south west of the town at the Castle Eden and Wingate junction on the A19 leading to Wheatley Hill and Durham. In 2008 the A688 road was extended to the A181 at Running Waters from the A1 junction at Bowburn.
This created a new trunk road from Peterlee to the A1 via the A19, A181 and A688. Peterlee is served by Arriva North East and Go North East, which provide services in the local area, to Dalton Park, to the towns and cities of Newcastle, Sunderland, Houghton-le-Spring, Hartlepool, Newton Aycliffe, Stockton and Darlington. Peterlee was served by Horden railway station on the Durham Coast Line until it closed in 1964. However, in 2017, Durham County Council announced that a new station for Horden will be built after a successful bid for funding. Dene Community School The Academy at Shotton Hall St. Bede's Catholic Comprehensive School Castle Eden Dene most of it within the boundaries of Peterlee, is a national nature reserve. Nordenham, Germany In alphabetical order: Jan Graveson – actress and singer Courtney Hadwin – award-winning teenage singer Mark Hoban – politician, former Conservative MP for Fareham Salena Jones – American Singer lived in 109, Westmorland Rise 1966/7 with Dennis Stafford one of the accused murderers of Angus Sibbet.
See One Armed Bandit Murder Gina McKee – actress Crissy Rock – actress
Barnard Castle is a market town in Teesdale, County Durham, England. It is named after the castle, it is the main settlement in the Teesdale area, is a popular tourist destination. The Bowes Museum has the best collection of European fine and decorative arts in the North of England, housed in a "magnificent" 19th-century French-style chateau, its most famous exhibit is the 18th-century Silver Swan automaton, though art includes work by Goya and El Greco. Barnard Castle sits on the north bank of the River Tees, opposite Startforth and 21 miles south-west of the county town of Durham. Nearby towns include Bishop Auckland to the north-east, Darlington to the east and Richmond in North Yorkshire to the south-east. Barnard Castle's largest single employer is GlaxoSmithKline which has a manufacturing facility on the outskirts of town. Before the Norman conquest the upper half of Teesdale had been combined into an Anglo-Norse estate, centred upon the ancient village of Gainford and mortgaged to the Earls of Northumberland.
The first Norman Bishop of Durham, Bishop Walcher, was murdered in 1080. This led to the surrounding country being laid waste by the Norman overlords. Further rebellion in 1095 caused the king William II to break up the Earldom of Northumberland into smaller baronies; the Lordship of Gainford was given to Guy de Balliol. The earthwork fortifications of the castle were re-built in stone by his successor, Bernard de Balliol I during the latter half of the 12th century, giving rise to the town's name; the castle passed down through the Balliol family and into the possession of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. King Richard III inherited it through his wife, Anne Neville, but it fell into ruins in the century after his death; the remains of the castle are a Grade I listed building, whilst the chapel in the outer ward is Grade II* listed. Both sets of remains open to the public. Walter Scott visited his friend John Sawrey Morritt at Rokeby Hall and was fond of exploring Teesdale, he begins his epic poem Rokeby with a man standing on guard on the round tower of the Barnard Castle fortress.
Charles Dickens and his illustrator Hablot Browne stayed at the King's Head in Barnard Castle while researching his novel Nicholas Nickleby in the winter of 1837–38. He is said to have entered William Humphrey's clock-maker's shop opposite the hotel, enquired who had made a certain remarkable clock. William replied; this seems to have prompted Dickens to choose the title "Master Humphrey's Clock" for his new weekly, in whichThe Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge appeared. William Wordsworth, Daniel Defoe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Hilaire Belloc, Bill Bryson and the artist J M W Turner have visited the town; the Bowes Museum, housed in a chateau-like building, was founded by John Bowes and his wife Josephine, is of national status. It contains an El Greco, paintings by Goya, Boucher, Fragonard and a collection of decorative art. A great attraction is the 18th century silver swan automaton, which periodically preens itself, looks round and appears to catch and swallow a fish. John Bowes lived at nearby Streatlam Castle.
His Streatlam stud never had more than ten breeding mares at one time, but produced no fewer than four Derby winners in twenty years. The last of these, "West Australian", was the first racehorse to win the Triple Crown. Although never a big manufacturing centre, in the 18th century industry centred on hand loom wool weaving, in the early 19th century the principal industry was spinning and the manufacture of shoe thread. Barnard Castle is for all purposes located in County Durham; the county boundary with the North Riding of Yorkshire was adjusted in 1967: that part of the town of Barnard Castle in Yorkshire was added to County Durham. Barnard Castle was the administrative centre of the former Teesdale district of County Durham until its abolition on 1 April 2009; the town is now administered by Durham County Council Unitary Authority, as principal authority and by Barnard Castle Town Council, as a parish. The Town Council elects a ceremonial Town Mayor annually, it is part of the Bishop Auckland parliamentary constituency, which as of 2017 is represented in parliament by Helen Goodman, though with a small majority over the Conservatives.
It is in the North East England region. Between 1894 and 1967 the town was administratively part of Barnard Castle Urban District. All four local councilors are Conservative; the local police force is Durham Constabulary. The town is the base for the Barnard Castle division; this division is within the force's south area. Elevation: 180 m Nearest large towns: Darlington, 16 miles. Bishop Auckland 14.8 miles The most important employer in Barnard Castle is Glaxo Smithkline, which have a large pharmaceutical manufacturing plant on the outskirts of the town which employs around 1000 people. GSK has invested £80 million into the plant since 2007. Barnard Castle is located in a picturesque area of Teesdale and tourism is important to the local economy. Several holiday parks are located nearby including a Caravanning Club site; the town has a number of antique shops and an antique centre which attracts antique buyers from all around the world. The High Street has many independent shops. Nearby Startforth has a young offenders' institution.
Barnard Castle has road connections to Bishop Auckland and central County Durham via the A688 and Darlington, Stockton-on-Te
United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget
Borough of Stockton-on-Tees
The Borough of Stockton-on-Tees is a unitary authority and borough in the north east of England, with a population of 191,600 shown in the 2011 census. It is split between the ceremonial counties of North Yorkshire by the River Tees; the borough of Stockton-on-Tees consists of Stockton-on-Tees, smaller outlying settlements, including Billingham north of the Tees, while south of the river are Thornaby-on-Tees and Ingleby Barwick. Durham Tees Valley Airport is partly within the borough; the Stockton-on-Tees borough accounts for the largest number of residents within the Teesside and Hartlepool urban area. Together with other neighbouring boroughs, it forms part of the Tees Valley city region; the core of the town was anciently in County Durham, but the borough spilled over the river into Yorkshire. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974, from the Stockton part of Teesside county borough, along with part of Stockton Rural District in County Durham and part of Stokesley Rural District from the North Riding.
At that time it was designated a non-metropolitan district of Cleveland. It became a unitary authority on 1 April 1996. For ceremonial purposes the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire, along the line of the River Tees as shown in the map with County Durham to the north and North Yorkshire to the south, it is the only council area in Wales to be split between two ceremonial counties. The Borough has 26 wards with either two or three Councillors representing each. There are 56 Councillors in total in the Borough of Stockton. Following the elections that took place in May 2015, 32 Councillors are Labour, 13 Conservative, 5 Ingleby Barwick Independent Society, 3 Thornaby Independent Association, 2 West Words and 1 Liberal Democrat; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. ^1 includes hunting and forestry ^2 includes energy and construction ^3 includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^4 Components may not sum to totals due to rounding The council maintains a number of Local Nature Reserves including Barwick Pond, Charlton's Pond, Hardwick Dene and Elm Tree Woods, Norton Grange Marsh, Quarry Wood and Stillington Forest Park.
Statistics about Stockton-on-Tees from the Office for National Statistics Census 2001