A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel. It may be an integrated steel works carrying out all steps of steelmaking from smelting iron ore to rolled product, but may describe plants where steel semi-finished casting products are made, from molten pig iron or from scrap. Since the invention of the Bessemer process, steel mills have replaced ironworks, based on puddling or fining methods. New ways to produce steel appeared later: from scrap melted in an electric arc furnace and, more from direct reduced iron processes. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the world's largest steel mill was the Barrow Hematite Steel Company steelworks located in Barrow-in-Furness, United Kingdom. Today, the world's largest steel mill is in South Korea. An integrated steel mill has all the functions for primary steel production: iron making, steel making, roughing rolling/billet rolling product rolling; the principal raw materials for an integrated mill are iron ore and coal.
These materials are charged in batches into a blast furnace where the iron compounds in the ore give up excess oxygen and become liquid iron. At intervals of a few hours, the accumulated liquid iron is tapped from the blast furnace and either cast into pig iron or directed to other vessels for further steel making operations; the Bessemer process was a major advancement in the production of economical steel, but it has now been replaced by other processes such as the basic oxygen furnace. Molten steel is cast into large blocks called blooms. During the casting process various methods are used, such as addition of aluminum, so that impurities in the steel float to the surface where they can be cut off the finished bloom; because of the energy cost and structural stress associated with heating and cooling a blast furnace these primary steel making vessels will operate on a continuous production campaign of several years duration. During periods of low steel demand, it may not be feasible to let the blast furnace grow cold, though some adjustment of the production rate is possible.
Integrated mills are large facilities that are only economical to build in 2,000,000-ton per year annual capacity and up. Final products made by an integrated plant are large structural sections, heavy plate, wire rod, railway rails, long products such as bars and pipe. A major environmental hazard associated with integrated steel mills is the pollution produced in the manufacture of coke, an essential intermediate product in the reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace. Integrated mills may adopt some of the processes used in mini-mills, such as arc furnaces and direct casting, to reduce production costs. A minimill is traditionally a secondary steel producer, it obtains most of its iron from scrap steel, recycled from used automobiles and equipment or byproducts of manufacturing. Direct reduced iron is sometimes used with scrap, to help maintain desired chemistry of the steel, though DRI is too expensive to use as the primary raw steelmaking material. A typical mini-mill will have an electric arc furnace for scrap melting, a ladle furnace or vacuum furnace for precision control of chemistry, a strip or billet continuous caster for converting molten steel to solid form, a reheat furnace and a rolling mill.
The mini mill was adapted to production of bar products only, such as concrete reinforcing bar, angles, channels and light rails. Since the late 1980s, successful introduction of the direct strip casting process has made mini mill production of strip feasible. A mini mill will be constructed in an area with no other steel production, to take advantage of local markets, resources, or lower-cost labour. Mini mill plants may specialize, for example, in making coils of rod for wire-drawing use, or pipe, or in special sections for transportation and agriculture. Capacities of mini mills vary: some plants may make as much as 3,000,000 tons per year, a typical size is in the range 200,000 to 400,000 tons per year, some old or specialty plants may make as little as 50,000 tons per year of finished product. Nucor Corporation, for example, annually produces around 9,100,000 tons of sheet steel from its four sheet mills, 6,700,000 tons of bar steel from its 10 bar mills and 2,100,000 tons of plate steel from its two plate mills.
Since the electric arc furnace can be started and stopped on a regular basis, mini mills can follow the market demand for their products operating on 24-hour schedules when demand is high and cutting back production when sales are lower. Foundry List of steel producers Steel § Steel industry McGannon, Harold E.. The Making and Treating of Steel: Ninth Edition. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: United States Steel Corporation. Travel Channel video 1 of the Homestead Works An extensive picture gallery of all methods of production in North America and Europe History of steelworks in Scotland Trends in EAF quality capability 1980–2010
Anybody's Blonde is a 1931 American Pre-Code mystery film directed by Frank R. Strayer from an original screenplay by Betty Burbridge; the film stars Dorothy Revier, Reed Howes, Edna Murphy, was released by Action Pictures on November 17, 1931. Janet Reese is a reporter whose brother, Jim Dorgan, is an up and coming boxer, a win away from getting a shot at a title bout. Steve Crane is a local gangster who owns a popular nightclub. Crane, knowing he can get better odds betting against Dorgan, tries to force him into throwing the match, but Dorgan refuses. Crane enlists Myrtle Devoe, one of his showgirls and his mistress to distract Dorgan long enough so that he misses the fight. Myrtle and Dorgan used to go out, so when she invites him back to her place, he agrees; when Dorgan doesn't show up for his match against Don O'Hara, he loses by forfeit. O'Hara now becomes the number one challenger for the title; the following morning, Dorgan is found dead near Myrtle's apartment. The police pick up both Myrtle and Crane for questioning, but there is not enough evidence to make a case against them.
During their interrogation Crane tries to shift interest onto O'Hara. When they are released, Crane thinks it would be best for Myrtle to leave town for a while, at least until the heat about Dorgan's murder dies down. Frustrated with the lack of progress being made by the police. Janet decides to investigate for herself. With the departure of Myrtle, there is an opening at Crane's club, Janet applies for and gets the job. Crane becomes interested in Janet, she begins to lead him along; as they are talking, O'Hara storms in, angry at Crane's having attempted to finger him for Dorgan's murder. There is an instant attraction between O'Hara; as Janet and O'Hara's romance blossoms, she continues to attempt to pump Crane for information about her brother's murder. O'Hara proposes to Janet, but she turns him down, since he is a boxer, she hates boxing. Meanwhile, Myrtle has heard about Crane's interest in Janet, returns to town, intent on staking her claim. Seeing a way to make Myrtle's return work in her favor, Janet plans to force a confrontation between Crane and Myrtle, with the police listening in.
As the night of the title fight approaches, Janet sets the trap up at Crane's apartment for the night before the fight. When O'Hara learns that Janet is over Crane's apartment, he heads over there to confirm it; when he does, he jumps to the conclusion. He heads to the nearest bar to drown his sorrows. Janet goes through with her plan, has Myrtle show up at Crane's. During the argument between the two and Crane reveal enough of their murder of Dorgan to allow the police to arrest them; when the fight takes place the following night, O'Hara is still drunk and subsequently loses the fight. When Janet finds him and tries to explain what was going on, he doesn't want to hear about it, but when he sees her report in the paper, he understands she was telling the truth, the two reconcile. Dorothy Revier as Janet Reese Reed Howes as Don O'Hara Edna Murphy as Myrtle Devoe Lloyd Whitlock as Steve Crane Arthur Housman as Mulligan Henry B. Walthall as Mr. Evans Pat O'Malley as Reporter Gene Morgan as Stage director Nita Martan as Ginger The Film Daily gave the film a good review saying it was a "...fast action picture carries pop appeal with good love interest."
While they thought the plot was a bit "hokey", they felt the movie had good action sequences, "done with showmanship and furnishes a lot of suspense and some real thrills." They enjoyed the acting, while rating the directing and camera-work acceptable. Anybody's Blonde on IMDb Anybody's Blonde at the TCM Movie Database Anybody's Blonde at the American Film Institute Catalog
The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of its ability to conduct heat. It is denoted by k, λ, or κ. Heat transfer occurs at a lower rate in materials of low thermal conductivity than in materials of high thermal conductivity. For instance, metals have high thermal conductivity and are efficient at conducting heat, while the opposite is true for insulating materials like Styrofoam. Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are used in heat sink applications, materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal insulation; the reciprocal of thermal conductivity is called thermal resistivity. The defining equation for thermal conductivity is q = − k ∇ T, where q is the heat flux, k is the thermal conductivity, ∇ T is the temperature gradient; this is known as Fourier's Law for heat conduction. Although expressed as a scalar, the most general form of thermal conductivity is a second-rank tensor. However, the tensorial description only becomes necessary in materials. Consider a solid material placed between two environments of different temperatures.
Let T 1 be the temperature at x = 0 and T 2 be the temperature at x = L, suppose T 2 > T 1. A possible realization of this scenario is a building on a cold winter day: the solid material in this case would be the building wall, separating the cold outdoor environment from the warm indoor environment. According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat will flow from the hot environment to the cold one in an attempt to equalize the temperature difference; this is quantified in terms of a heat flux q, which gives the rate, per unit area, at which heat flows in a given direction. In many materials, q is observed to be directly proportional to the temperature difference and inversely proportional to the separation: q = − k ⋅ T 2 − T 1 L; the constant of proportionality k is the thermal conductivity. In the present scenario, since T 2 > T 1 heat flows in the minus x-direction and q is negative, which in turn means that k > 0. In general, k is always defined to be positive; the same definition of k can be extended to gases and liquids, provided other modes of energy transport, such as convection and radiation, are eliminated.
For simplicity, we have assumed here that the k does not vary as temperature is varied from T 1 to T 2. Cases in which the temperature variation of k is non-negligible must be addressed using the more general definition of k discussed below. Thermal conduction is defined as the transport of energy due to random molecular motion across a temperature gradient, it is distinguished from energy transport by convection and molecular work in that it does not involve macroscopic flows or work-performing internal stresses. Energy flow due to thermal conduction is classified as heat and is quantified by the vector q, which gives the heat flux at position r and time t. According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat flows from high to low temperature. Hence, it is reasonable to postulate that q is proportional to the gradient of the temperature field T, i.e. q = − k ∇ T, where the constant of proportionality, k > 0, is the thermal conductivity. This is called Fourier's law of heat conduction. In actuality, it is not a law but a definition of thermal conductivity in terms of the independent physical quantities q and T.
As such, its usefulness depends on the ability to determine k for a given material under given conditions. The constant