Mad is an American humor magazine founded in 1952 by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines, launched as a comic book before it became a magazine. It was imitated and influential, affecting satirical media, as well as the cultural landscape of the 20th century, with editor Al Feldstein increasing readership to more than two million during its 1974 circulation peak. From 1952 until 2018, Mad published 550 regular issues, as well as hundreds of reprint "Specials", original-material paperbacks, reprint compilation books and other print projects; the magazine's numbering reverted to 1 with its June 2018 issue, coinciding with the magazine's headquarters move to the West Coast. The magazine is the last surviving title from the EC Comics line, offering satire on all aspects of life and popular culture, politics and public figures, its format is divided into a number of recurring segments such as TV and movie parodies, as well as freeform articles. Mad's mascot, Alfred E. Neuman, is the focal point of the magazine's cover, with his face replacing that of a celebrity or character, lampooned within the issue.
Mad began as a comic book published by EC, debuting in August 1952, located in lower Manhattan at 225 Lafayette Street. In the early 1960s, the Mad office moved to 485 Madison Avenue, a location given in the magazine as "485 MADison Avenue"; the first issue was written entirely by Harvey Kurtzman, featured illustrations by Kurtzman, along with Wally Wood, Will Elder, Jack Davis, John Severin. Wood and Davis were the three main illustrators throughout the 23-issue run of the comic book. To retain Kurtzman as its editor, the comic book converted to magazine format as of issue #24; the switchover induced Kurtzman to remain for only one more year, but crucially, the move had removed Mad from the strictures of the Comics Code Authority. After Kurtzman's departure in 1956, new editor Al Feldstein swiftly brought aboard contributors such as Don Martin, Frank Jacobs, Mort Drucker, Antonio Prohías, Dave Berg, Sergio Aragonés; the magazine's circulation more than quadrupled during Feldstein's tenure, peaking at 2,132,655 in 1974.
When Feldstein retired in 1984, he was replaced by the senior team of Nick Meglin and John Ficarra, who co-edited Mad for the next two decades. Long time production artist Lenny “The Beard” Brenner was promoted to Art Director and Joe Raiola and Charlie Kadau joined the staff as junior editors. Meglin retired in 2004, however Ficarra as Executive Editor and Kadau as Senior Editors, Sam Viviano, who had taken over as Art Director in 1999, would continue for the next 13 years. In June 2017, the publishing company, DC Entertainment, announced that Mad would relocate to Burbank, California. None of Mad's veteran New York staff made the move, resulting in a change in editorial leadership and art direction. Bill Morrison succeeded Ficarra in January 2018. However, Morrison's tenure was the shortest of any top editor in Mad's history as he left the magazine in February 2019. To date, Mad has not named a successor. Gaines sold his company in the early 1960s to the Kinney Parking Company, which acquired National Periodicals and Warner Bros. by the end of that decade.
Gaines was named a Kinney board member, was permitted to run Mad as he saw fit without corporate interference. Following Gaines' death, Mad became more ingrained within the Time Warner corporate structure; the magazine was obliged to abandon its long-time home at 485 Madison Avenue, in the mid-1990s it moved into DC Comics' offices at the same time that DC relocated to 1700 Broadway. In 2001, the magazine began running paid advertising; the outside revenue allowed the introduction of improved paper stock. Mad ended its 550-issue/65-year run in Manhattan at the end of 2017, when its offices relocated to DC Entertainment headquarters in Burbank, California; the first issue of Mad under the new editorial team was published as "#1." In its earliest incarnation, new issues of the magazine appeared erratically, between four and seven times a year. By the end of 1958, Mad had settled on an unusual eight-times-a-year schedule, which lasted four decades. Issues would go on sale 7 to 9 weeks before the start of the month listed on the cover.
Gaines felt. Mad began producing additional issues, until it reached a traditional monthly schedule with the January 1997 issue. With its 500th issue, amid company-wide cutbacks at Time Warner, the magazine temporarily regressed to a quarterly publication before settling to six issues per year in 2010. Throughout the years, Mad remained a unique mix of political humor. In November 2017, Rolling Stone wrote, "operating under the cover of barf jokes, Mad has become America’s best political satire magazine." Though there are antecedents to Mad's style of humor in print and film, Mad became a pioneering example of it. Throughout the 1950s, Mad featured groundbreaking parodies combining a sentimental fondness for the familiar staples of American culture—such as Archie and Superman—with a keen joy in exposing the fakery behind the image, its approach was described by Dave Kehr in The New York Times: "Bob Elliott and Ray Goulding on the radio, Ernie Kovacs on television, Stan Freberg on records, Harvey Kurtzman in the early issues of Mad: all of those pioneering humorists and many others realized that the real world mattered less to people than the sea of sounds and images that th
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Stephen Edwin King is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, science fiction, fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have been adapted into feature films, television series, comic books. King has published six non-fiction books, he has written 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections. King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, British Fantasy Society Awards. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, he has received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire oeuvre, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America. In 2015, King was awarded with a National Medal of Arts from the United States National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature, he has been described as the "King of Horror". King was born September 1947, in Portland, Maine, his father, Donald Edwin King, was a merchant seaman.
Donald was born under the surname Pollock, but as an adult, used the surname King. King's mother was Nellie Ruth; when Stephen King was two years old, his father left the family. King's mother raised Stephen and his older brother, David, by herself, sometimes under great financial strain; the family moved to De Pere, Fort Wayne and Stratford, Connecticut. When King was 11, his family returned to Durham, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths, she became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, King chooses to believe in the existence of God; as a child, King witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned, speechless and in shock. Only did the family learn of the friend's death; some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir On Writing.
King related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction Danse Macabre, in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause." King compares his uncle's dowsing for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories he remembers as The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book."King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School, in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC's horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt, he began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave's Rag, the newspaper his brother published with a mimeograph machine, began selling to his friends stories based on movies he had seen.
The first of his stories to be independently published was "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber". That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense, edited by Marv Wolfman; as a teen, King won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. From 1966, King studied at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English; that year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, Steve King's Garbage Truck, for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, worker at an industrial laundry. King met his future wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the University's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops. King sold his first professional short story, "The Glass Floor," to Startling Mystery Stories in 1967. After graduating from the University of Maine, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to men's magazines such as Cavalier.
Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection Night Shift. The short story The Raft was published in a men's magazine. After being arrested for driving over a traffic cone, he was fined $250 and had no money to pay the petty larceny fine. However, payment arrived for the short story The Raft, King was able to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Maine, he worked on ideas for novels. In 1973, King's novel Carrie was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. Carrie was King's fourth novel, it was written on a portable typewriter. The novel began as a short story intended for Cavalier magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabith
Anthrax (American band)
Anthrax is an American heavy metal band from New York City, formed in 1981 by rhythm guitarist Scott Ian and bassist Dan Lilker. The group is considered one of the leaders of the thrash metal scene from the 1980s and is one of the "Big Four" thrash metal bands with Metallica and Slayer; as of April 2017, the band has released 11 studio albums, several other albums, 26 singles, including collaborating on a single with American hip hop group Public Enemy. According to Nielsen SoundScan, Anthrax sold 2.5 million records in the United States from 1991 to 2004, with worldwide sales of 10 million. Noted for its live performances, Anthrax signed with the independent label Megaforce Records, which released the band's debut studio album in 1984. Lilker soon left the band to form Nuclear Assault, was replaced by roadie Frank Bello. Lead vocalist Neil Turbin was replaced after two years by Matt Fallon, subsequently replaced in 1984 by Joey Belladonna. With a new lineup, the band recorded Spreading the Disease in 1985.
Anthrax's third album, Among the Living, was released in 1987 to critical praise. The band experienced another lineup change in 1992, when John Bush from Armored Saint replaced Belladonna as lead vocalist. Sound of White Noise was released the following year, peaking at number seven on the Billboard 200. Studio recordings during the 1990s saw the band, influenced by other genres, experimenting with its sound. Anthrax's lineup has changed several times over their career; the band has had a number of vocalists including Neil Turbin, Joey Belladonna, Dan Nelson and John Bush. Founding member Scott Ian and early arrival Charlie Benante, who joined Anthrax in 1983, are the only band members to appear on every album. Bassist Frank Bello has played on every album, except for the band's debut Fistful of Metal, which featured Dan Lilker. After rejoining the band from 2005 to 2007, Belladonna returned to Anthrax once again in 2010, the band has since recorded two more studio albums with him: Worship Music and For All Kings.
Anthrax was formed in Queens, New York City, on July 18, 1981 by guitarists Scott Ian and Dan Lilker. The band was named after the disease of the same name which Ian saw in a biology textbook, chosen because it sounded "sufficiently evil". Anthrax's initial line-up was completed by singer John Connelly, drummer Dave Weiss and bassist Paul Kahn. Kahn was replaced by bassist Kenny Kushner before Lilker took over on bass and Greg Walls joined as lead guitarist. Weiss was replaced early on by Greg D'Angelo, recommended to the band by Greg Walls. Scott Ian's younger brother Jason Rosenfeld was a temporary vocalist until Ian's former schoolmate Neil Turbin joined the band in late August 1982; the band recorded its first demo tape during this time. The band's first performance with Neil Turbin was at Great Gildersleeves, a New York club, in September 1982; this line-up played in the New York-New Jersey area over the next several months. Anthrax were on the same bill as the up-and-coming Metallica for several shows in the spring of 1983.
Guitarist Greg Walls left Anthrax that summer and was replaced by Bob Berry, recommended to Turbin by Rhett Forrester of Riot. Berry was in turn soon replaced by Dan Spitz, a member of the New Jersey thrash band Overkill. A second demo was recorded soon after. Drummer Charlie Benante replaced D'Angelo in September 1983 after a several-month courtship by Ian. By this time and Lilker had befriended New Jersey record store owner Jon Zazula, to whom they had given their demo tapes to critique. Zazula's new record label Megaforce Records had released Metallica's debut album Kill'Em All to great success. In late 1983, Zazula agreed to sign Anthrax and the band recorded the "Soldiers of Metal" single, produced by Ross the Boss of Manowar; the B-side was the song "Howling Furies", taken from a previous demo with Greg D'Angelo on drums. Anthrax released their debut album Fistful of Metal in January 1984. However, tensions were building between Lilker and the rest of the band for various reasons leading to the band firing Lilker.
He would soon form the band Nuclear Assault with former Anthrax roadie John Connelly. Lilker was replaced by roadie Frank Bello; the band went on a successful US tour opening for Raven and others to support Fistful of Metal. In August 1984, Neil Turbin and Anthrax went their separate ways after long standing personal issues. In his book Eddie Trunk's Essential Hard Rock and Heavy Metal, music journalist Eddie Trunk admits pressuring Jon Zazula, Scott Ian and Anthrax into firing Turbin because of his personal taste in vocals. Singer Matt Fallon was hired in late 1984, but he and the band soon parted ways; the remaining members decided to play live shows as a four-piece billed as "The Diseased" with Scott Ian on vocals, performing hardcore punk covers until a permanent singer could be found. In 1985, Joey Belladonna was chosen as the new vocalist; the Armed and Dangerous EP marked Belladonna's recording debut though it featured two live tracks from 1984 and the two songs from the "Soldiers of Metal" single that all had Neil Turbin performing on them.
Anthrax's second album Spreading the Disease was released in October 1985. With left over studio time from the sessions for the album Ian and former bandmate Dan Lilker collaborated with vocalist Billy Milano and formed the side project Stormtroopers of Death and recorded the album Speak English or Die in three days, whic
Frank Booth (Blue Velvet)
Frank Booth is a fictional character and the main antagonist in David Lynch's 1986 psychological thriller Blue Velvet, portrayed by Dennis Hopper. A violent drug dealer, he has kidnapped the family of lounger singer Dorothy Vallens, holding them hostage in order to force her into becoming his sex slave. Frank is partners with a police detective known as "The Yellow Man", who helps Frank kill rival drug dealers stealing their supplies from the evidence room so that Frank can sell them himself. Hopper's performance as Frank was critically acclaimed, the character was ranked #36 on AFI's list of the top 50 film villains of all time. An aggressively psychopathic gangster, drug dealer and pimp, Frank is the central figure of Lumberton, North Carolina's criminal underworld, he kidnaps singer Dorothy Vallens' husband and son, holding them hostage to force Dorothy into becoming his sex slave. When he is with Dorothy, he exhibits a kind of split personality: "Daddy", a sadist who beats and demeans her.
His sexual arousal is highlighted by fits of violent rage, enhanced by inhaling an unidentified gas from a tank. After Dorothy proves reluctant to continue her relationship with Frank, he severs her husband's ear, found by college student Jeffrey Beaumont. While investigating the case, Jeffrey spies on Frank abusing Dorothy. Jeffrey and Dorothy begin a sexual relationship. Jeffrey begins following Frank and observing his day-to-day life, learning that he is partners with a police detective whom Jeffrey calls "The Yellow Man" after his distinctive sport coat, who murders rival drug dealers so that he can steal their supplies from the evidence room and provide them to Frank. Frank catches Jeffrey and Doroty together and forces them to accompany him to the apartment of "Suave Ben," the man holding Dorothy's husband and son. At Frank's instigation, Ben lip-syncs a performance of Roy Orbison's "In Dreams", which causes Frank to suffer an emotional breakdown. After, Frank takes Jeffrey to a lumber yard and kisses Jeffrey before subjecting him to a violent beating.
Sometime Frank murders Dorothy's husband, nearly beats her to death, leaves her naked on Jeffrey's lawn. Jeffrey follows Frank to Dorothy's apartment, where he finds the corpse of Dorothy's husband and the Yellow Man, whom Frank has shot in the head in anticipation of leaving town. Using a police radio to distract Frank, Jeffrey hides in a closet with a gun and watches while Frank returns to the apartment to execute The Yellow Man; as Frank begins searching the apartment for Jeffrey, he shoots him to death. Frank's lines and extensive use of the word "fuck" are referenced in pop culture; the line, "Don't you fucking look at me!" was voted by Premiere Magazine as one of the "100 Greatest Quotes in Cinema", was sampled by electronic act Faultline for use in the title track of the album Closer, Colder. Industrial group Pigface sampled one of Booth's lines for use in the remix song "Sick Asp Fuck." Samples of Frank speaking are strewn throughout Mr. Bungle's self-titled album. Most notably, the track "Squeeze me Macaroni" samples Frank's lines "Man, where's the fucking beer, man?" and "One thing I can't fucking stand is warm beer, makes me fucking puke!"
The band Ministry samples the Booth line "Let's hit the fucking road!" in the song "Jesus Built My Hotrod". Several samples of Frank Booth are used in the Acid Bath song "Cassie Eats Cockroaches" from their debut album When the Kite String Pops; when hosting Saturday Night Live, Dennis Hopper appeared in a skit as Frank Booth, hosting a game show titled "What's That Smell?", which he opened with Frank's line "Hello, neighbor." In a 2011 interview with Rolling Stone, David Lynch was asked "Who is a more dangerous gentleman, Frank Booth or Marcellus Santos?" Lynch replied "That's a good question. I'd rather hang with Frank Booth. I'd rather chill with him, wait for a booty call, than with Marcellus." The character ranks #36 on AFI's list of the top 50 film villains of all time. Premiere magazine listed Frank Booth, played by Dennis Hopper, as #54 on its list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time, calling him "the most monstrously funny creations in cinema history". Empire magazine placed Frank Booth as the 67th Greatest Film Character of all time.
"Don't you fucking look at me!" was voted by Premiere Magazine as one of the "100 Greatest Quotes in Cinema". The part of Frank Booth was offered to Willem Dafoe and Richard Bright, who both turned it down. Michael Ironside has stated that Frank was written with him in mind."” When Hopper read the script, he called director David Lynch and said, "You have to let me play Frank! Because I am Frank!" Robert Loggia had expressed interest in playing the role of Frank Booth. He showed up for an audition, unaware that Dennis Hopper had been cast, proceeded to wait for three hours, growing agitated. Upon seeing Lynch and learning of Hopper's casting, Loggia launched into a profanity-laden rant, which remained in Lynch's head for years. Loggia, years received a phone call from Lynch requesting his performance for antagonist Mr. Eddy in his 1997 psychological thriller Lost Highway, his tirade would become Mr. Eddy's road rage scene. Throughout the film, Frank Booth uses a medical mask and tube to inhale some kind of stimulant from an aerosol canister.
The identity of this gas is a subject of controversy
I'm the Man (EP)
I'm the Man is the second EP by the band Anthrax, released in 1987 by Megaforce Worldwide/Island Records. The band, along with Eddie Kramer and Paul Hammingson, produced the EP, which includes the single "I'm the Man". I'm the Man was certified platinum by the RIAA and its title track is considered among the first rap metal songs; the title track is a comedy/novelty song that parodies the style of the Beastie Boys, its main guitar riff is based on the melody of the Jewish folk song "Hava Nagila". For live performances, Joey Belladonna and Charlie Benante would switch places, Benante performing some of the raps and Belladonna drumming. A 7" single was released, containing only the second and third tracks; the beginning of "I'm the Man" features an electric guitar riff of the Jewish folk song "Hava Nagila", which can be heard in the chorus. The chorus' lyrics are borrowed from one of Taylor Negron's lines in the Rodney Dangerfield film Easy Money. Rather than using a sample, the song's lines are performed by Frank Bello.
Anthrax used one of Sam Kinison's famous primal screams for the song. At about 1:55, a sample of the Metallica song "Master of Puppets" from the 1986 album Master of Puppets can be heard. A few times after "I'm The Man" is said, a sample of "shut up" from Run–D. M. C.'s "You Talk Too Much" from the 1985 album King of Rock can be heard. Additionally, the "yeah" that begins the song " Fight for Your Right" by the Beastie Boys on their 1986 debut, Licensed to Ill, is sampled. Joey Belladonna – Lead vocals, drums Dan Spitz – Lead guitar Scott Ian – Rhythm guitar, vocals Frank Bello – Bass guitar, vocals Charlie Benante – Drums, vocals Mark Weiss – Photographer, album photography
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro