Nat King Cole
Nathaniel Adams Coles, known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American jazz pianist and vocalist. He recorded over one hundred songs, his trio was the model for small jazz ensembles. Cole acted in films and on television and performed on Broadway, he was the first African American man to host an American television series. Nathaniel Adams Coles was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 17, 1919, he had three brothers: Eddie and Freddy, a half-sister, Joyce Coles. Each of the Cole brothers pursued careers in music; when Nat King Cole was four years old, the family moved to Chicago, where his father, Edward Coles, became a Baptist minister. Cole learned to play the organ from Perlina Coles, the church organist, his first performance was "Yes! We Have No Bananas" at the age of four, he began formal lessons at 12, learning jazz and classical music on piano "from Johann Sebastian Bach to Sergei Rachmaninoff."The Cole family moved to the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago, where he attended Wendell Phillips Academy High School, the school Sam Cooke attended a few years later.
He participated in Walter Dyett's music program at DuSable High School. He would sneak out of the house to visit clubs, sitting outside to hear Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines, Jimmie Noone; when he was fifteen, Cole dropped out of high school to pursue a music career. After his brother Eddie, a bassist, came home from touring with Noble Sissle, they formed a sextet and recorded two singles for Decca in 1936 as Eddie Cole's Swingsters, they performed in a revival of the musical Shuffle Along. Nat Cole went on tour with the musical. In 1937, he married Nadine Robinson, a member of the cast. After the show ended in Los Angeles and Nadine settled there while he looked for work, he led a big band found work playing piano in nightclubs. When a club owner asked him to form a band, he hired bassist Wesley Prince and guitarist Oscar Moore, they called themselves the King Cole Swingsters after the nursery rhyme in which "Old King Cole was a merry old soul." They changed their name to the King Cole Trio before making radio transcriptions and recording for small labels.
Cole recorded "Sweet Lorraine" in 1940, it became his first hit. According to legend, his career as a vocalist started when a drunken bar patron demanded that he sing the song. Cole said that this fabricated story sounded good, so he didn't argue with it. In fact there was a customer one night who demanded that he sing, but because it was a song Cole didn't know, he sang "Sweet Lorraine" instead; as people heard Cole's vocal talent, they requested more vocal songs, he obliged. In 1941 the trio recorded "That Ain't Right" for Decca, followed the next year by "All for You" for Excelsior, they recorded "I'm Lost", a song written by Otis René, the owner of Excelsior. During the late 1930s the trio recorded radio transcriptions for Capitol, they performed on the radio programs Swing Soiree, Old Gold, The Chesterfield Supper Club, Kraft Music Hall, The Orson Welles Almanac. Cole appeared in the first Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts in 1944, he was credited on Mercury as "Shorty Nadine", a derivative of his wife's name, because he had an exclusive contract with Capitol since signing with the label the year before.
He recorded with Lester Young. In 1946 the trio broadcast a fifteen-minute radio program; this was the first radio program to be sponsored by a black musician. Cole began recording and performing pop-oriented material in which he was accompanied by a string orchestra, his stature as a popular star was cemented during this period by hits such as "All for You", "The Christmas Song", " Route 66", " For Sentimental Reasons", "There! I've Said It Again", "Nature Boy", "Frosty The Snowman", "Mona Lisa", "Orange Colored Sky", "Too Young",On November 5, 1956, The Nat'King' Cole Show debuted on NBC; the variety program was one of the first hosted by an African American, The program started at a length of fifteen-minutes but was increased to a half-hour in July 1957. Rheingold Beer was a regional sponsor; the show was in trouble financially despite efforts by NBC, Harry Belafonte, Tony Bennett, Ella Fitzgerald, Eartha Kitt, Frankie Laine, Peggy Lee, Mel Tormé. Cole decided to end the program; the last episode aired on December 17, 1957.
Commenting on the lack of sponsorship, Cole said shortly after its demise, "Madison Avenue is afraid of the dark."Throughout the 1950s, Cole continued to record hits that sold millions throughout the world, such as "Smile", "Pretend", "A Blossom Fell", "If I May". His pop hits were collaborations with Nelson Riddle, Gordon Jenkins, Ralph Carmichael. Riddle arranged several of Cole's 1950s albums, including Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love, his first 10-inch LP. In 1955, "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" reached number 7 on the Billboard chart. Love Is the Thing went to number one in April 1957 remained his only number one album. In 1959 he received a Grammy Award for Best Performance By a "Top 40" Artist for "Midnight Flyer". In 1958 Cole went to Havana, Cuba, to record Cole Español, an album sung in Spanish, it was so popular in Latin America and the U. S. that it was followed by two more Spanish-language albums: A Mis Amigos and More Cole Español. After the change in musical tastes, Cole's ballads appealed little to young listeners, despite a successful attempt at rock and roll with "Send for Me", which peaked at number 6 on the pop chart.
Like Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, Tony Bennet
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Antônio Carlos Jobim
Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim known as Tom Jobim, was a Brazilian composer, songwriter and singer. Considered as one of the great exponents of Brazilian music, Jobim is the artist who internationalized bossa nova and, with the help of important American artists, merged it with jazz in the 1960s to create a new sound with remarkable popular success, he was a primary force behind the creation of the bossa nova style, his songs have been performed by many singers and instrumentalists within Brazil and internationally. In 1965 his album Getz/Gilberto was the first jazz album to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year, it won for Best Jazz Instrumental Album – Individual or Group and for Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical. The album's single "Garota de Ipanema", one of the most recorded songs of all time, won the Record of the Year. Jobim has left a large number of songs that are now included in pop standard repertoires; the song "Garota de Ipanema" has been recorded over 240 times by other artists.
His 1967 album with Frank Sinatra, Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim, was nominated for Album of the Year in 1968. Antônio Carlos Jobim was born in the middle-class district of Tijuca in Rio de Janeiro, his father, Jorge de Oliveira Jobim, was a writer, diplomat and journalist. He came from a prominent family, being the great nephew of José Martins da Cruz Jobim, privy councillor and physician of Emperor Dom Pedro II. While studying medicine in Europe, José Martins added Jobim to his last name, paying homage to the village where his family came from in Portugal, the parish of Santa Cruz de Jovim, Porto; when Antônio was still an infant, his parents separated and his mother, Nilza Brasileiro de Almeida, moved with her children to Ipanema, the beachside neighborhood the composer would celebrate in his songs. In 1935, when the elder Jobim died, Nilza married Celso da Frota Pessoa, who would encourage his stepson's career, he was the one. As a young man of limited means, Jobim earned his living by playing in nightclubs and bars and as an arranger for a recording label, before starting to achieve success as a composer.
Jobim's musical roots were planted in the work of Pixinguinha, the legendary musician and composer who began modern Brazilian music in the 1930s. Among his teachers were Lúcia Branco and, from 1941 on, Hans-Joachim Koellreutter. Jobim was influenced by the French composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, by the Brazilian composers Heitor Villa-Lobos and Ary Barroso; the Bossa Nova guitar style, such as Antonio Carlos Jobim's guitar, has become entrenched in the jazz culture. Among many themes, his lyrics talked about love, self-discovery, betrayal and about the birds and natural wonders of Brazil, like the "Mata Atlântica" forest, characters of Brazilian folklore and his home city of Rio de Janeiro. Jobim became prominent in Brazil when he teamed up with poet and diplomat Vinicius de Moraes to write the music for the play Orfeu da Conceição; the most popular song from the show was "Se Todos Fossem Iguais A Você". When the play was turned into a film, producer Sacha Gordine did not want to use any of the existing music from the play.
Gordine asked de Jobim for a new score for the film Orfeu Negro, or Black Orpheus. Moraes was at the time away in Montevideo, working for the Itamaraty and so he and Jobim were only able to write three songs over the telephone; this collaboration proved successful, de Moraes went on to pen the lyrics to some of Jobim's most popular songs. A key event in making Jobim's music known in the English-speaking world was his collaboration with the American jazz saxophonist Stan Getz, the Brazilian singer João Gilberto, Gilberto's wife at the time, Astrud Gilberto, which resulted in two albums, Getz/Gilberto and Getz/Gilberto Vol. 2. The release of Getz/Gilberto created a bossa nova craze in the United States and subsequently internationally. Getz had recorded Jazz Samba with Charlie Byrd, Jazz Samba Encore! with Luiz Bonfá. Jobim wrote many of the songs on Getz/Gilberto, which became one of the best-selling jazz albums of all time, turned Astrud Gilberto, who sang on "The Girl from Ipanema" and "Corcovado", into an international sensation.
At the Grammy Awards of 1965 Getz/Gilberto won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year, the Grammy Award for Best Jazz Instrumental Album, Individual or Group and the Grammy Award for Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical. "The Girl from Ipanema" won the Grammy Award for Record of the Year. Jobim was married to Thereza Otero Hermanny on October 15, 1949 and had two children with her: Paulo Jobim, an architect and musician and father of Daniel Jobim and Dora Jobim. Jobim and Thereza divorced in 1978. On April 30, 1986 he married 29-year-old photographer Ana Beatriz Lontra, with whom he had two more children: João Francisco Jobim and Maria Luiza Helena Jobim. Daniel, Paulo's son, followed his grandfather to become a pianist and composer, performed "The Girl from Ipanema" during the opening ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. In early 1994, after finishing his album Antonio Brasileiro, Jobim complained to his do
Roy Owen Haynes is an American jazz drummer and group leader. Haynes is among the most recorded drummers in jazz, in a career lasting over 70 years has played in a wide range of styles ranging from swing and bebop to jazz fusion and avant-garde jazz, he has a expressive, personal style. He has led his own groups, some performing under the name Hip Ensemble, his recordings as a leader, Fountain of Youth and Whereas, were nominated for a Grammy Award. He continues to perform worldwide and was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1999, his son Graham Haynes is a cornetist. Born in the Roxbury section of Boston, Haynes made his professional debut in 1944 in his native Boston. Haynes began his full-time professional career in 1945. From 1947 to 1949 he worked with saxophonist Lester Young, from 1949 to 1952 was a member of saxophonist Charlie Parker's quintet, he recorded at the time with pianist Bud Powell and saxophonists Wardell Gray and Stan Getz. From 1953 to 1958 he toured with singer Sarah Vaughan and recorded with her.
Haynes's influence on the rock world has been apparent, with a tribute song recorded by Jim Keltner and Charlie Watts of the Rolling Stones, on-stage appearances with the Allman Brothers Band in 2006 and Page McConnell of Phish in 2008. In 2008 Haynes appeared in Grand Theft Auto IV as himself as the DJ of the radio station JNR. A 3 CD/1 DVD boxed set entitled A Life in Time - The Roy Haynes Story was released by Dreyfus Jazz in October 2007; the set chronicles highlights from Haynes career from 1949 to 2006, including recordings with Parker, Davis, Corea and his own Hip Ensemble and Fountain of Youth quartet. The set was listed by The New Yorker Magazine as one of the Best Boxed Sets of 2007, was nominated for an award by the Jazz Journalist's Association. WKCR-FM, New York, surveyed Haynes's career in 301 hours of programming, January 11–23, 2009. On April 21, 2016, at the age of 91, Haynes performed drums on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, accompanied by Jon Batiste and Stay Human. Haynes extracted the rhythmic qualities from melodies and created unique new drum and cymbal patterns in an idiosyncratic, now recognizable style.
Rather than using cymbals for effect, Haynes brought them to the forefront of his unique rhythmic approach. He established a distinctively crisp and rapid-fire sound on the snare. Haynes endorses Yamaha drums and hardware, Zildjian cymbals and Remo drumheads, he uses his Zildjian Roy Haynes signature drumstick and has a Yamaha Roy Haynes signature snare drum. In the past, he endorsed Ludwig and Slingerland and he has been photographed playing Latin Percussion, notably congas. Haynes had used Paiste flat rides in the past, thus indicating he may have endorsed Paiste at some stage. Esquire named Roy Haynes one of the Best Dressed Men in America in 1960, along with Fred Astaire, Miles Davis, Clark Gable, Cary Grant. In 1994, he was awarded the prestigious Danish Jazzpar prize, in 1996 the French government recognized Haynes as a knight, decorating him with the prestigious "Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres," France's top literary and artistic honor. Haynes received honorary doctorates from the Berklee College of Music, The New England Conservatory, as well as a Peabody Medal, the highest honor bestowed by the Peabody Institute of The Johns Hopkins University, in 2012.
He was inducted into the Down Beat Magazine Hall of Fame in 2004. On October 9, 2010, Roy Haynes was awarded the Mid Atlantic Arts Foundation's BNY Mellon Jazz Living Legacy Award at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, DC. On December 22, 2010, Haynes was named a recipient of a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Haynes received the award at the Special Merit Awards Ceremony & Nominees Reception of the 53rd Annual Grammy Awards on February 12, 2011. 1954: Busman's Holiday 1954: Roy Haynes Modern Group 1956: Jazz Abroad split album with Quincy Jones 1958: We Three with Paul Chambers & Phineas Newborn 1960: Just Us 1962: Out of the Afternoon 1963: Cracklin' with Booker Ervin 1963: Cymbalism 1964: People 1971: Hip Ensemble 1972: Equipoise 1973: Senyah 1975: Togyu 1976: Jazz a Confronto Vol. 29 1976: Sugar Roy 1977: Thank You Thank You 1977: Vistalite 1979: Live at the Riverbop 1986: True or False 1992: Homecoming 1992: When It's Haynes It Roars 1994: My Shining Hour 1994: Te Vou!
1998: Praise 2000: The Roy Haynes Trio 2000: Roy Haynes 2001: Birds of a Feather: A Tribute to Charlie Parker 2003: Love Letters 2004: Fountain of Youth 2004: Quiet Fire 2006: Whereas 2007: A Life in Time: The Roy Haynes Story 2011: Roy-Alty 1949: Meet Milt Jackson 1949: The Amazing Bud Powell 1949: Modern Jazz Trombones 1950: Bird at St. Nick's 1950: Stan Getz Quartets, The Complete Roost Recordings 1951: Miles Davis and Horns 1952: Memorial Album 1954: Sarah Vaughan with Clifford Brown 1954: Vibist 1954: I Only Have Eyes For Shu 1954-1957: Swingin' Easy 1955: In the Land of Hi-Fi 1955: Introducing Nat Adderley 1956: Mo
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Tottenham Court Road to Marble Arch via Oxford Circus. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, as of 2012 had 300 shops, it is designated as part of the A40, a major road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, traffic is restricted to buses and taxis. The road was part of the Via Trinobantina, a Roman road between Essex and Hampshire via London, it was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages when it was notorious for public hangings of prisoners in Newgate Prison. It became known as Oxford Road and Oxford Street in the 18th century, began to change from residential to commercial and retail purposes by the late 19th century, attracting street traders, confidence tricksters and prostitution; the first department stores in Britain opened in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis and HMV. Unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket trading alongside more prestigious retail stores.
The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, several longstanding stores including John Lewis were destroyed and rebuilt from scratch. Despite competition from other shopping centres such as Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross Shopping Centre, Oxford Street remains in high demand as a retail location, with several chains hosting their flagship stores on the street, has a number of listed buildings; the annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959. As a popular retail area and main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis, Oxford Street has suffered from traffic congestion, a poor safety record and pollution. Various traffic management schemes have been implemented by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays, improved pedestrian crossings. Oxford Street runs for 1.2 miles. It is within the City of Westminster; the road begins at St Giles Circus as a westward continuation of New Oxford Street, meeting Charing Cross Road, Tottenham Court Road.
It runs past Great Portland Street, Wardour Street and Rathbone Place to Oxford Circus, where it meets Regent Street. From there it continues past New Bond Street, Bond Street station and Vere Street, ending on Marble Arch; the road is within the London Congestion Charging Zone. It is part of the A40, most of, a trunk road running from London to Fishguard. Like many roads in Central London that are no longer through routes, it is not signposted with that number. Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10, 25, 55, 73, 98, 390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207. Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum with Camulodunum via London and became one of the major routes in and out of the city. Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road, Uxbridge Road, Worcester Road and Oxford Road. On Ralph Aggas' "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by "Oxford Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford Street and Rathbone Place now is.
Though a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road, it became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch. Spectators jeered as the prisoners were carted along the road, could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns. By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street. Development began in the 18th century after many surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford. In 1739, a local gardener, Thomas Huddle, built property on the north side. John Rocque's Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property beyond. Buildings were erected on Davies Street in the 1750s. Further development occurred between 1763 and 1793; the Pantheon, a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.
The street became popular for entertainment including bear-baiters and public houses. However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn gallows and the notorious St Giles rookery, or slum; the gallows were removed in 1783, by the end of the century, Oxford Street was built up from St Giles Circus to Park Lane, containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment. The site of the Princess's Theatre that opened in 1840 is now occupied by Oxford Walk shopping area. Oxford Circus was designed as part of the development of Regent Street by the architect John Nash in 1810; the four quadrants of the circus were designed by Sir Henry Tanner and constructed between 1913 and 1928. Oxford Street changed in character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers and furniture stores opened shops on the street, some expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors sold tourist souvenirs during this time. A plan in Tallis's London Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that all the street, save for the far western end, was retail.
John Lewis started in 1864 in small shop at No. 132, wh
The Girl from Ipanema
"Garota de Ipanema" is a Brazilian bossa nova and jazz song. It was a worldwide hit in the mid-1960s and won a Grammy for Record of the Year in 1965, it was written in 1962, with music by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Portuguese lyrics by Vinicius de Moraes. English lyrics were written by Norman Gimbel; the first commercial recording was by Pery Ribeiro. The 1964 Stan Getz featuring the vocal debut of Astrud Gilberto and became an international hit; this had been shortened from the version on the album Getz/Gilberto which had included the Portuguese lyrics sung by Astrud's husband João Gilberto. In the US, the single peaked at number five on the Billboard Hot 100, went to number one for two weeks on the Easy Listening chart. Overseas it peaked at number 29 in the United Kingdom, charted throughout the world. Numerous recordings have been used in films, sometimes as an elevator music cliché, it is believed to be the second most recorded pop song in history, after "Yesterday" by The Beatles. The song was inducted into the Latin Grammy Hall of Fame in 2001.
In 2004, it was one of 50 recordings chosen that year by the Library of Congress to be added to the National Recording Registry. In 2009, the song was voted by the Brazilian edition of Rolling Stone as the 27th greatest Brazilian song. Ipanema is a fashionable seaside neighborhood located in the southern region of the city of Rio de Janeiro; the song was composed for a musical comedy titled Dirigível a work-in-progress of Vinícius de Moraes. The original title was "Menina que Passa". Jobim composed the melody on his piano in his new house in Rua Barão da Torre, in Ipanema. In turn, Moraes had written the lyrics in Petrópolis, near Rio de Janeiro, as he had done with "Chega de Saudade" six years earlier. During a recording session in New York with João Gilberto, Antonio Carlos Jobim and Stan Getz, the idea of cutting an English-language version came up. Norman Gimbel wrote the English lyrics. João's wife, Astrud Gilberto, was the only one of the Brazilians who could speak English well and was chosen to sing.
Her voice, without trained singer mannerisms, proved a perfect fit for the song. Ethel Ennis and Nat King Cole have both recorded the song; the song was inspired by Heloísa Eneida Menezes Paes Pinto, a seventeen-year-old girl living on Montenegro Street in Ipanema. Daily, she would stroll past the Veloso bar-café, not just to the beach, but in the everyday course of her life, she would sometimes enter the bar to buy cigarettes for her mother and leave to the sound of wolf-whistles. In the winter of 1962, the composers saw. Since the song became popular, she has become a celebrity. In Revelação: a verdadeira Garota de Ipanema Moraes wrote that she was "the paradigm of the young Carioca: a golden teenage girl, a mixture of flower and mermaid, full of light and grace, the sight of whom is sad, in that she carries with her, on her route to the sea, the feeling of youth that fades, of the beauty, not ours alone—it is a gift of life in its beautiful and melancholic constant ebb and flow." The legacy of "The Girl from Ipanema" was acknowledged by multiple aspects of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics held in Rio de Janeiro: the Olympic and Paralympic mascots were named Vinicius and Tom after the song's co-writers by a public vote, while the Olympics' opening ceremony featured a segment themed around the song and the architecture of Oscar Niemeyer.
Jobim's grandson Daniel performed the song during the segment, which featured an appearance by Brazilian model Gisele Bündchen. Spotify reported that the song had been streamed on its service 40,000 times per-day in the days following the ceremony, while in the U. S. the song reached #5 on Billboard's World Digital Songs chart the following week. In 2001, the song's copyright owners sued Pinheiro for using the title of the song as the name of her boutique. In their complaint, they stated that her status as The Girl from Ipanema did not entitle her to use a name that belonged to them. Public support was in favor of Pinheiro. A press release by Jobim and Moraes, the composers, in which they had named Pinheiro as the real Girl from Ipanema was used as evidence that they had intended to bestow this title on her; the court ruled in favor of Pinheiro. In a separate legal dispute, Astrud Gilberto sued Frito-Lay for trademark infringement for using the song in a TV advertisement for its baked potato chips.
Gilberto argued that:s the result of the huge success of the 1964 recording, her frequent subsequent performances of "Ipanema," she has become known as The Girl from Ipanema and is identified by the public with the 1964 recording. She claims as a result to have earned trademark rights in the 1964 recording, which she contends the public recognizes as a mark designating her as a singer, she contends, that Frito-Lay could not lawfully use the 1964 recording in an advertisement for its chips without her permission. In Oliveira v. Frito-Lay Inc. her claims were rejected by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. When sung by female artists the song has been rendered as "The Boy from Ipanema", such as by Peggy Lee, Ella Fitzgerald and The Supremes, Shirley Bassey and Eartha Kitt. Petula Clark sang it in 1977 on The Muppet Show. Crystal Waters recorded her version in 1996 for the various artists Red Hot + Rio compilation and was include