A star catalogue or star catalog, is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars. In astronomy, many stars are referred to by catalogue numbers. There are a great many different star catalogues which have been produced for different purposes over the years, this article covers only some of the more quoted ones. Star catalogues were compiled by many different ancient people, including the Babylonians, Chinese and Arabs, they were sometimes accompanied by a star chart for illustration. Most modern catalogues are available in electronic format and can be downloaded from space agencies data centres; the largest is being compiled from the Gaia and thus far has over a billion stars. Completeness and accuracy is described by the weakest apparent magnitude V and the accuracy of the positions. From their existing records, it is known that the ancient Egyptians recorded the names of only a few identifiable constellations and a list of thirty-six decans that were used as a star clock; the Egyptians called the circumpolar star "the star that cannot perish" and, although they made no known formal star catalogues, they nonetheless created extensive star charts of the night sky which adorn the coffins and ceilings of tomb chambers.
Although the ancient Sumerians were the first to record the names of constellations on clay tablets, the earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonians of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period. They are better known by their Assyrian-era name'Three Stars Each'; these star catalogues, written on clay tablets, listed thirty-six stars: twelve for "Anu" along the celestial equator, twelve for "Ea" south of that, twelve for "Enlil" to the north. The Mul. Apin lists, dated to sometime before the Neo-Babylonian Empire, are direct textual descendants of the "Three Stars Each" lists and their constellation patterns show similarities to those of Greek civilization. In Ancient Greece, the astronomer and mathematician Eudoxus laid down a full set of the classical constellations around 370 BC, his catalogue Phaenomena, rewritten by Aratus of Soli between 275 and 250 BC as a didactic poem, became one of the most consulted astronomical texts in antiquity and beyond.
It contains descriptions of the positions of the stars, the shapes of the constellations and provided information on their relative times of rising and setting. In the 3rd century BC, the Greek astronomers Timocharis of Alexandria and Aristillus created another star catalogue. Hipparchus completed his star catalogue in 129 BC, which he compared to Timocharis' and discovered that the longitude of the stars had changed over time; this led him to determine the first value of the precession of the equinoxes. In the 2nd century, Ptolemy of Roman Egypt published a star catalogue as part of his Almagest, which listed 1,022 stars visible from Alexandria. Ptolemy's catalogue was based entirely on an earlier one by Hipparchus, it remained the standard star catalogue in the Arab worlds for over eight centuries. The Islamic astronomer al-Sufi updated it in 964, the star positions were redetermined by Ulugh Beg in 1437, but it was not superseded until the appearance of the thousand-star catalogue of Tycho Brahe in 1598.
Although the ancient Vedas of India specified how the ecliptic was to be divided into twenty-eight nakshatra, Indian constellation patterns were borrowed from Greek ones sometime after Alexander's conquests in Asia in the 4th century BC. The earliest known inscriptions for Chinese star names were written on oracle bones and date to the Shang Dynasty. Sources dating from the Zhou Dynasty which provide star names include the Zuo Zhuan, the Shi Jing, the "Canon of Yao" in the Book of Documents; the Lüshi Chunqiu written by the Qin statesman Lü Buwei provides most of the names for the twenty-eight mansions. An earlier lacquerware chest found in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng contains a complete list of the names of the twenty-eight mansions. Star catalogues are traditionally attributed to Shi Shen and Gan De, two rather obscure Chinese astronomers who may have been active in the 4th century BC of the Warring States period; the Shi Shen astronomy is attributed to Shi Shen, the Astronomic star observation to Gan De.
It was not until the Han Dynasty that astronomers started to observe and record names for all the stars that were apparent in the night sky, not just those around the ecliptic. A star catalogue is featured in one of the chapters of the late 2nd-century-BC history work Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian and contains the "schools" of Shi Shen and Gan De's work. Sima's catalogue—the Book of Celestial Offices —includes some 90 constellations, the stars therein named after temples, ideas in philosophy, locations such as markets and shops, different people such as farmers and soldiers. For his Spiritual Constitution of the Universe of 120 AD, the astronomer Zhang Heng compiled a star catalogue comprising 124 constellations. Chinese constellation names were adopted by the Koreans and Japanese. A large number of star catalogues were published by Muslim astronomers in the medieval Islamic world; these were Zij treatises, including Arzachel's Tables of Toledo
Alexander Stewart Burton, VC was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Burton was born at Kyneton, in the state of Victoria, on 20 January 1893, his father, a grocer, moved his family to Euroa. After completing his schooling, Alexander joined his father at the store, working in the ironmongers section. Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War, Burton enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 18 August 1914 and posted to the 7th Battalion, he embarked with the battalion for the Middle East on 19 October 1914. On 25 April 1915, 7th Battalion landed at Gallipoli but Burton was sick and did not reach the frontlines until a week later, he was promoted to the rank of lance corporal on 10 July 1915 for "having volunteered and taken part in the forcing of Saphead D21 in the face of the enemy". On 9 August 1915, Burton fought in the Battle of Lone Pine when his company reinforced newly captured Turkish trenches.
Burton was one of a party of men. Killed in this action, he was recommended by his battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Pompey Elliott, for the award of the Victoria Cross. Two other members of the party, Lieutenant Frederick Tubb and Corporal William Dunstan, were awarded VCs. Burton's VC was gazetted on 15 October 1915. In the early morning the enemy made a determined counter-attack on the centre of the newly captured trench held by Lieutenant Tubb, Corporals Burton and Dunstan and a few men, they advanced up a sap and blew in a sandbag barricade, leaving only one foot of it standing, but Lieutenant Tubb with the two Corporals repulsed the enemy and rebuilt the barricade. Supported by strong bombing parties the enemy twice again succeeded in blowing the barricade, but on each occasion they were repulsed and the barricade rebuilt, although Lieutenant Tubb was wounded in the head and arm and Corporal Burton was killed by a bomb while most gallantly building up the parapet under a hail of bombs.
Burton is commemorated on the Lone Pine Memorial. He was subsequently mentioned in despatches by General Sir Ian Hamilton on 28 January 1916. In early 1916, the VC, along with a cover letter from King George V, was presented to Burton's father who wore it for the homecoming of Frederick Tubb, a friend of Burton's, had returned to Australia to convalesce from the wounds received at Lone Pine. Burton's VC remained in his family for many years but in 1967, it was donated to the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, where it is on display. Walsh, G. P. 1979.'Burton, Alexander Stewart'. Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 7. Melbourne University Press: Melbourne. Snelling, Stephen. VCs of the First World War: Gallipoli. Stroud, Great Britain: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2271-0. "Alexander Stewart Burton – Discovering Anzacs". National Archives of Australia. Alexander Stewart BURTON, The AIF Project, www.aif.adfa.edu.au
Lake Wakatipu is an inland lake in the South Island of New Zealand. It is near its boundary with Southland. Lake Wakatipu comes from the original Māori word Whakatipu wai-māori. With a length of 80 kilometres, it is New Zealand's longest lake, and, at 291 km2, its third largest; the lake is very deep, its floor being below sea level, with a maximum depth of 380 metres. It is towards the southern end of the Southern Alps; the general topography is a reversed "N" shape or "dog leg". The Dart River flows into the northern end, the lake runs south for 30 kilometres before turning abruptly to the east. Twenty kilometres further along, it turns to the south, reaching its southern end 30 kilometres further south, near Kingston; the lake is drained by the Kawarau River, which flows out from the lake's only arm, the Frankton Arm, 8 km east of Queenstown. Until about 18,000 years ago the Mataura River drained Lake Wakatipu; the Kingston Flyer follows part of the former river bed now blocked by glacial moraine.
Queenstown is on the northern shore of the lake close to eastern end of its middle section. It has a seiche of period 26.7 minutes which, in Queenstown Bay, causes the water level to rise and fall some 200 millimetres. Lake Wakatipu is renowned for its scenic beauty, being surrounded by mountains; the Remarkables mountain range lies along its southeastern edge. It is a popular venue for adventure tourism, with skifields, bungy jumping and tramping tracks within easy reach. A vintage steamboat, the TSS Earnslaw plies its waters. Several vineyards are nearby in the Gibbston Valley; the original form and meaning of the name are not known for certain. The name is believed to originate from the Waitaha people, who were displaced by Kāti Māmoe. Taken Wakatipu would mean "growing canoe" or "growing bay" if the original was Whakatipu and the h elided as a result of the Southern Māori dialect; the dialect is known for dropping final vowels, Wakatipua or Whakatipua have been recorded as has Wakatapu. A legend says that the lake bed was formed when a giant ogre, Kopu-wai was burned while lying asleep, leaving only his heart behind, which according to the same legend is the cause of the rhythmic rise and fall of the lake's seiche.
Waka can mean'hollow'. Lake Wakatipu has experienced periodic flooding affecting the lakeside community's of Kingston and Queenstown. Notable flooding events include the 1878 Queenstown floods which affected a large part of the Outlying Queenstown and Otago areas, the 1995 Queenstown floods and most notably the 1999 Queenstown floods which damaged the Queenstown CBD and roading infrastructure resulting in $50 million worth in damages. Lake Wakatipu is a habitat for the longfin eel, brown trout and rainbow trout; these and other fish support predators such as the pied shag. The black-billed gull is found around the lake while the most common birds are the black-billed gull and the introduced mallard. A smaller bird not noticed because of its size is the New Zealand scaup. Lake Wakatipu has many geographical similarities to Loch Ness. Therefore, it doubled as the famous Scottish Loch Ness in the film The Water Horse: Legend of the Deep and was one of the main filming locations in the movie, it is a backdrop for several scenes in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, including Amon Hen.
Dermatophyllum is a genus of three or four species of shrubs and small trees in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family, Fabaceae. The genus is native to southwestern North America from western Texas to New Mexico and Arizona in the United States, south through Chihuahua and Nuevo León in northern Mexico. Members of the genus are known as mescalbean, mescal bean or frijolito. One of the common names of Dermatophyllum secundiflorum is Texas mountain laurel, although the name mountain laurel refers to the dissimilar and unrelated genus Kalmia and the name laurel refers to plants in the unrelated order Laurales. Although still treated in the genus Sophora, recent genetic evidence has shown that the mescalbeans are only distantly related to the other species of Sophora. Dermatophyllum comprises the following species: Dermatophyllum arizonicum Vincent—Arizona Mescalbean subsp. Arizonicum Vincent subsp. Formosum Vincent Dermatophyllum gypsophilum Vincent—Guadalupe Mescalbean Dermatophyllum guadalupense B.
L. Turner Dermatophyllum juanhintonianum B. L. Turner Dermatophyllum secundiflorum Gandhi & Reveal—Texas Mescalbean Dermatophyllum purpusii Vincent Dermatophyllum spp. grow to 1–11 m tall, with a trunk up to 20 cm in diameter growing in dense thickets that grow from basal shoots. The leaves are evergreen, leathery, 6–15 cm long, pinnate with 5-11 oval leaflets, 2–5 centimetres long and 1–3 cm broad; the flowers, produced in spring, are fragrant, typical pea-flower in shape, borne in erect or spreading racemes 4–10 cm long. The fruit is a hard, woody seedpod 2–15 cm long, containing 1-6 oval bright red seeds 1–1.5 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. All parts of the mescalbeans are poisonous, containing the alkaloid cytisine. There is evidence of the seeds of the plant having been used in a ritualistic context as a hallucinogen by some Native American peoples; the symptoms of cytisine poisoning are unpleasant. This has led to speculation that the peyote cult may have developed as a safe substitute for the toxic mescalbean, given the close parallels in performance and divination between the two
Riverside Cemetery is a historic rural cemetery in Macon, Georgia established in 1887. It is 54 acres in size and owned. Over 18,000 people are interred here. Riverside Cemetery Corporation was founded in 1887 to create the cemetery in protest of what was seen as the city of Macon's poor upkeep of Rose Hill Cemetery nearby; that site had fallen into disrepair. The differences between the two adjacent cemeteries highlight changes in cemetery design during the 19th century, as well as the trend toward private ownership of these properties; the original 23 acres plan was laid out from 1887 to 1889 and was designed by Vaux & Co. one of the few commissions by the firm in the Southeast. Peter E. Dennis of the local firm Dennis & Dennis was the local supervising architect, designed the Gate House in 1897; the Mausoleum building was designed by the Georgia Mausoleum Company in 1918. A triangular-shaped redoubt from the Civil War is preserved within the grounds, overlooking the Ocmulgee River, it was built by troops under the command of Gen. Howell Cobb in July 1864 in preparation for a raid that would take place during Sherman's March to the Sea.
The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Juanita Black, social activist whose husband was first Georgia state trooper killed in the line of duty Charles L. Bowden, mayor of Macon, Georgia from 1938 to 1947 and the namesake of the Charles L. Bowden Golf Course Peter E. Dennis, architect of the cemetery William Arthur Fickling Sr. local businessman who inspired the International Cherry Blossom Festival Denmark Groover, Jr. state legislator known for his involvement in changing the design of the flag of the State of Georgia Andreas Gruentzig, German radiologist who developed balloon angioplasty John Fletcher Hanson, founder of the Bibb Manufacturing Company, "Father of Georgia Tech" Parks Lee Hay, Sr. businessman who lived in the Johnston–Felton–Hay House, now a historic museum E. D. Huguenin, cotton broker and a pecan farmer, namesake of Huguenin Heights neighborhood Leonard Knowles, first Chief Justice of the Bahamas after independence Martha Fannin Johnston, socialite who donated the land for the Girl Scout's Camp Martha Johnston Ellamae Ellis League, the first woman FAIA from Georgia Charles Reb Massenburg, owner of Acme Brewing & superintendent of Macon Hospital Hazel Jane Raines, World War II aviator, Georgia's "First Lady of Flight" Martha Bibb Hardaway Redding, one of the three co-founders of Phi Mu Emory Speer, judge and U.
S. Congressman George Stallings, major league baseball manager Young Stribling, professional boxer Rosa Taylor, educator in Bibb County Public School District for over 50 years, namesake of Rosa Taylor Elementary School Chauncey Vibbard, U. S. Congressman Riverside Cemetery Riverside Cemetery at Find a Grave
Martin "Rook" O'Prey was an Irish republican and a Volunteer in both the Irish republican & Revolutionary socialist paramilitaries the Irish National Liberation Army and the Irish People's Liberation Organisation. He was killed by Ulster Loyalist paramilitaries in August 1991. In September 1981, when he was a part of the Irish National Liberation Army Belfast Brigade, O'Prey and the INLA Belfast Brigade O/C Gerard Steenson killed a British UDR soldier Mark Stockman in a west Belfast factory on the Springfield Road; as O/C of the IPLO's Belfast Brigade O'Prey is believed to have been part of the hit team that killed outspoken Loyalist and UVF member George Seawright in November 1987. He was alleged to have been involved in the killing of Ulster Freedom Fighters member William Quee, when he was shot and killed by the IPLO at his shop in Oldpark Road, Belfast; the most infamous act he was involved in, was the Orange Cross Social Club shooting, in which a member of the Loyalist paramilitary the Red Hand Commando was killed and several others were injured.
O'Prey led the attack on the Orange Cross himself. After these actions he became a prime target for Loyalists, as one UVF man put it: "When the Catholic kids rioted with kids from the Shankill along the peace line they used to shout at the Prods'We'll get Rook for ya'. O'Prey was an enemy celebrity on the Shankill." On 16 August 1991 a Ulster Volunteer Force team burst into his home in Ardmoulin Terrace on the Lower Falls in west Belfast. Two UVF men broke into the back of O'Prey's home and found him on the sofa in his living room along with his daughter and a friend; the UVF men fired shots at O'Prey killing him while he lay on the sofa, his daughter and the other man were unharmed. Jimmy Brown founder & leader of the IPLO along with its political wing Republican Socialist Collective and a close friend of O'Prey, gave the graveside oration at O'Prey's funeral. O'Prey is buried in the IPLO plot in Milltown Cemetery. On the 20th anniversary of his death a commemorative plaque was unveiled outside his home.
Jimmy Brown Christopher "Crip" McWilliams Sammy Ward Gerard Steenson