Old French was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these came to be collectively known as the langues doïl. The mid-14th century is taken as the period to Middle French. The areal of Old French in contemporary terms corresponded to the parts of the Kingdom of France, Upper Burgundy. As part of the emerging Gallo-Romance dialect continuum, the langues doïl were contrasted with the langue doc, in these examples, we notice a clear consequence of bilingualism, that sometimes even changed the first syllable of the Latin words. Pope estimated that perhaps still 15% of the vocabulary of modern French derives from Germanic sources, at the third Council of Tours in 813, priests were ordered to preach in the vernacular language, since the common people could no longer understand formal Latin. The second-oldest document in Old French is the Eulalia sequence, which is important for reconstruction of Old French pronunciation due to its consistent spelling.
The Capetians langue doïl, the forerunner of modern standard French, did not begin to become the common speech of all of France, until after the French Revolution. In the Late Middle Ages, the Old French dialects diverged into a number of distinct langues doïl, during the Early Modern period, French now becomes established as the official language of the Kingdom of France throughout the realm, including the langue doc-speaking territories in the south. Old French gives way to Middle French in the mid-14th century, the earliest extant French literary texts date from the ninth century, but very few texts before the 11th century have survived. The first literary works written in Old French were saints lives, the Canticle of Saint Eulalie, written in the second half of the 9th century, is generally accepted as the first such text. The first of these is the area of the chansons de geste. More than one hundred chansons de geste have survived in three hundred manuscripts. The oldest and most celebrated of the chansons de geste is The Song of Roland, a fourth grouping, not listed by Bertrand, is the Crusade cycle, dealing with the First Crusade and its immediate aftermath.
Jean Bodels other two categories—the Matter of Rome and the Matter of Britain—concern the French romance or roman, around a hundred verse romances survive from the period 1150–1220. From around 1200 on, the tendency was increasingly to write the romances in prose, the most important romance of the 13th century is the Romance of the Rose which breaks considerably from the conventions of the chivalric adventure story. The Occitan or Provençal poets were called troubadours, from the word trobar to find, lyric poets in Old French are called trouvères. By the late 13th century, the tradition in France had begun to develop in ways that differed significantly from the troubadour poets
William the Conqueror
William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward, after a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands, William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Roberts mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, during his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy and his marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders.
By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointments of his supporters as bishops and his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William was able to secure control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066 and he made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but by 1075 Williams hold on England was mostly secure, Williams final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes.
In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a listing all the landholders in England along with their holdings. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France and his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire, Williams lands were divided after his death, Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England. Norsemen first began raiding in what became Normandy in the late 8th century, permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo. The lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century.
In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York. The Archbishop of York is an ex member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishops throne is in York Minster in central York and his residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside of York. The incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor, there was a bishop in Eboracum from very early times, during the Middle Ages, it was thought to have been one of the dioceses established by the legendary King Lucius. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the Councils of Arles, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones. The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century, notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid.
Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury occasionally exercised authority, at the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland. But the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072, of these, Durham was practically independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the fourteenth century, several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state. The bishoprics role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. Until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome and this is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall.
The Archbishop of York is the bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu who is an ex member of the House of Lords. Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York
Odo II, Count of Blois
Odo II was the Count of Blois, Chartres, Châteaudun and Tours from 1004 and Count of Troyes and Meaux from 1022. He twice tried to make himself a king, first in Italy after 1024, Odo II was the son of Odo I of Blois and Bertha of Burgundy. About 1003/4 he married Maud of Normandy, a daughter of Richard I of Normandy, after her death in 1005, and as she had no children, Richard II of Normandy demanded a return of her dowry, half the county of Dreux. Odo refused and the two warred over the matter, Odo quickly married a second wife, daughter of Guilaume IV of Auvergne. Defeated by Fulk Nerra, Count of Anjou and Herbert I of Maine at the Battle of Pontlevoy in July 1016, after the death of his cousin Stephen I in 1019/20, without heirs he seized Troyes and all of Champagne for himself without royal approval. From there he attacked Ebles, the archbishop of Reims, and Theodoric I, due to an alliance between the king and the Emperor Henry II he was forced to relinquish the county of Rheims to the archbishop.
He was offered the crown of Italy by the Lombard barons, in 1032, he invaded the Kingdom of Burgundy on the death of Rudolph III. He retreated in the face of a coalition of the Emperor Conrad II and he died in combat near Bar-le-Duc during another attack on Lorraine. By his second wife, Ermengarde of Auvergne, Odo had three children, Theobald III, who inherited the county of Blois and most of his other possessions, Stephen II, who inherited the counties of Meaux and Troyes in Champagne. Bertha, who married first Alan III, Duke of Brittany, and second Hugh IV, Count of Maine Odo II, Count of Blois at Homepages
Crusade of 1101
The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. It is called the Crusade of the Faint-Hearted due to the number of participants who joined this crusade after having turned back from the First Crusade. Calls for reinforcements from the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II, successor to Pope Urban II and he especially urged those who had taken the crusade vow but had never departed, and those who had turned back while on the march. As in the first crusade, the pilgrims and soldiers did not leave as a part of one large army, in September 1100, a large group of Lombards left from Milan. These were mostly untrained peasants, led by Anselm IV, Archbishop of Milan, when they reached the territory of the Byzantine Empire, they pillaged it recklessly, and Byzantine emperor Alexios I escorted them to a camp outside Constantinople. This did not satisfy them, and they made their way inside the city where they pillaged the Blachernae palace, the Lombards were quickly ferried across the Bosporus and made their camp at Nicomedia, to wait for reinforcements.
Joining them at Nicomedia was Raymond IV of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the First Crusade who was now in the service of the emperor. He was appointed leader, and a Byzantine force of Pecheneg mercenaries was sent out with them under the command of General Tzitas. This group marched out at the end of May, towards Dorylaeum, following the route taken by Raymond, after capturing Ancyra on June 23,1101, and returning it to Alexios, the crusaders turned north. They briefly besieged the heavily garrisoned city of Gangra, and continued north to attempt to capture the Turkish-controlled city of Kastamonu, they came under attack from the Seljuq Turks who harassed them for weeks, and a foraging party was destroyed in July. However, the Seljuqs, under Kilij Arslan I, realizing that disunity was the cause of their inability to stop the First Crusade, had now allied with both the Danishmends and Ridwan of Aleppo, in early August the crusaders met this combined Muslim army at Mersivan. The crusaders organized into five divisions, the Burgundians and the Byzantines, the Germans, the French, the Turks nearly destroyed the crusaders’ army near the mountains of Paphlagonia at Mersivan.
The land was well-suited to the Turks—dry and inhospitable for their enemy, it was open, the battle took place over several days. On the first day, the Turks cut off the crusading armies’ advances, the next day, Duke Conrad led his Germans in a raid that failed miserably. Not only did fail to open the Turkish lines, they were unable to return to the main crusader army and had to take refuge in a nearby stronghold. This meant that they were cut off supplies, aid. The third day was quiet, with little or no serious fighting taking place, but on the fourth day. The crusaders inflicted heavy losses on the Turks, but the attack was a failure by the end of the day, Kilij Arslan was joined by Ridwan of Aleppo and other powerful Danishmend princes
William, Count of Sully
William, Count of Sully, known as William the Simple was Count of Blois and Count of Chartres from 1102 to 1107, and jure uxoris Count of Sully. William was the eldest son of Stephen-Henry, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy and he was the older brother of Theobald II, Count of Champagne, King Stephen of England and Henry, Bishop of Winchester. In the absence of male issue to Henry I, William was the eldest legitimate male heir of the line of William the Conqueror and he would thus have been the principal rival to Henrys daughter Matilda to inherit the throne after Henrys death. However, he was not considered as a candidate for the English crown, several historians have taken the view that he was passed over because of mental deficiency, hence his soubriquet William the Simple. Though widely argued, this has never been clearly substantiated, William was at first groomed to inherit the comital throne as Count of Blois and Chartres, and was designated count shortly before his fathers departure on his second crusade in 1102.
However he was removed from wide ranging comital duties by his mother. He once assaulted and threatened to kill the Bishop of Chartres over a jurisdictional dispute. So, when her second son Theobald came of age, around 1107, Adela elevated him to the position of count of Blois-Chartres, and forced William to retire to his wifes lands in Sully. In 1104, William married Agnes of Sully, the heiress to the lordship of Sully-sur-Loire, the marriage of William and Agnes was a happy one and several children were born. Their children included, Raoul de Blois de Sully, Abbé de Cluny 1102-1176 Margaret and she married Henry, Count of Eu, Lord of Hastings, about 1122 John, Count of Eu and Lord of Hastings, married Alice d’Aubigny, Lady of Smergate, had issue
Adela of Normandy
Adela of Normandy, of Blois, or of England, known as Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism, was, by marriage, Countess of Blois and Meaux. She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders and she was the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. Her birthdate is generally believed to be between 1066 and 1070, after her fathers accession to the English throne in 1066 and she was the favourite sister of King Henry I of England, they were probably the youngest of the Conquerors children. Adela was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin and she married Stephen Henry and heir to the count of Blois, between 1080 and 1083, around her fifteenth birthday. Stephen was nearly twenty years her senior, Stephen inherited Blois and Meaux upon his fathers death in 1089, as well as lands and right in parts of Berry and Burgundy. Stephen-Henry joined the First Crusade in 1096, along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose, Stephens letters to Adela form a uniquely intimate insight into the experiences of the Crusades leaders and show that he trusted Adela to rule as regent while he was on crusade.
The Count of Blois returned to France in 1100 bringing with him several cartloads of maps and other treasures and he was, under an obligation to the pope for agreements made years earlier and returned to Antioch to participate in the crusade of 1101. He was ultimately killed in a charge at the Battle of Ramla in 1102. Adela and Stephens children are listed here in probable birth order, Count of Sully married Agnes of Sully and had issue Theobald II, aka Thibaud IV Count of Champagne Odo of Blois, aka Humbert. Died young Adela, married Milo II of Montlhéry King Stephen of England, married Matilda of Boulogne Lucia-Mahaut, married Richard dAvranches, both drowned on 25 November 1120 in the White Ship disaster. It is known that Adela had five sons and may have had three or more daughters, though not all of the daughters were necessarily Adelas biological children. The daughters are not mentioned by name during their youth, only appearing when they reach marriageable age, Adela, a devout Benedictine sympathizer, employed several high-ranking tutors to educate her children.
Her youngest son, was conceived during the single year Stephen was in France between crusading duties. At two years of age Henry was pledged to the Church at Cluny Abbey, Saône-et-Loire, France, as an oblate child, Henry went on to be appointed Abbot of Glastonbury and Bishop of Winchester. In that capacity he sponsored hundreds of constructions including bridges, palaces, castles, in addition, Bishop Henry built dozens of abbeys and chapels and sponsored books including the treasured Winchester Bible. Adela quarrelled with her eldest son William and despite his previously being named heir-designate and her son Stephen moved to London in 1111 to join his uncles court and became the favorite of his uncle King Henry I. Upon Beauclercs death in Normandy, Stephen of Blois seized the English throne, Adela filled in as regent for her husbands duties during his extended absence as a leader of the First Crusade as well as during his second expedition in 1101. This included granting monks the right to build new churches, as well as other charters, while her husband was away, Adela would continue to tour their lands, settling disputes, promoting economic growth, and even commanding knights to go to battle with the king
Theobald II, Count of Champagne
Theobald the Great was Count of Blois and of Chartres as Theobald IV from 1102 and was Count of Champagne and of Brie as Theobald II from 1125. He held Auxerre, Ervy, and Châteauvillain as fiefs from Odo II and he was the son of Stephen II, Count of Blois, and Adela of Normandy, and the elder brother of King Stephen of England. Although he was the son, Theobald was appointed above his older brother William. Several historians have painted William as mentally deficient, but this has never been substantiated, however, we know that his mother found him stubbornly resistant to control and unfit for wide ranging comital duties. Theobald accompanied his mother throughout their realm on hundreds of occasions and, after her retirement to Marcigney in 1125, Adela died in her beloved convent in 1136, the year after her son Stephen was crowned king of England. The scholastic Pierre Abélard, famous for his affair with and subsequent marriage to his student Héloïse. Abelard died at Cluny Abbey in Burgundy, a monastery supported by the Thebaudians for many centuries, in 1123 he married Matilda of Carinthia, daughter of Engelbert, Duke of Carinthia.
Their children were, Henry I of Champagne Theobald V of Blois, seneschal of France Adèle of Champagne, married King Louis VII of France Isabelle of Champagne, roger of Apulia d.1148 &2. William Gouet IV d.1170 Marie of Champagne, married Eudes II, Duke of Burgundy, margaret of Champagne, nun at Fontevrault Matilda, wife of Rotrou IV, Count of Perche Thibaut had an illegitimate son, abbot of Lagny near Paris Peace with honor
Herbert I, Count of Maine
Herbert I, called Wakedog, was the count of Maine from 1017 until his death. He had a turbulent career with a victory that may have contributed to his decline. He was the son of Hugh III and succeeded his father as count of Maine, from the time Herbert became count in 1017, he was almost constantly at war with Avesgaud de Bellême, Bishop of Le Mans. In 1016, a young Herbert was allied to Fulk III in a war against Odo II of Blois, on July 6 Odo was en route to attack the fortress of Montrichard. Upon discovering this and Herbert split their forces to either of the two approaches. Odo ran headlong into the Angevin force under Fulk, known as the Battle of Pontlevoy, Odo’s greater force was prevailing and Fulk himself was thrown from his horse and in danger of being killed or captured, but a messenger had been sent to Herbert to come immediately. Herbert attacked the flank of Odo’s forces throwing them into complete confusion. Odo was completely defeated and was unable to challenge Fulk again for nearly a decade, while this battle established Herbert’s reputation as a warrior it began deteriorating the relationship between Fulk and Herbert.
Once he was safe the Bishop excommunicated Herbert and continued his warring against with him, not long after the excommunication was lifted and peace was restored between them when Herbert started raiding the Bishop’s estates again. This time Herbert, with the help of Count Alan III of Rennes, attacked the Bishop at his castle at Le Ferte, on 7 March 1025, Fulk Nerra lured Herbert to Saintes on the promise of giving him Saintes as a benefice. Herbert was captured and imprisoned for two years until a coalition forced his release and it was only after suffering complete humiliation that Herbert was allowed to go free. Due in part to his wars with Bishop Avesguadus and in part with his imprisonment and he built the castle of Sablé but by 1015 he had for some reason allowed it to become an independent lordship under the viscounts of Maine. Likewise Chateau-du-Loir built in the eleventh century quickly came under control of independent castellans. The coins at le Mans were of such weight and fine quality they were among the most widely accepted in western France, Herbert died on 13 April 1035.
Herbert left four children, Hugh IV, married Bertha of Blois, married firstly Theobald III of Blois, divorced in 1048 and married secondly Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan. Her son by the latter would regain Maine from Norman control in 1069, as count Hugh V Paula wife of Jean de la Fleche, Herbert of Maine in the Medieval Lands Project
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France. It is located 96 km southwest of Paris and this city is well known for its cathedral. Chartres was in Gaul one of the towns of the Carnutes. In the Gallo-Roman period, it was called Autricum, name derived from the river Autura, the city was burned by the Normans in 858, and unsuccessfully besieged by them in 911. During the Middle Ages, it was the most important town of the Beauce. It gave its name to a county which was held by the counts of Blois, and the counts of Champagne, and afterwards by the House of Châtillon, a member of which sold it to the Crown in 1286. In 1417, during the Hundred Years War, Chartres fell into the hands of the English, in 1528, it was raised to the rank of a duchy by Francis I. In 1568, during the Wars of Religion, Chartres was unsuccessfully besieged by the Huguenot leader and it was finally taken by the royal troops of Henry IV on 19 April 1591. In 1674, Louis XIV raised Chartres from a duchy to a peerage in favor of his nephew.
The title of Duke of Chartres was hereditary in the House of Orléans, in the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War, Chartres was seized by the Germans on 2 October 1870, and continued during the rest of the war to be an important centre of operations. With his driver, Griffith proceeded to the cathedral and, after searching it all the way up its bell tower, the order to destroy the cathedral was withdrawn. Colonel Griffith was killed in on that day in the town of Lèves,3.5 kilometres north of Chartres. For his heroic action both at Chartres and Lèves, Colonel Griffith received, several decorations awarded by the President of the United States, 5th Infantry and 7th Armored Divisions belonging to the XX Corps of the U. S. Third Army commanded by General George S. Patton, Chartres is built on a hill on the left bank of the Eure River. Its renowned medieval cathedral is at the top of the hill, to the southeast stretches the fertile plain of Beauce, the granary of France, of which the town is the commercial centre.
Chartres is best known for its cathedral, the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres and its historical and cultural importance has been recognized by its inclusion on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. It was built on the site of the former Chartres cathedral of Romanesque architecture, begun in 1205, the construction of Notre-Dame de Chartres was completed 66 years later. The stained glass windows of the cathedral were financed by guilds of merchants and craftsmen and it is not known how the famous and unique blue, bleu de Chartres, of the glass was created, and it has been impossible to replicate it