Patrick Joseph Pat Leahy /ˈleɪˌhiː/ is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Vermont. He has been in office since 1975, a member of the Democratic Party, Leahy served as the President pro tempore of the United States Senate from December 17,2012, to January 6,2015. As President pro tempore, he was third in the line of succession. He is the most senior senator and took office at a younger age than any other current senator, Leahy received the title of President pro tempore emeritus upon the commencement of the 114th Congress. He is the last remaining member of the Senate to have served during the presidency of Gerald Ford, Leahy is currently the longest-serving Democratic Senator as well as the longest-serving U. S. Senator in the history of Vermont, and the current dean of his states congressional delegation, having been there since 1975, he is the longest serving incumbent Senator following the death of Hawaiis Daniel Inouye, who had served from 1962 until his death in 2012.
He is the chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee. The Senate Judiciary Committee worked extensively on prison reform with the introduction on a number of bills aimed at reforming the overcrowded prisons, the bills include, the Justice Safety Valve Act of 2013, The Smarter Sentencing Act of 2013, and the Public Safety Enhancement Act. Leahy was born in Montpelier, the son of Alba and Howard Francis Leahy and his maternal grandparents were Italian, and his father was of Irish ancestry, some of his ancestors came to Vermont during the 19th century to work at quarries. He graduated from Saint Michaels College in 1961 with a bachelor of degree in political science. He was an associate at the firm headed by Philip H. Hoff, in May 1966 Hoff appointed him to fill a vacancy as States Attorney of Chittenden County. Leahy was elected to a term in 1966 and re-elected in 1970. Leahy married Marcelle Pomerleau in 1962, she is bilingual with French Canadian heritage from Quebec immigrants to Vermont and they reside in a farmhouse in Middlesex, that they moved to from Burlington, and have three children.
In 2012 the Leahys celebrated their anniversary, with Leahy saying ‘‘We hate it when we’re apart from one another. ’’ Leahy is legally blind in his left eye. He won a race against Vermonts lone congressman, Richard Mallary. At 34 years old, he was the youngest Senator in Vermont history, as of 2015, Leahy and Minnesota Congressman Rick Nolan are the only two remaining Watergate Babies in Congress, though Nolans service ended in 1981 and started again in 2013. Leahy was nearly defeated in 1980 by Republican Stewart Ledbetter, winning by only 2,700 votes amid Ronald Reagans landslide victory. In 1986, he faced what was on paper an even stronger challenger in former governor Richard Snelling, in 1992, Vermont Secretary of State Jim Douglas held him to 54 percent of the vote
Green Party of the United States
The Green Party of the United States is a green and progressive political party in the United States. On the political spectrum the party is seen as left-wing. The GPUS was founded in 2001 as the evolution of the Association of State Green Parties, the ASGP had increasingly distanced itself from the G/GPUSA in the late 1990s. The Greens gained widespread attention during the 2000 presidential election. Nader was vilified by many Democrats and even some Greens, who accused him of spoiling the election for Al Gore, the degree of Naders impact on the 2000 election remains controversial. The GPUS had several members elected in state legislatures, including in California, Maine, a number of Greens around the United States hold positions on the municipal level, including on school boards, city councils and as mayors. The organization conducted grassroots organizing efforts, educational activities, and electoral campaigns and those who saw electoral strategies as a crucial engine of social change. The G/GPUSA was recognized by the FEC as a political party in 1991.
The compromise agreement subsequently collapsed and two Green party organizations have co-existed in the United States since, the Green Politics Network was organized in 1990 and The National Association of Statewide Green Parties formed by 1994. Divisions between those pressing to break onto the political stage and those aiming to grow roots at the local level continued to widen during the 1990s. The Association of State Green Parties encouraged and backed Naders presidential runs in 1996 and 2000, by 2001, the push to separate electoral activity from the G/GPUSA issue-based organizing led to the Boston Proposal and subsequent rise of the Green Party of the United States. The G/GPUSA lost most of its affiliates in the following months, in 2016, Mark Salazar set a new record for a Green Party nominee for U. S. Congress. Running in the Arizona 8th district, against incumbent Republican Congressman Trent Franks, the GPUS follows the ideals of green politics, which are based on the Four Pillars of the Green Party, Ecological wisdom, Social justice, Grassroots democracy and Nonviolence.
An avocado is Green on the outside and Green on the inside and it goes on to explain that Greens have a vital role in bringing Democracy to the otherwise undemocratic two party system of the U. S. The Green Party does not accept donations from corporations, political committees,527 organizations or soft money. The partys platforms and rhetoric harshly criticize any corporate influence and control over government, the state parties appoint delegates to serve on the various standing committees of the GNC. The National Committee elects a Steering Committee of seven Co-chairs, a Secretary, the National Committee performs most of its business online, but holds an Annual National Meeting to conduct business in person. Californians have elected 55 of the 226 office-holding Greens nationwide as of June 2007, other states with high numbers of Green elected officials include Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Maine
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution and it was founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854. The Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern States for most of the period between 1860 and 1932, there have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one party. The Republican Partys current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats more progressive platform, its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. As of 2017, the GOP is documented as being at its strongest position politically since 1928, in addition to holding the Presidency, the Republicans control the 115th United States Congress, having majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures, the main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil, the first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20,1854, in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jeffersons Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 6,1854, in Jackson and it oversaw the preserving of the union, the end of slavery, and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861–1877. The Republicans initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, with the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states, early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan free labor, free land, free men, which had been coined by Salmon P.
Chase, a Senator from Ohio. Free labor referred to the Republican opposition to labor and belief in independent artisans. Free land referred to Republican opposition to the system whereby slaveowners could buy up all the good farm land. The Party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power, representing the fast-growing western states, won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The partys success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s and those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the system, the Half-Breeds led by Chester A.
Arthur pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
Charles Ernest Chuck Grassley is the senior United States Senator from Iowa, serving since 1981. A member of the Republican Party, he served in the United States House of Representatives. Grassley was born in New Hartford, the son of Ruth and Louis Arthur Grassley, at Iowa State Teachers College, he earned a B. A. in 1955 and an M. A. in 1956. During his time as a student, Grassley joined the social-professional Alpha Gamma Rho Fraternity, during the 1950s, Grassley farmed and worked in factories in Iowa, first as a sheet metal shearer and as an assembly line worker. He studied toward a Ph. D. in political science at the University of Iowa, in 1967–1968 Grassley taught at the now-defunct Charles City College. Grassley represented parts of Butler County in the Iowa House of Representatives from 1959 until 1975 and he served in the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1981. In July 2007, a Grassley-commissioned report was released claiming that more than US$1 billion in farm subsidies were sent to deceased individuals, Grassley was called a Taxpayer Super Hero in 2014 by the Council for Citizens Against Government Waste for his efforts to protect taxpayers.
He received a 100 percent rating from the group that year and has a rating of 78 percent. Since 1976, Grassley has repeatedly introduced measures that increase the level of taxation on American citizens living abroad, critics of the amendment felt that the move hurt Americans competing for jobs abroad by putting an unnecessary tax burden on foreign employers. Others felt that the move was only to offset the deficit caused by domestic tax cuts of the Bush Administration. After some criticism, he dismissed the comments as rhetoric, in May 2009, Grassley cosponsored a resolution to amend the US Constitution to prohibit flag-burning. In December 2009, he voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as of December 2013, Grassley has cast 6,806 consecutive roll call votes, placing him second behind the all-time consecutive vote record holder, Senator William Proxmire. Grassley has not missed a call vote since 1993, when he was touring Iowa with President Bill Clinton to survey flood damage.
He has, as of July 2012, cast almost 11,000 votes and had at that time only missed 35 votes in his Senate career, in June 2015, Grassley introduced legislation to help protect taxpayers from alleged abuses by the Internal Revenue Service. The legislation was proposed in response to recent events involving alleged inappropriate conduct by employees at the IRS, since first taking office in 1981, Grassley has held public meetings in all of Iowas 99 counties each year, even after losing honorarium payments for them in 1994. This has led to the coinage of the term full Grassley, Grassley has stated that he considers himself to be pro-life and has expressed concern regarding the potential for abortions to be paid for with federal funds. Grassley has expressed concern about the impact of regulations by the Environmental Protection Agency on farming, in September 2015, Grassley received the Dr. Harold D. Prior Friend of Iowa Wind Energy award from the Iowa Wind Energy Association for his commitment to supporting wind energy development in Iowa, in 1992 Grassley authored the federal wind energy tax credit
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Libertarian Party (United States)
The Libertarian Party is a Libertarian political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and the abolition of the welfare state. The LP was conceived at meetings in the home of David F. Nolan in Westminster, Colorado in 1971 and was formed on December 11,1971, in Colorado Springs. The founding of the party was prompted in part due to concerns about the Nixon administration, the Vietnam War, the party generally promotes a classical liberal platform, in contrast to the Democrats modern liberalism and progressivism and the Republicans conservatism. Gary Johnson, the presidential nominee in 2012 and 2016, states that the LP is more culturally liberal than Democrats. Current cultural policy positions include ending the prohibition of drugs, supporting same-sex marriage, ending capital punishment. Many libertarians believe in lowering the age to 18. While it is the third largest political party in the United States, there are 499,492 voters registered as Libertarian in the 27 states that report Libertarian registration statistics and Washington, D. C.
The LP was the party under which the first electoral vote was cast for a woman, Tonie Nathan, for Vice President in a United States presidential election, the first Libertarian National Convention was held in June 1972. In 1978, Dick Randolph of Alaska became the first elected Libertarian state legislator, in 1994, over 40 Libertarians were elected or appointed which was a record for the party at that time. 1995 saw a membership and voter registration for the party. In 1996, the Libertarian Party became the first third party to earn ballot status in all 50 states two presidential elections in a row, by the end of 2009,146 Libertarians were holding elected offices. He was renominated for president in 2016, this time choosing former Massachusetts Governor William Weld as his running mate, johnson/Weld shattered the Libertarian record for a presidential ticket, earning over 4.4 million votes. Though the party has never won a seat in the United States Congress, it has seen success in the context of state legislatures.
Three Libertarians were elected to the Alaska House of Representatives between 1978 and 1984 and another four to the New Hampshire General Court in 1992, rhode Island State Representative Daniel P. Gordon was expelled from the Republicans and joined the Libertarian Party in 2011. Ebke was not up for re-election in 2016, dyer changed party affiliation to the Libertarian Party from the Republican Party in February 2017. In 1972, Libertarian Party was chosen as the partys name, the current slogan of the party is The Party of Principle. Also in 1972, the Libersign—an arrow angling upward through the abbreviation TANSTAAFL—was adopted as a party symbol, by the end of the decade, this was replaced with the Lady Liberty until 2015, with the adoption of the current Torch Eagle logo. In the 1990s several state libertarian parties adopted the Liberty Penguin as their official mascot, another mascot is the Libertarian porcupine, an icon that was originally designed by Kevin Breen in March 2006, that is often associated with the Free State Project
Addison Mitchell Mitch McConnell Jr. is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Kentucky. A member of the Republican Party, he has been the Majority Leader of the Senate since January 3,2015 and he is the 15th Republican and the second Kentuckian to lead his party in the Senate. During the administration of President Barack Obama, McConnell was known to the left as being an obstructionist, some on the right praised him for tenacity and courage, while others criticized him for being part of the political establishment and not keeping his promises to conservatives. From early 2016, McConnell refused to schedule Senate hearings for Obamas nominee to the Supreme Court, Merrick Garland, to replace Associate Justice Antonin Scalia, who died in February 2016. Garlands nomination remained before the Senate for 294 days, from March 16,2016 until it expired on January 3,2017, McConnell has repeatedly been found to have the lowest home state approval rating of any sitting senator.
McConnell was born on February 20,1942, in a hospital in Sheffield, which is now called the Helen Keller Hospital, McConnell is the son of Addison Mitchell McConnell, and his wife, Julia. As a youth, he overcame polio and his family moved to Georgia when he was eight. When he was a teenager, his family arrived in Louisville where he attended duPont Manual High School and he graduated with honors from the University of Louisville with a B. A. in political science in 1964. McConnell was president of the Student Council of the College of Arts and Sciences and he has maintained strong ties to his alma mater and remains a rabid fan of its sports teams. Three years later, McConnell graduated from the University of Kentucky College of Law, McConnell is of Scots-Irish and English descent. McConnell enlisted in the U. S. Army Reserve at Louisville and he received an Honorable Discharge for medical reasons after five weeks at Fort Knox. McConnell began interning for Senator John Sherman Cooper in 1964, later, McConnell was an assistant to Senator Marlow Cook and was a Deputy Assistant Attorney General under President Gerald R.
Ford, where he worked alongside future Justice Antonin Scalia. In 1977, McConnell was elected the Jefferson County Judge/Executive, the top political office in Jefferson County. 1984 In 1984, McConnell ran for the U. S. Senate against two-term Democratic incumbent Walter Dee Huddleston. The election race wasnt decided until the last returns came in, McConnell was the only Republican Senate challenger to win that year, despite Ronald Reagans landslide victory in the presidential election. His campaign bumper stickers and television ads asked voters to Switch to Mitch,1990 In 1990, McConnell faced a tough re-election contest against former Louisville Mayor Harvey I. 1996 In 1996, he defeated Steve Beshear by 12. 6%,2002 In 2002, he was re-elected against Lois Combs Weinberg by 29. 4%, the largest majority by a statewide Republican candidate in Kentucky history. 2008 In 2008, McConnell faced his closest contest since 1990 and he defeated Bruce Lunsford by 6%
Michael Richard Mike Pence is an American politician and the 48th Vice President of the United States. He previously served as the 50th Governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017, born and raised in Columbus, Pence graduated from Hanover College and earned a law degree from the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law before entering private practice. After losing two bids for a U. S. congressional seat in 1988 and 1990, he became a conservative radio and he served as the chairman of the House Republican Conference from 2009 to 2011. Pence positioned himself as an ideologue and supporter of the Tea Party movement, noting he was a Christian, a conservative. Pence signed bills intended to restrict abortions, including one that prohibited abortions if the reason for the procedure was the race, gender. He signed an additional bill acting as an amendment intended to protect LGBT people. Michael Richard Mike Pence was born June 7,1959, in Columbus, one of six children of Nancy Jane and Edward J.
Pence and his family were Irish Catholic Democrats. He was named after his grandfather, Richard Michael Cawley, who emigrated from County Sligo, Ireland, to the United States through Ellis Island and became a bus driver in Chicago and his maternal grandmothers parents were from Doonbeg, County Clare. Pence graduated from Columbus North High School in 1977 and he earned a BA degree in history from Hanover College in 1981, and a JD degree from the Indiana Universitys Robert H. McKinney School of Law in Indianapolis in 1986. While at Hanover, Pence joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, after graduating from Hanover, Pence was an admissions counselor at the college from 1981 to 1983. In his childhood and early adulthood, Pence was a Roman Catholic and Martin Luther King Jr. While in college, Pence became an evangelical, born-again Christian, after graduating from law school in 1986, Pence was an attorney in private practice. He ran unsuccessfully for a seat in 1988 and in 1990. He became the president of the Indiana Policy Review Foundation, a self-described free-market think tank in 1991, Pence left the Indiana Policy Review Foundation in 1993, a year after beginning to host The Mike Pence Show, a talk radio program based in WRCR-FM in Rushville, Indiana.
Pence called himself Rush Limbaugh on decaf since he considered himself politically conservative while not as outspoken as Limbaugh, the show was syndicated by Network Indiana and aired weekdays 9 a. m. to noon on 18 stations throughout the state, including WIBC in Indianapolis. From 1995 to 1999, Pence hosted a political talk show from Indianapolis. In 1988, Pence ran for Congress against Democratic incumbent Phil Sharp and he ran against Sharp again in 1990, quitting his job in order to work full-time in the campaign, but once again was unsuccessful. During the race, Pence used political donations to pay the mortgage on his house, his credit card bill, golf tournament fees
Elena Kagan is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kagan is the Courts fourth female justice, Kagan was born and raised in New York City. After attending Princeton and Harvard Law School, she completed federal Court of Appeals and she began her career as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School, leaving to serve as Associate White House Counsel, and as policy adviser, under President Clinton. After a nomination to the United States Court of Appeals for the D. C, which expired without action, she became a professor at Harvard Law School and was named its first female dean. In 2009, Kagan became the first female Solicitor General, after confirmation, Kagan was sworn in on August 7,2010, by Chief Justice John G. Roberts. Kagans formal investiture ceremony before a sitting of the United States Supreme Court took place on October 1,2010. Kagan was born in New York City, the middle of three children, on the citys Upper West Side and her father, Robert Kagan, was an attorney, and her mother, Gloria Kagan, taught at Hunter College Elementary School.
Kagans two brothers are public school teachers and her family lived in a third-floor apartment at West End Avenue and 75th Street and attended Lincoln Square Synagogue. Kagan was independent and strong-willed in her youth and, according to a law partner. She had strong opinions about what a bat mitzvah should be like, but they finally worked it out. She negotiated with the rabbi and came to a conclusion that satisfied everybody, Kagans rabbi, Shlomo Riskin, had never performed a ritual bat mitzvah before. Elena Kagan felt very strongly that there should be ritual bat mitzvah in the synagogue and this was really the first formal bat mitzvah we had, said Riskin. Kagan asked to read from the Torah on a Saturday morning but ultimately read on a Friday night, May 18,1973, she identifies with Conservative Judaism. Childhood friend Margaret Raymond recalled that Kagan was a teenage smoker, on Saturday nights and Kagan were more apt to sit on the steps of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and talk. Kagan loved literature and re-read Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice every year, in her Hunter College High School yearbook of 1977, Kagan was pictured in a judges robe and holding a gavel.
Next to her photo was a quote from former Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, Government is itself an art, after graduating from high school, Kagan attended Princeton University, where she earned an A. B. summa cum laude in history in 1981. Among the subjects she studied was the socialist movement in New York City in the early 20th century and she wrote a senior thesis under historian Sean Wilentz titled To the Final Conflict, Socialism in New York City, 1900–1933. In it she wrote, Through its own internal feuding, the story is a sad but a chastening one for those who, more than half a century after socialisms decline, still wish to change America
Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. She has the distinction of being its first justice of Hispanic heritage, the first Latina, its third female justice, along with John Roberts and Elena Kagan, is one of the youngest justices on the Supreme Court. Sotomayor was born in The Bronx, New York City, to Puerto Rican-born parents and her father died when she was nine, and she was subsequently raised by her mother. Sotomayor graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1976 and received her J. D. from Yale Law School in 1979 and she was an advocate for the hiring of Latino faculty at both schools. She worked as an assistant district attorney in New York for four and she played an active role on the boards of directors for the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, the State of New York Mortgage Agency, and the New York City Campaign Finance Board. Sotomayor was nominated to the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George H. W.
Bush in 1991, confirmation followed in 1992. In 1997, she was nominated by President Bill Clinton to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and her nomination was slowed by the Republican majority in the United States Senate, but she was eventually confirmed in 1998. On the Second Circuit, Sotomayor heard appeals in more than 3,000 cases, Sotomayor has taught at the New York University School of Law and Columbia Law School. In May 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Sotomayor to the Supreme Court following the retirement of Justice David Souter and her nomination was confirmed by the Senate in August 2009 by a vote of 68–31. Sotomayor has supported, while on the court, the liberal bloc of justices when they divide along the commonly perceived ideological lines. Sonia Maria Sotomayor was born in the New York City borough of The Bronx, the two left Puerto Rico separately and married during World War II after Celina served in the Womens Army Corps. Juan Sotomayor had an education, did not speak English.
Sonias younger brother, Juan Sotomayor, became a physician and university professor in the Syracuse, New York, Sotomayor was raised a Catholic and grew up in Puerto Rican communities in the South Bronx and East Bronx, she self-identifies as a Nuyorican. The family lived in a South Bronx tenement before moving in 1957 to the well-maintained and ethnically mixed and her relative proximity to Yankee Stadium led to her becoming a lifelong fan of the New York Yankees. The extended family got together frequently and regularly visited Puerto Rico during summers, Sonia grew up with an alcoholic father and a mother who was emotionally distant, she felt closest to her grandmother, who she said gave her a source of protection and purpose. Sonia was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age seven, and her father died of heart problems at age 42, when she was nine years old. After this, she became fluent in English and she reflected in 1998, I was going to college and I was going to become an attorney, and I knew that when I was ten.
Celina Sotomayor put great stress on the value of education, she bought the Encyclopædia Britannica for her children, for grammar school, Sotomayor attended Blessed Sacrament School in Soundview, where she was valedictorian and had a near-perfect attendance record