Kazimierz Jerzy Skrzypna-Twardowski was a Polish philosopher and rector of the Lwów University. Twardowski's family belonged to the Ogończyk coat of arms. Twardowski studied philosophy in Vienna with Robert Zimmermann. In 1892 he received his doctorate with his dissertation, Idee und Perzeption, in 1894 he presented his habilitation thesis, Zur Lehre vom Inhalt und Gegenstand der Vorstellungen, he originated many novel ideas related to metaphilosophy. He lectured in Vienna in the years 1894–95 was appointed professor at Lwów. An outstanding lecturer, he was a rector of the Lwów University during World War I. There Twardowski established the Lwów–Warsaw school of logic and became the "father of Polish logic", beginning the tradition of scientific philosophy in Poland. Among his students were the logicians Stanisław Leśniewski, Jan Łukasiewicz and Tadeusz Czeżowski, the historian of philosophy Władysław Tatarkiewicz, the phenomenologist and aesthetician Roman Ingarden, as well as philosophers close to the Vienna Circle such as Tadeusz Kotarbiński and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz.
In his On the Content and Object of Presentations, Twardowski argues for a distinction between content and object in the frame of the theory of intentionality of his teacher Franz Brentano. According to him the mind is divided in two main areas: acts or mental phenomena, a physical phenomenon. For example, an act of presentation is aimed at a presentation; this is what he aboutness. Every act is about something, but every presentation goes together with an act of presentation; this theory suffers from the problem that it is not clear what the presentation is. Is the presentation something only in the mind, or is it in the world as object? Twardowski says that sometimes presentation is used for the object in the world and sometimes for the immanent content of a mental phenomena. Twardowski offers a solution for this problem and proposes to make a distinction between the content of a presentation and the object of a presentation. In his book Twardowski offers an analogy to clarify this distinction.
He uses the example of a painting. People say of a landscape that it is painted, but of a painting that it is painted. In the first case the word ‘painting’ is used in a modifying way, while in the latter case the word painting is used in a qualitative or attributive way. Twardowski argues; the content is the painted painting. The content resembles the present ‘picture’ in one's mind, the object the landscape. Über den Unterschied zwischen der klaren und deutlichen Perzeption und der klaren und deutlichen Idee bei Descartes Idee und perzeption. Eine erkenntnis-theoretische Untersuchung aus Descartes Zur Lehre vom Inhalt und Gegenstand der Vorstellungen Wyobrażenie i pojęcie O tzw. prawdach względnych Über sogenannte relative Wahrheiten Über begriffliche Vorstellungen Das Wesen der Begriffe allegato a Jahresbericht der Wiener philosophischen Gesellschaft O psychologii, jej przedmiocie, metodzie, stosunku do innych nauk i jej rozwoju Rozprawy i artykuły filozoficzne Wybrane pisma filozoficzne Wybór pism psychologicznych i pedagogicznych Dzienniki On the Content and Object of Presentations.
A Psychological Investigation. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff 1977. Translated and with an introduction by Reinhardt Grossmann. On Actions and Other Topics in Philosophy. Edited by Johannes Brandl and Jan Wolenski. Amsterdam: Rodopi 1999. Translated and annotated by Arthur Szylewicz. On Prejudices and Other Topics in Philosophy. Edited by Anna Brożek e Jacek Jadacki. Amsterdam: Rodopi 2014. Sur les objets intentionnels. Paris: Vrin 1993. French translation of Zur Lehre vom Inhalt und Gegenstand der Vorstellungen and other texts by Edmund Husserl. School of Brentano Representationalism Lwów–Warsaw school of logic Logology Polish logic History of philosophy in Poland List of Poles Jens Cavallin and Object: Husserl and Psychologism, Phaenomenologica 142, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997. Sandra Lapointe et al. "The Golden Age of Polish philosophy. Kazimierz Twardowski's philosophical legacy". New York: Springer, 2009. Peter M. Simons and Logic in Central Europe from Bolzano to Tarski: Selected Essays, Springer, 2013. Maria van der Schaar, Kazimierz Twardowski: A Grammar for Philosophy, Brill, 2015.
Betti, Arianna. "Kazimierz Twardowski". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Wolenski, Jan. "Lvov-Warsaw School". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Kazimierz Twardowski at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Polish Philosophy Page: Kazimierz Twardowski Kazimierz Twardowski on the Content and Object of Presentations Annotated bibliography of and about Twardowski Archives of the Lvov-Varsovie School – Archiwum Kazimierza Twardowskiego Digital library of the works of Twardowski
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more contrasted with natural, sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training; the humanities use methods that are critical, or speculative, have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, philosophy, human geography, politics and art. Scholars in the humanities are humanists; the term "humanist" describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were called humanists; some secondary schools offer humanities classes consisting of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history and cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead use the comparative method and comparative research. Anthropology is a science of the totality of human existence; the discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have been institutionally divided into three broad domains; the natural sciences seek to derive general laws through verifiable experiments. The humanities study local traditions, through their history, literature and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras; the social sciences have attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology does not fit into one of these categories, different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, cultural anthropology, it is an area, offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos is from the Greek for "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanistic of the sciences"; the goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of human nature. This means that, though anthropologists specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies, or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist", to discuss humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard, it is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology is the study of human activity through the analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities, it has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history. Classics, in the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquity, namely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, societies and any to
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north and south Europe; the word "γυμνάσιον" was first used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages, whereas in English the meaning of a place for physical education was retained instead, more familiarly in the shortened form gym; the gymnasium is a secondary school. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13.
In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some gymnasiums provide general education; the four traditional branches are: humanities education modern languages mathematical-scientific education economical and social-scientific education Curricula differ from school to school but include language, informatics, chemistry, geography, music, philosophy, civics/citizenship, social sciences, several foreign languages. Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all. Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences.
In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix pro- is equivalent to pre-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. In the German-speaking, the Central-European, the Nordic, the Benelux and the Baltic countries, this meaning for "gymnasium", a secondary school preparing the student for higher education at a university, has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century; the term was derived from the classical Greek word "gymnasion", applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning; this use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century.
In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered that all schools which had the right to send their students to the university should bear the name of gymnasia. By the 20th century, this practice was followed in the entire Austrian-Hungarian and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires. In Albania a gymnasium education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Albanian: Matura Shtetërore; the final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. These can be either private; the subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, geography, computer science, the natural sciences, history of art, philosophy, physical education and the social sciences. The gymnasium is viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools.
Therefore, gymnasiums base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two. In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Three types existed; the Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Latin. The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on spoken languages; the usual combination is English and Latin. The Realgymnasium puts its focus on science. In the last couple of decades more autonomy was granted to schools and various types were developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, gymnázium is a typ
Jan Albin Goetz-Okocimski
Jan Albin Goetz-Okocimski was a Polish brewer of German ancestry, head of Okocim Brewery, a philanthropist and patron of the arts, a "Freiherr" of the Habsburg Empire, a conservative politician, activist and a member of the Austrian parliament and Polish sejm. Born to Johann Evangelist Götz and Albina Götz in 1864, in 1911 he polonized his name to "Goetz-Okocimski". At the end of the 19th century, together with his wife, baroness Zofia née Sumińska, he built a palace in Brzesko, in Austrian architectural style, surrounded by an English garden. From 1904 until his death he was the sole owner of Okocim brewery. In 1925 for his social activism, as well as business and agricultural contributions to the industry of newly independent Poland he was awarded the Commander's Cross of Order of Polonia Restituta, he was the father of Antoni Jan Goetz
Matura or its translated terms is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Italy, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine. It is taken by young adults at the end of their secondary education, must be passed in order to apply to a university or other institutions of higher education. Matura can be compared to A-Level exams or Abitur; the official name is Matura Shtetërore, introduced in 2006 by the Ministry of Education and Science replacing the school based Provimet e Pjekurisë. The Matura is the obligatory exam after finishing the gjimnaz to have one's education formally recognized and to become eligible to enroll in universities. Vocational schools are part of the Matura with a somehow different exam structure; the Matura is a centralized affair, conducted by the AVA, in charge of selecting tasks, appointing national examiners, grading the sheets. A second Agency modeled after the UK University & Colleges Admissions Service and the German Zentralstelle für die Vergabe von Studienplätzen is in charge for the admission to all Albanian universities the applicants have applied for.
The two compulsory subjects to complete secondary education are Albanian language and literature and mathematics. For being admitted in a university students must take two additional exams which they choose themselves out of a list of eight subjects; the Matura exams take place in three separate days in the June/July period. The two first days are for each of the compulsory subjects; the basic marks range from 4 to 10. The State Matura and the MeP replaced an admission system conducted individually by each faculty/university, seen as abusive; the official term for Matura in Austria is Reifeprüfung. The document received after the successful completion of the written and oral exams is called Maturazeugnis. In the Gymnasium, which, as opposed to vocational schools, focuses on general education, the Matura consists of 3–4 written exams to be taken on consecutive mornings and three to four oral exams to be taken on the same half-day about a month later. All examinations are held at the school. Candidates have the option to write a scholarly paper to be submitted at the beginning of the February preceding the final exams, which, if accepted, reduces the number of written exams by one, as the Fachbereichsarbeit is seen as an equivalent to a subject.
This paper needs to be defended in the corresponding oral exam. The grading system is the one universally used in Austrian schools: 1 is excellent. In addition, a candidate's Maturazeugnis contains a formalized overall assessment: "mit ausgezeichnetem Erfolg bestanden", "mit gutem Erfolg bestanden", "bestanden". Candidates who have failed may re-take their exams in September/October or February/March of the following school year. Compulsory subjects for the written finals are always German and Mathematics, as well as a foreign language. Schools with a focus on science may require their students to take written finals in Biology or Physics; the Austrian "Matura" used to be a decentralized affair, however since 2014 tests in the subjects:German and Mathematics, as well as a foreign language, are now centralized and held at the same day throughout Austria. There is only one external examiner: Candidates are set tasks both for their written and oral finals by their own teachers. Formally, there is an examination board consisting of a candidate's teachers/examiners, the headmaster/headmistress and one external Vorsitzende a high-ranking school official or the head of another school.
Oral exams are held publicly, but attendance by anyone other than a candidate's former schoolmates is not encouraged, indeed rare. It is possible for Austrians of all age groups to take the Matura. Adults from their twenties on are tutored at private institutions of adult education before taking their final tests, held separately before a regional examination board. In 2015, the old Matura system was replaced by a new concept called Zentralmatura. Graduation exams are now put together by bifie and every graduation exam in Austria is now held on the same day. However, the teachers still correct all the exams themselves using an answer sheet, included in the exam packages. Students can still choose three written exams; when students choose three written exams, they will have to do another three oral exams. When choosing four written e