The stater was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece. The term is used for similar coins, imitating Greek staters, minted elsewhere in ancient Europe; the stater, as a Greek silver currency, first as ingots, as coins, circulated from the 8th century BC to AD 50. The earliest known stamped stater is an electrum turtle coin, struck at Aegina that dates to about 700 BC, it is on display at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. According to Robin Lane Fox, the stater as a weight unit was borrowed by the Euboean stater weighing 16.8 grams from the Phoenician shekel, which had about the same weight as a stater and was one fiftieth of a mina. The silver stater minted at Corinth of 8.6 g weight was divided into three silver drachmae of 2.9 g, but was linked to the Athenian silver didrachm weighing 8.6 g. In comparison, the Athenian silver tetradrachm weighed 17.2 g. Staters were struck in several Greek city-states such as, Aspendos, Knossos, many city-states of Ionia, Megalopolis, Olympia, Poseidonia, Thasos and more.

There existed a "gold stater", but it was only minted in some places, was an accounting unit worth 20–28 drachmae depending on place and time, the Athenian unit being worth 20 drachmae.. The use of gold staters in coinage seems of Macedonian origin; the best known types of Greek gold staters are the 28-drachma kyzikenoi from Cyzicus. Celtic tribes brought the concept to Western and Central Europe after obtaining it while serving as mercenaries in north Greece. Gold staters were minted in Gaul by Gallic chiefs modeled after those of Philip II of Macedonia, which were brought back after serving in his armies, or those of Alexander and his successors; some of these staters in the form of the Gallo-Belgic series were imported to Britain on a large scale. These went on to influence a range of staters produced in Britain. British Gold staters weighed between 4.5 and 6.5 grams. Celtic staters were minted in present-day Czech Republic and Poland; the conquests of Alexander extended Greek culture east. Gold staters have been found from the ancient region of Gandhara from the time of Kanishka.

In 2018, archaeologists in Podzemelj, Slovenia unearthed fifteen graves at the Pezdirčeva Njiva site. In one of the graves they found a bronze belt with a gold coin; the coin was a Celtic imitation of the Alexander the Great stater, depicting Nike and Athena, dates back to the first half of the 3rd century B. C. Coson Egyptian gold stater Silver stater with a turtle The dictionary definition of stater at Wiktionary The British Museum- Electrum 1/6 stater Silver stater with Pegasus and head of Athena wearing a Corinthian helmet, Akarnania, c. 250–167 BCE, Thyrreion mint Stater coins


Jüngling is a surname of German origin. It has been anglicized as Juengling, Jungling and Yungling, Yingling. Branches of this family exist throughout Europe concentrated in Germany, in the United States; the name Jüngling is translated in English as "youth". As Peter N. Stearns writes in the Encyclopedia of Social History, "Linguistic designations for preindustrial youth were class and gender specific. In Germany, for example, adults used separate designations for upper-class girls. Jungling implied a romantic image of youthful innocence and vulnerability."In general German use, Jüngling is a young man, no longer a boy, but not yet grown up. In ancient Greece, the term Epheb was used for this purpose. In Greek it is synonymous with kouros now in the English lexicon meaning "youth or boy of noble rank"; the word is associated with meaning to be a young pure and flawless young man, but may differ in degree from culture to culture in terminology as a boy, young man, half-strong. Until the 19th century, the youth was the male equivalent of the non-sexually active youth, a virgin young man.

In Japanese, the term "dōtei" is used to this day being associations with young people founded on express virginity. In fine arts, including in literature and paintings, the Jüngling youth is portrayed iconographicallly as beardless, innocent yet attractive young male. Der Jüngling in German literature is a German didactic poem about noble youth written in 1270 by Konrad von Haslau, it provides 1264 lines of instructions for young noblemen "that emphasized the more superficial aspects of proper behavior." Notable persons with this surname include: Johan Jüngling, Swedish former squash player Max Jüngling, German politician Dietrich Juengling, American lighting director Frederick Juengling, American wood engraver and painter Konrad Juengling, German-American LGBT activist Yuengling, or D. G. Yuengling & Son, the oldest operating American brewing company established in 1829. Yuengling beer family: David Yuengling, American businessman and brewer, the founder and first president of America's oldest brewery, D. G. Yuengling & Son Frederick Yuengling, American businessman and second president and owner of America's oldest brewery, D. G. Yuengling & Son Richard Yuengling Sr.

American businessman, the president and owner of the Pottsville, Pennsylvania brewer, Yuengling Richard "Dick" Yuengling Jr. American billionaire businessman, the president and sole owner of the Pottsville, Pennsylvania brewer, YuenglingAssociated with the Yuengling beer family: Frank D. Yuengling Mansion, a historic home located at Pottsville, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania built in 1913 Yuengling Beer, an American East-coast beer made by David Yuengling Yuengling Bicentennial Park and Gardens, a city park located in Pottsville, United States Yuengling Center known as the USF Sun Dome, a multi-purpose facility on the campus of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida Gesang der Jünglinge, the electronic music work by Karlheinz Stockhausen The Vienna Jüngling statue, called The Youth of Magdalensberg in English Der Jüngling, German title for The Raw Youth published as The Adolescent or An Accidental Family, a novel by Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky Der Jüngling und der Greis, most written by Friedrich Schiller published in 1782 in the form of a dialogue between the age-wise Almar and the young fanatical Selim on the meaning of life.

The different views of the two illustrate the dual world view of the author

Capital Group Companies

Capital Group is an American financial services company. It ranks among the world's oldest and largest investment management organizations, with over $2 trillion in assets under management. Founded in Los Angeles, California in 1931, it is held and has offices around the globe in the Americas, Asia and Europe. Capital offers a range of products, including more than 40 mutual funds through its subsidiary, American Funds Distributors, as well as separately managed accounts, private equity, investment services for high net worth investors in the U. S. and a range of other offerings for institutional clients and individual investors globally. In 1931, Jonathan Bell Lovelace founded the investment firm, Dennis & Renfrew, which would become Capital Group. Lovelace had been a partner in the stock brokerage firm E. E. MacCrone, where he explored the concept of developing an open-end mutual fund, he sold his stake in that company, just prior to the Wall Street Crash of 1929. In 1933, Lovelace's firm took over management of The Investment Company of America, which he had launched at E.

E. MacCrone in 1927. For the next 20 years, his firm enjoyed modest success; as mutual funds gained in popularity in the 1950s, Capital's roster of mutual funds grew. The International Resources Fund, established in 1954, was Capital's first foray into international investing. A year earlier, Lovelace had established an international investment staff at the urging of his son, Jon Lovelace, Jr; the establishment of the firm's first overseas research office in Geneva followed in 1962. In 1958, Jon Lovelace, Jr. accounts. Rather than assign a portfolio to a single manager, he divided each portfolio among several managers; each manager have total discretion over a section of the portfolio. Known today as The Capital System, it avoids the phenomenon of creating single-manager "stars," who can impact a fund's results should they leave. In the mid-1960s, Capital began to include research analysts in the management of the portfolios, reserving a portion of each to allow analysts to pursue their highest conviction investment ideas.

Capital Group's long-term approach has helped it avoid some of the pitfalls that have plagued other firms. In the late 1990s, the firm was criticized for not offering then-popular tech funds, but when the tech bubble burst, Capital was praised for not jumping on the bandwagon. Former British PM Theresa May's husband Philip May has worked as a relationship manager for the Capital Group; as of 2019, Capital Group held 5% of BAE Systems. The chairman and chief executive is Tim Armour, who took over in 2015 after the death of James Rothenberg. Funds have between 3 and 13 managers; as of 2019, the company is owned by 450 partners. Capital Group employs more than 7,500 associates worldwide. North American locations include Atlanta, Los Angeles, San Antonio, New York, San Francisco and Washington, D. C; as part of expansion plans in Europe, Capital Group established a presence in Frankfurt, Madrid and Zurich, adding to its offices in Geneva and Luxembourg. Its Asia offices include Beijing, Hong Kong, Mumbai and Tokyo.

Capital Group has a growing presence in Sydney and a private equity office in São Paulo. The Capital Group website