Stan Kenton

Stanley Newcomb Kenton was an American popular music and jazz artist. As a pianist, composer and band leader, he led an innovative and influential jazz orchestra for four decades. Though Kenton had several pop hits from the early 1940s into the 1960s, his music was always forward-looking. Kenton was a pioneer in the field of jazz education, creating the Stan Kenton Jazz Camp in 1959 at Indiana University. Stan Kenton was born on December 1911, in Wichita, Kansas, his parents and Stella Kenton, had moved the family back to Colorado finally in 1924 to the Greater Los Angeles Area, settling in suburban Bell, California. Kenton attended Bell High School. Kenton started learning piano as a teen from a local organist; when he was around 15 and in high school and arranger Ralph Yaw introduced him to the music of Louis Armstong and Earl Hines. He graduated from high school in 1930. By the age of 16, Kenton was playing a regular solo piano gig at a local hamburger eatery for 50 cents a night plus tips, his first arrangement was written during this time for a local eight-piece band that played in nearby Long Beach.

In April 1936 Gus Arnheim was reorganizing his band into the style of Benny Goodman's groups and Kenton was to take the piano chair. This is where Kenton would make his first recordings when Arnheim made 14 sides for the Brunswick label in summer of 1937. Once he departed from Gus Arnheim's group, Kenton went back to study with private teachers on both the piano and in composition. In 1938 Kenton would join Vido Musso in a short-lived band but a educational experience for him. From the core of this group come the line up of the first Stan Kenton groups of the 1940s. Kenton would go on to working with the NBC House Band and in various Hollywood studios and clubs. Producer George Avakian took notice of Kenton during this time while he worked as the pianist and Assistant Musical Director at the Earl Carroll Theatre Restaurant in Hollywood. Kenton started to get the idea of running his own band from this experience. In 1940, Kenton formed his first orchestra. Kenton worked in the early days with his own groups as much more of an arranger than a featured pianist.

Although there were no "name" musicians in his first band, Kenton spent the summer of 1941 playing before an audience at the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa Beach, CA. Influenced by Benny Carter and Jimmie Lunceford, the Stan Kenton Orchestra struggled for a time after its initial success, its Decca recordings were not big sellers and a stint as Bob Hope's backup radio band during the 1943–44 season was an unhappy experience. Kenton's first appearance in New York was in February 1942 at the Roseland Ballroom, with the marquee featuring an endorsement by Fred Astaire. By late 1943, with a contract with the newly formed Capitol Records, a popular record in "Eager Beaver", growing recognition, the Stan Kenton Orchestra was catching on, its soloists during the war years included Art Pepper Stan Getz, altoist Boots Mussulli, singer Anita O'Day. By 1945, the band had evolved; the songwriter Joe Greene provided the lyrics for hit songs like "And Her Tears Flowed Like Wine" and "Don't Let the Sun Catch You Cryin'".

Pete Rugolo became the chief arranger, Bob Cooper and Vido Musso offered different tenor styles, June Christy was Kenton's new singer. When composer/arranger Pete Rugolo joined the Stan Kenton Orchestra as staff arranger in late 1945 he brought with him his love of jazz and Bartók. Given free rein by Kenton, Rugolo experimented. Although Kenton himself was trying experimental scores prior to Rugolo's tenure, it was Rugolo who brought extra jazz and classical influences much needed to move the band forward artistically. During his first six months on the staff, Rugolo tried to copy Kenton's sound. By incorporating compositional techniques borrowed from the modern classical music he studied, Rugolo was a key part of one of Kenton's most fertile and creative periods. After a string of arrangements, Rugolo turned out three originals that Kenton featured on the band's first album in 1946:: "Artistry in Percussion", "Safranski" and "Artistry in Bolero". Added to this mix came "Machito", "Rhythm Incorporated", "Monotony" and "Interlude" in early 1947.

These compositions, along with June Christy's voice, came to define the Artistry in Rhythm band. Afro-Cuban writing was added to the Kenton book with compositions like Rugolo's "Machito." The Artistry in Rhythm ensemble was a formative band, with outstanding soloists. By early 1947, the Stan Kenton Orchestra had reached a high point of popular success, they played in the best ballrooms in America and numerous hit records. Dances at the many ballrooms were four hours a night and theater dates involved playing mini concerts between each showing of the movie; this was sometimes six a day, stretching from morning to late night. Most days not ac


ICT4peace is a policy and capacity-building oriented international foundation. The purpose is to save lives and protect human dignity through Information and Communication Technology; the Foundation promotes cybersecurity and a peaceful cyberspace through international negotiations with governments and non-state actors. It explores and champions the use ICTs to facilitate communication between peoples and stakeholders involved in humanitarian or conflict-related crisis management and crisis mapping, humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding, it is registered as ICT for Peace in the Geneva business directory. ICT4peace is supported by governments and philanthropic foundations and proposes analysis and counselling services as well as capacity-building programs, it works with the United Nations in strengthening the organisation’s capacities to map and use data across its various agencies and locations and by contributing to the creation of best practices in Crisis Information Management across the organisation.

ICT4peace intervened for instance in the project "Strengthening Crisis Information and Management at the United Nations", described in the UN Secretary general report of 5 October 2010 on ICTs in the United Nations. The way early warning systems help reduce the human cost of earthquakes, ICT-based platform can help save lives during natural or man-made disasters, said ICT4peace founder, Daniel Stauffacher, former Ambassador and Special Representative of the Swiss Government for the first phase of the World Summit on Information Society, which took place in Geneva in 2003. ICT4peace called for international norms of responsible state behaviour and disarmament negotiations for a peaceful cyberspace. Although the idea of considering the use of ICTs in promoting peace was mentioned in the lead-up to WSIS 1, in particular by Maurice Strong, senior advisor to United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, the topic was left out from WSIS 1. In the run-off to the WSIS 2nd phase, that took place in November 2005 in Tunisia, the UN published the document "Information and Communication Technology for Peace, the role of ICT in Preventing, Responding to and Recovering from conflict".

This document presented the ICT4peace project, that began in 2004 and formed part of Switzerland’s contribution to WSIS 2. The project aim was to explore and map the possible uses of ICTs in the field of prevention of conflicts, peace building and post conflict reconstruction. Crisis situations such as natural disaster were considered for their similarities with conflicts situations. Subsequently WSIS 2 in The Tunis Commitment for the Information Society adopted para 36 and valued "the potential of ICTs to promote peace and to prevent conflict which, inter alia, negatively affects achieving development goals. ICTs can be used for identifying conflict situations through early-warning systems preventing conflicts, promoting their peaceful resolution, supporting humanitarian action, including protection of civilians in armed conflicts, facilitating peacekeeping missions, assisting post conflict peace-building and reconstruction". In October 2006, under the Communities of Expertise established within the framework of the Global Alliance for Information and Communication Technologies and Development, the ICT4peace Foundation was invited to a partnership with the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs and GAID.

The Foundation’s role is that of a focal point for overseeing and promoting the spirit of Paragraph 36 of the WSIS Tunis Commitment. The Foundation participates as a co-host and facilitator in the annual Meeting of the UN Crisis Information Management Advisory Group, reviewing and supporting progress of the UN Crisis Information Management Strategy; the CiMS aims at helping all actors, including the UN’s member states and agencies, in dealing with all stages of a crisis lifecycle more efficiently and effectively. ICT4peace supports and intervenes in both in the annual Crisis Mappers Conference and BuildPeace Conference. A full list of ICT4peace publications is available on the website of the ETH Zurich International Security Network. Official website

Oslo Public Library

Oslo Public Library, is the municipal public library serving Oslo, Norway and is the country's first and largest library. It has over 20 branches throughout the city. Registered users may use the library every day when it is not staffed, from 7am to 11pm, it is possible to borrow and return books when the library is not staffed. One of the most prized books in the library's collection is the Vulgate bible of Aslak Bolt, Norway's only preserved liturgical handwritten manuscript from medieval times; the book itself is estimated to have been written around 1250. The head of the library from 2014 to 2016 was Kristin Danielsen; the library opened on 12 January 1785, following an endowment from Carl Deichman who bequeathed 7,000 books and 150 manuscripts which formed the basis of the library's collection. From the start the library was open to all citizens. At the time most lending libraries charged a membership fee, making it impossible for poorer people to access them. However, the initial collection was made up of texts in German, French and Danish and was therefore only of interest to members of the educated upper class.

In 1802 it was decided to move the library to the Oslo Cathedral School and to merge it with the school's collection. Jacob Rosted was rector of the school; the library remained part of the school until the mid 1800s. Under the leadership of Haakon Nyhuus, head librarian from 1898-1913, the library became a model for public libraries throughout the Nordic region. Nyhuus modernised the library along American lines, having spent eight years in America and been inspired by Carnegie libraries. Among his innovations were the introduction of reading rooms and the addition of books for children and young people. During Nyhuus' time as librarian, the collection tripled in size and the borrowing of books increased by 25 times; the library had an estimated 4000 visitors a day. The library now has a bust of Nyhuus; the library has several specialised departments, such as a music department, a department for children and youth, a department for prison libraries and a library for patients at the Rikshospital.

It also housed The Multilingual Library, now part of the National Library of Norway. The library's neoclassical main building is in the St. Hanshaugen district of Oslo, it was designed by Nils Reiersen, was completed in 1933. It is referred to in Norwegian as trappehuset since it has many staircases; the building houses a bust of Karen-Christine Friele. In 2011 the building was damaged in the bombing of the government quarter. Part of the entrance had to be demolished and all departments in the building were closed to the public for two months after the explosion. A new building is being constructed at Bjørvika, next to the Opera and the new Munch Museum, part of the Fjord City renewal project. Lund Hagem Arkitekter AS won the competition to design the new Deichman Library; the building is scheduled to open to the public in 2020. When completed, the new building will hold manuscripts contributed to the Future Library project, among them texts by Margaret Atwood and David Mitchell. Since the new library will have less space than the old one, an estimated 300,000 items belonging to the collection must either be thrown out, transferred to other libraries or given away.

The new library will have four times as much space, accessible to the public. The library's homepage in English Information in English about the library's new building The Library's Flickr pages on the history of the library