The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace. The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron; the oxidation raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten. Related decarburizing with air processes had been used outside Europe for hundreds of years, but not on an industrial scale. One such process has existed since the 11th century in East Asia, where the scholar Shen Kuo of that era described its use in the Chinese iron and steel industry. In the 17th century, accounts by European travelers detailed its possible use by the Japanese; the modern process is named after its inventor, the Englishman Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1856. The process was said to be independently discovered in 1851 by the American inventor William Kelly, though there is little to back up this claim.
The process using a basic refractory lining is known as the "basic Bessemer process" or Gilchrist–Thomas process after the English discoverers Percy Gilchrist and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas. A system akin to the Bessemer process has existed since the 11th century in East Asia. Economic historian Robert Hartwell writes that the Chinese of the Song Dynasty innovated a "partial decarbonization" method of repeated forging of cast iron under a cold blast. Sinologist Joseph Needham and historian of metallurgy Theodore A. Wertime have described the method as a predecessor to the Bessemer process of making steel; this process was first described by the prolific scholar and polymath government official Shen Kuo in 1075, when he visited Cizhou. Hartwell states that the earliest center where this was practiced was the great iron-production district along the Henan–Hebei border during the 11th century. In the 15th century the finery process, another process which shares the air-blowing principle with the Bessemer process, was developed in Europe.
In 1740 Benjamin Huntsman developed the crucible technique for steel manufacture, at his workshop in the district of Handsworth in Sheffield. This process had an enormous impact on the quantity and quality of steel production, but it was unrelated to the Bessemer-type process employing decarburization; the Japanese may have made use of a Bessemer-type process, observed by European travelers in the 17th century. The adventurer Johan Albrecht de Mandelslo describes the process in a book published in English in 1669, he writes, "They have, among others, particular invention for the melting of iron, without the using of fire, casting it into a tun done about on the inside without about half a foot of earth, where they keep it with continual blowing, take it out by ladles full, to give it what form they please." According to historian Donald Wagner, Madelslo did not visit Japan, so his description of the process is derived from accounts of other Europeans who had traveled to Japan. Wagner believes that the Japanese process may have been similar to the Bessemer process, but cautions that alternative explanations are plausible.
In the early 1850s, the American inventor William Kelly experimented with a method similar to the Bessemer process. Wagner writes that Kelly may have been inspired by techniques introduced by Chinese ironworkers hired by Kelly in 1854; when Bessemer's patent for the process was reported by Scientific American, Kelly responded by writing a letter to the magazine. In the letter, Kelly states that he had experimented with the process and claimed that Bessemer knew of Kelly's discovery, he wrote that "I have reason to believe my discovery was known in England three or four years ago, as a number of English puddlers visited this place to see my new process. Several of them have since returned to England and may have spoken of my invention there."Sir Henry Bessemer described the origin of his invention in his autobiography written in 1890. During the outbreak of the Crimean War, many English industrialists and inventors became interested in military technology. According to Bessemer, his invention was inspired by a conversation with Napoleon III in 1854 pertaining to the steel required for better artillery.
Bessemer claimed that it "was the spark which kindled one of the greatest revolutions that the present century had to record, for during my solitary ride in a cab that night from Vincennes to Paris, I made up my mind to try what I could to improve the quality of iron in the manufacture of guns." At the time steel was used to make only small items like cutlery and tools, but was too expensive for cannons. Starting in January 1855 he began working on a way to produce steel in the massive quantities required for artillery and by October he filed his first patent related to the Bessemer process, he patented the method a year in 1856. Bessemer licensed the patent for his process to four ironmasters, for a total of £27,000, but the licensees failed to produce the quality of steel he had promised—it was "rotten hot and rotten cold", according to his friend, William Clay—and he bought them back for £32,500, his plan had been to offer the licenses to one company in each of several geographic areas, at a royalty price per ton that included a lower rate on a proportion of their output in order to encourage production, but not so large a proportion that they might decide to reduce their selling prices.
By this method he hoped to cause the new process to gain in market share. He realised that the technical problem was due to impurities in the iron and concluded that the solution lay in knowing when to turn off the flow of air in his process so that the impurities were burned off but just the right amount of carbon remained. However, despite spending tens of thousands of poun
The Mall at Robinson
The Mall at Robinson is a two-level, enclosed super-regional shopping mall located just off the Parkway West and PA Route 60 in Robinson Township, Allegheny County, five minutes east of the Pittsburgh International Airport and 15 minutes from downtown Pittsburgh. Opened in October 2001, it consists of 872,000 square feet of retail space and sits on over 200 acres; the mall is managed by Queensland Investment Corporation of Brisbane, Australia. The mall sits adjacent to Robinson Town Centre, located in the center of a growing retail area that includes Settlers Ridge and The Pointe at North Fayette in North Fayette Township, Pennsylvania. Anchor stores are Dick's Sporting Goods, JCPenney, Macy's. Macy's is the northern-most anchor with the former Sears serving as the southern-most anchor; the Dick's Sporting Goods store sits in the south east corner with J. C. Penney situated on the west side of the two-floor complex. A free-standing Kaufmann's department store was built in 1998 and sat as the only operating store until the remainder of the mall property was opened in 2001.
Sears closed in September 2018. It will be replaced by the first Wegmans in the Pittsburgh area; the store plans to open in Fall 2019. A Wahlburgers restaurant opened in spring 2019 the former Houlihan's location in the food court; the mall is home to over 150 stores including Abercrombie & Fitch, American Eagle Outfitters, Banana Republic, GAP, Hollister Co. Hot Topic, LOFT, PacSun, FYE, Victoria's Secret; the mall's food court sits on the second floor near the former Sears. Robinson Town Centre The Mall at Robinson Robinson Mall and Robinson Town Center described by the Pittsburgh Airport Chamber
Downtown Pittsburgh, colloquially referred to as the Golden Triangle, the Central Business District, is the urban downtown center of Pittsburgh. It is located at the confluence of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River whose joining forms the Ohio River; the "triangle" is bounded by the two rivers. The area features offices for major corporations such as PNC Bank, U. S. Steel, PPG, Bank of New York Mellon, Federated Investors and Alcoa, it is where the fortunes of such industrial barons as Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, Henry J. Heinz, Andrew Mellon and George Westinghouse were made, it contains the site where Fort Duquesne, once stood. In 2013, Pittsburgh had the second-lowest vacancy rate for Class A space among downtowns in the United States; the Central Business District is bounded by the Monongahela River to the south, the Allegheny River to the north, I-579 to the east. An expanded definition of Downtown may include the adjacent neighborhoods of Uptown/The Bluff, the Strip District, the North Shore, the South Shore.
Downtown is served by the Port Authority's light rail subway system, an extensive bus network, two inclines. The Downtown portion of the subway has the following stations: T Stations Station Square on the South Shore in the Station Square development First Avenue near First Avenue & Ross Street, Downtown Steel Plaza at Sixth Avenue & Grant Street, Downtown Penn Plaza near Liberty Avenue & Grant Street, Downtown Wood Street at the triangular intersection of Wood Street, Sixth Avenue, Liberty Avenue, Downtown Gateway Center at Liberty Avenue & Stanwix Street, Downtown North Side near General Robinson Street & Tony Dorsett Drive on the North Shore Allegheny near Allegheny Avenue & Reedsdale Street on the North Shore Downtown is home to the Pittsburgh Amtrak train station connecting Pittsburgh with New York City and Washington, D. C. to the east and Cleveland and Chicago to the west. Greyhound's Pittsburgh bus terminal is located across Liberty Avenue from the Amtrak Station, in the Grant Street Transportation Center building.
Major roadways serving Downtown from the suburbs include the "Parkway East" from Monroeville, the "Parkway West" from the airport area, the "Parkway North" from the North Hills, in Downtown Pittsburgh. Other important roadways are Pennsylvania Route 28, Pennsylvania Route 51, Pennsylvania Route 65, U. S. Route 19. Three major entrances to the city are via tunnels: the Fort Pitt Tunnel and Squirrel Hill Tunnel on I-376 and the Liberty Tunnels; the New York Times once called Pittsburgh "the only city with an entrance," referring to the view of Downtown that explodes upon drivers upon exiting the Fort Pitt Tunnel. Traveling I-279 south and I-376, the city "explodes into view" when coming around a turn in the highway. Downtown surface streets are based on two distinct grid systems that parallel the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers; these two grids intersect along Liberty Avenue. Furthermore, the Allegheny grid contains numbered streets, while the Monongahela grid contains numbered avenues. And, in fact, there are cases where these numbered creating some confusion.
This unusual grid pattern leads to Pittsburghers giving directions in the terms of landmarks, rather than turn-by-turn directions. Pittsburgh is nicknamed "The City of Bridges". In Downtown, there are 10 bridges connecting to points south; the expanded definition of Downtown includes 18 bridges. Citywide there are 446 bridges. In Allegheny County the number exceeds 2,200. Downtown Bridges Fort Pitt Bridge carries I-376 between Downtown and the Fort Pitt Tunnel Fort Duquesne Bridge carries I-279 between Downtown and the North Shore Smithfield Street Bridge carries Smithfield Street between Downtown and the South Shore Panhandle Bridge carries the city's light rail transit system between Downtown and the South Shore Liberty Bridge connects the Liberty Tunnel to I-579 Downtown Roberto Clemente Bridge connects 6th Street Downtown to Federal Street on the North Shore at PNC Park Andy Warhol Bridge connects 7th Street Downtown to Sandusky Street on the North Shore at the Andy Warhol Museum Rachel Carson Bridge connects 9th Street Downtown to Anderson Street on the North Shore Fort Wayne Railroad Bridge carries freight and Amtrak trains from Downtown to the North Shore Veterans Bridge carries I-579 from Downtown to the North Side Bridges of Expanded Downtown West End Bridge carries US Route 19 from the West End/South Shore to the North Shore/North Side just west of Downtown 16th Street Bridge carries 16th Street from the Strip District to Chestnut Street on the North Side West Penn Bridge is part of the Three Rivers Heritage Trail connecting the North Side to Washington's Landing on Herr's Island 30th Street Bridge connects River Avenue on the North Side with Waterfront Drive on Washington's Landing at Herr's Island 31st Street Bridge connects PA Route 28 on the North Side with 31st Street in the Strip District 33rd Street Railroad Bridge connects the North Side to the Strip District and crosses Herr's Island South 10th Street Bridge connects the Armstrong Tunnel at Second Avenue just east of Downtown with the South Side at South 10th Street Birmingham Br
Red Line (Pittsburgh)
The Red Line is a line on the Pittsburgh Light Rail system that runs between South Hills Village and Downtown Pittsburgh via the Beechview neighborhood. The companion route, the Blue Line, runs through Overbrook. In March 2007, the closure of the Palm Garden Bridge for refurbishment suspended the Red Line for five months; the line begins at South Hills Village in Upper St. Clair, runs north to Washington Junction through Bethel Park, providing a transfer to the Blue Line - Library, which runs via Overbrook; the Red Line continues north through Castle Shannon and Mount Lebanon through the Mount Lebanon Rail Tunnel underneath Washington Rd./West Liberty Ave into Dormont at the other end. The first station coming out of the tunnel northbound is Dormont Junction line proceeds through this suburb, crossing many streets via grade crossings; the line arrives at Potomac, where it begins travelling through street trackage about a quarter mile down the tracks, crossing into the neighborhood of Beechview in the city of Pittsburgh near the Neeld Avenue stop.
Before the Mt. Lebanon Rail Tunnel, the old streetcars ran with car traffic on Washington Rd. between Alfred St. in Mt. Lebanon and the intersection of McFarland Rd. and Raleigh Ave. in Dormont. At South Hills Junction the Red Line rejoins the Blue Line and the Brown Line, which runs over Mount Washington through the Allentown neighborhood; the Red Line runs through the Mount Washington Transit Tunnel, stopping at Station Square before crossing the Monongahela River on the Panhandle Bridge. Reaching downtown at First Avenue, the Red Line proceeds underground to Steel Plaza, Wood Street and Gateway Center. Upon reaching Gateway, the route proceeds under the Allegheny River and makes additional stops at North Side and Allegheny stations on the North Shore; the Port Authority closed seven stations along the Red Line on June 25, 2012: Santa Barbara, Martin Villa, Neeld, Boustead and Traymore. The line was renamed to Red Line - Castle Shannon via Beechview when the North Shore Connector opened; the Pittsburgh Light Rail has three types of stations.
They are low platform, high platform, underground. High platform and underground stations are wheelchair accessible. Low platform stations are not wheelchair accessible as they require passengers to climb stairs to board the light rail vehicle. Red Line - Castle Shannon via Beechview schedule and map effective September 12, 2017
South Hills Village
South Hills Village is a two-level shopping mall located in the Pittsburgh suburbs of Bethel Park and Upper St. Clair, it was developed by the Oxford Development Co. as the first shopping complex in Greater Pittsburgh to be built as a enclosed structure. The two-level complex is owned by Simon Property Group, who acquired it in 1997, it is anchored by Dick's Sporting Goods, Macy's, Target with one vacant anchor last occupied by Sears. The mall features over 134 specialty stores; the mall houses a food court and several professional offices. South Hills Village was the largest in Greater Pittsburgh until the Monroeville Mall built by the Oxford Development Company, opened in 1969. Located across the street from Macy's is the South Hills Village light rail station; this terminal opened for revenue service in July 1985. Businesses located just outside the mall include Eat'N Park, AMC Classic South Hills Village 10, KeyBank, a Barnes & Noble Bookstore On May 31, 2018, it was announced that Sears would be closing in June 2018 as part of a plan to close 72 stores nationwide.
It ended up closing on September 4th, 2018. Of the 80+ stores and services that opened with the mall on July 28, 1965, one is still in business today: Stephens Hair Graphics; the vacant three-story Boscov's store has been converted for use by Target and Dick's Sporting Goods. This allowed Target to enter Pittsburgh's South Hills market where limited land for new development had precluded a new store, it allowed Dick's Sporting Goods to open a much larger store to replace the small location on the mall periphery. Target operates on an expanded first level of the space with Dick's Sporting Goods taking the second and third floors, though the third floor is only accessible from within the Dick's Sporting Goods store. Dick's Sporting Goods had its grand opening October 17, 2012 and Target opened March 6, 2013. During the redevelopment, a former elevator used to connect the 3 floors was ripped out and replaced with an elevator that only Serves the Dicks Sporting Goods levels. There is still a freight elevator.
In September 2018, it was announced that Life Time Fitness will be opening in the former Sears location in Fall 2019
Forest City Realty Trust
Forest City Realty Trust, Inc. was a real estate investment trust that invested in office buildings, shopping centers and apartments in Boston, Dallas, Los Angeles and the greater metropolitan areas of New York City, San Francisco and Washington, D. C; the company was organized in Maryland with its headquarters in Ohio. As of December 31, 2017, the company owned 29 office buildings, 29 shopping centers, 78 apartment complexes. On December 7, 2018, the company was acquired by Brookfield Asset Management. In 1920, Forest City was founded as a family-owned lumber and household hardware business by siblings Charles Ratner, Leonard Ratner, Max Ratner, Fannye Ratner, immigrants from Poland. Beginning in the 1930s, the company invested in residential garages, retail strip centers. During World War II, the company prefabricated governmental housing. In 1960, Forest City became a publicly traded company. In 1987, the company sold its retail lumber business to Handy Andy Home Improvement Center. In 2011, the company sold a 49% stake in a retail portfolio in New York for $172.3 million.
In 2013, the company acquired a 100% interest in a mall in Pittsburgh. The company sold a Sheraton hotel in Station Square in Pittsburgh for $61 million, it announced plans to redevelop Ballston Common Mall. The company acquired a key parcel from Macy's for $13.4 million. In 2016, for tax purposes, the company converted into a real estate investment trust; the company sold its stake in the Brooklyn Nets and the Barclays Center to Mikhail Prokhorov, sold its military housing division to Hunt Companies for $208.8 million, sold Terminal Tower to K&D Group for $38.5 million, sold 7.7 acres and 8 buildings in Cleveland to an investor group for $3.5 million. In June 2017, Forest City shareholders voted to eliminate the dual share structure that had enabled the founding Ratner family to control the company; the City of New York filed a lawsuit against the company in conjunction with the rent due pursuant to a ground lease. In August 2017, the company sold 25 acres in Cleveland. In October 2017, the company sold its interests in 10 malls to Queensland Investment Corporation for $1.55 billion.
On December 7, 2018, the company was acquired by Brookfield Asset Management. Notable projects that were owned by the company are: 8 Spruce Street known as "New York by Gehry", for its designer, Frank Gehry. Pacific Park, Brooklyn, a mixed-use development in Brooklyn, New York that includes the Barclays Center. Central Station, a residential development on the site of a former railroad terminal in Chicago, Illinois. Mercantile National Bank Building, a mixed-use urban redevelopment project of a historical office complex in Dallas, Texas. Mesa del Sol, planned for 100,000 inhabitants in Albuquerque, is the company's largest mixed-use development, co-owned by Covington Capital Partners. New York Times Building, a 52-story building designed by architect Renzo Piano. Northfield Stapleton is an open-air, 1,200,000-square-foot retail town center at the company's mixed-use redevelopment project at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado. Public Health Service Hospital District in San Francisco's Presidio.
Radian, a 26-story, curved residential tower in the Financial District of Boston. Showcase Mall, a shopping center on the Las Vegas Strip. Short Pump Town Center, an outdoor mall in Richmond, Virginia. Station Square, a 52-acre indoor and outdoor shopping and entertainment complex in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. University Park at MIT, a mixed-use urban redevelopment project on an abandoned industrial site near the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Victoria Gardens, a mixed-use shopping center development in Rancho Cucamonga, California. Westchester's Ridge Hill, an upscale, urban open-air shopping center in Yonkers, New York anchored by Lord & Taylor. Westfield San Francisco Centre, an upscale, urban shopping center in San Francisco, California co-owned and managed by The Westfield Group
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups