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Stanegate

The Stanegate, was an important Roman road built in what is now northern England. It linked two forts; the Stanegate ran through the natural gap formed by the valleys of the Irthing. It predated Hadrian's Wall by several decades; the Stanegate should not be confused with the two Roman roads called Stane Street in the south of England, namely Stane Street and Stane Street. In both cases the meaning is the same as for the northern version, indicating paved road; the Stanegate differed from most other Roman roads in that it followed the easiest gradients, so tended to weave around, whereas typical Roman roads follow a straight path if this sometimes involves having punishing gradients to climb. A large section of the Stanegate is still in use today as a modern minor road between Fourstones and Vindolanda in Northumberland, it is believed that the Stanegate was built under the governorship of Agricola, from 77 to 85 AD, during the reigns of the emperors Vespasian and Domitian. It is thought that it was built as a strategic road when the northern frontier was on the line of the Forth and Clyde, only became part of the frontier when the Romans withdrew from what is now Scotland.

An indication of this is that it was provided with forts at one-day marching intervals, sufficient for a strategic non-frontier road. The forts at Vindolanda and Nether Denton have been shown to date from about the same time as Corstopitum and Luguvalium, in the 70s AD and 80s AD; when the Romans decided to withdraw from Scotland, the line of the Stanegate became the new frontier and it became necessary to provide forts at half-day marching intervals. These additional forts were Newbrough and Brampton Old Church, it has been suggested that a series of smaller forts were built in between the'half-day-march' forts. Haltwhistle Burn and Throp might be such forts, but there is insufficient evidence to confirm a series of such fortlets; the retreat from Scotland took place in about 105 AD, so the strengthening of the Stanegate defences would date from about that time. Where it left the base of Corstopitum, the Stanegate was 22 feet wide with covered stone gutters and a foundation of 6-inch cobbles with 10 inches of gravel on top.

The Stanegate began in the east at Corstopitum, where the important road, Dere Street headed towards Scotland. West of Corstopitum, the Stanegate crossed the Cor Burn, followed the north bank of the Tyne until it reached the North Tyne near the village of Wall. A Roman bridge must have taken the road across the North Tyne, from where it headed west past the present village of Fourstones to Newbrough, where the first fort is situated, 7 1⁄2 miles from Corbridge, 6 miles from Vindolanda, it is a small fort occupying less than an acre and is in the graveyard of Newbrough church, which stands alone to the west of the village. From Newbrough, the Stanegate proceeds west, parallel to the South Tyne until it meets the next major fort, at Vindolanda. From Vindolanda the Stanegate crosses the route of the present-day Military Road and passes just south of the minor fort of Haltwhistle Burn. From Haltwhistle Burn, the Stanegate continues west away from the course of the South Tyne and passes the major fort of Magnis, 6 1⁄2 miles from Vindolanda and 20 miles from Corstopitum.

At this point, the road is joined by the Maiden Way coming from Epiacum to the south. From Magnis, the road turns towards the southwest to follow the course of the River Irthing, passing the minor fort of Throp, arriving at the major fort of Nether Denton, 4 1⁄2 miles from Magnis and 24 1⁄2 miles from Corstopitum; the fort occupies an area of about 3 acres. From Nether Denton, the road continues to follow the River Irthing and heads towards present-day Brampton, it passes the minor fort of Castle Hill Boothby and 1 mile west of Brampton, reaches the next major fort, that of Brampton Old Church, 6 miles from Nether Denton and 30 1⁄2 miles from Corstopitum. The fort is so called because half of it is buried under its graveyard. From Brampton Old Church, the road crosses the River Irthing and continues southwest through Irthington and passes through what is now the site of Carlisle Airport, just to the north of the main runway; the curving corner of an associated marching camp can be made out from the air on the south edge of the runway near its western end, can be seen on Google Earth.

The Stanegate continued through a large cutting in High Crosby, where a small fort has been postulated, based on marching distances, but has not yet been found. The Stanegate crossed the River Eden near the cricket ground in modern Carlisle and reached the fort of Luguvalium on the site of Carlisle Castle, 7 1⁄2 miles from Brampton Old Church and 38 miles from Corstopitum, it has been suggested that the road may have carried on west for a further 4 1⁄2 miles to the Roman fort at Kirkbride overlooking Moricambe Bay, an inlet of the Solway Firth. A large camp of 5 acres was found there but the evidence for a road is insufficient, it has been suggested that the Stanegate may have run eastwards from Corstopitum towards Pons Aelius, present-day Newcastle upon Tyne, linking to Washing Wells Roman Fort

Conus distans

Conus distans, common name the distant cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are venomous, they are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled or not at all. The size of the shell varies between 30 137 mm; the yellowish fawn-colored shell is obsoletely banded with white at the middle and upper part, sometimes the bands are not continuous, but consist of irregular oblique markings. The body whorl is encircled by obsolete impressed lines, it is stained with violet-chestnut towards the base. The low spire is convex, with rather obtuse rounded tubercles; the white interior is stained with light violet. This marine species occurs in the Red Sea, in the tropical Indo-West Pacific and off Papua New Guinea and Australia. Bruguière, M. 1792. Encyclopédie Méthodique ou par ordre de matières. Histoire naturelle des vers. Paris: Panckoucke Vol. 1 i-xviii, 757 pp. Reeve, L.

A. 1843. Monograph of the genus Conus. Pls 1-39 in Reeve, L. A.. Conchologica Iconica. London: L. Reeve & Co. Vol. 1. Brazier, J. 1896. A new genus and three new species of Mollusca from New South Wales, New Hebrides and Western Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21: 345-347 Demond, J. 1957. Micronesian reef associated gastropods. Pacific Science 11: 275-341, fig. 2, pl. 1 Rippingale, O. H. & McMichael, D. F. 1961. Queensland and Great Barrier Reef Shells. Brisbane: Jacaranda Press 210 pp. Shikama, T. 1970. Description of a new species of Conus from Shiono-Misaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Venus 29: 115-116 Wilson, B. R. & Gillett, K. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. Sydney: Reed Books 168 pp. Hinton, A. 1972. Shells of New Guinea and the Central Indo-Pacific. Milton: Jacaranda Press xviii 94 pp. Salvat, B. & Rives, C. 1975. Coquillages de Polynésie. Tahiti: Papéete Les editions du pacifique, pp. 1-391. Cernohorsky, W.

O. 1978. Tropical Pacific Marine Shells. Sydney: Pacific Publications 352 pp. 68 pls. Kay, E. A. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 4: Mollusca. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication Vol. 64 653 pp. Drivas, J.. Coquillages de La Réunion et de l'Île Maurice. Collection Les Beautés de la Nature. Delachaux et Niestlé: Neuchâtel. ISBN 2-603-00654-1. 159 pp. Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, WA: Odyssey Publishing Vol. 2 370 pp. Röckel, D. Korn, W. & Kohn, A. J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae. Volume 1: Indo-Pacific Region. Wiesbaden: Hemmen 517 pp. Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P.. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shells - Knights of the Sea "Rhombiconus distans". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 15 January 2019.\

Lexington Municipal Airport

Lexington Municipal Airport is a owned public-use airport located three nautical miles northwest of the central business district of Lexington, in Ray County, United States. The airport is located just south of Henrietta and was home to a skydiving facility for over 40 years before new o Lexington Municipal Airport covers an area of 160 acres at an elevation of 691 feet above mean sea level, it has three runways: 04-22 is a 2,925 by 40 ft asphalt strip with runway 04 at 47° and 22 at 247°. 04-22 has lights, LIRL 122.7 CTAF. This airfield does not have fuel for sale, only for DZ operations. For the 12-month period ending September 5, 2007, the airport had 3,375 aircraft operations, an average of 281 per month: 89% general aviation, 9% military and 2% air taxi. At that time there were 7 aircraft based at all single-engine; the skydiving training center, open at this airport has been relocated to Stockton, MO and is doing business as The Dam Skydivers at the Stockton Municipal Airport adjacent to Stockton Lake, with one Cessna 182 aircraft.

The owners operate every weekend that weather is cooperative. Aerial photo as of March 1996 from USGS The National Map Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for 4K3 AirNav airport information for 4K3 FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for 4K3