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Stephen Langton

Stephen Langton was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228. The dispute between King John of England and Pope Innocent III over his election was a major factor in the crisis which produced Magna Carta in 1215. Cardinal Langton is credited with having divided the Bible into the standard modern arrangement of chapters used today, his father was a landowner in Langton by Wragby, Lincolnshire. Stephen Langton may have been born in a moated farmhouse in the village, was educated in his local cathedral school. Stephen studied at the University of Paris and lectured there on theology until 1206, when Pope Innocent III, with whom he had formed a friendship in Paris, called him to Rome and made him cardinal-priest of San Crisogono, Rome, his piety and learning had won him prebends in Paris and York and he was recognised as the foremost English churchman. His brother Simon Langton was elected Archbishop of York in 1215, but that election was quashed by Pope Innocent III.

Simon served his brother Stephen as Archdeacon of Canterbury in 1227. Simon and Stephen had another brother named a knight who died childless. On the death of Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1205, the election of a successor proved problematic: some of the younger canons of the cathedral chapter elected Reginald, the subprior of Christ Church, Canterbury, as bishop while another faction under pressure from King John chose John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich. Both elections were quashed on appeal to Rome, sixteen canons of the chapter, who had gone to Rome empowered to act for the whole chapter, were ordered to proceed to a new election in presence of the Pope. Langton was chosen and was consecrated by the Pope at Viterbo on 17 June 1207. There followed a hard political struggle between John of England and Pope Innocent III; the King proclaimed as a public enemy anyone. On 15 July 1207, John expelled the Canterbury chapter, now unanimous in support of Stephen. In March 1208, Pope Innocent III placed England under interdict and at the close of 1212, after repeated negotiations had failed, he passed sentence of deposition against John, committing the execution of the sentence to Philip II of France in January 1213.

In May 1213 King John yielded and thus in July and his fellow exiles returned to England. His first episcopal act was to absolve the King, who swore that unjust laws should be repealed and the liberties granted by Henry I should be observed—an oath which he immediately violated. Stephen now became a leader in the struggle against King John. At a council of churchmen at Westminster on 25 August 1213, to which certain barons were invited, he read the text of the charter of Henry I and called for its renewal. In the sequel, Stephen's energetic leadership and the Barons' military strength forced John to grant his seal to Magna Carta. Since King John now held his kingdom as a fief of the Holy See the Pope espoused his cause and excommunicated the barons. For refusing to publish the excommunication Stephen was suspended from all ecclesiastical functions by the papal commissioners and on 4 November this sentence was confirmed by the Pope, although Stephen appealed to him in person, he was released from suspension the following spring on condition that he keep out of England until peace was restored, he remained abroad till May 1218.

Meanwhile, both Pope Innocent and King John died and all parties in England rallied to the support of Henry III. Stephen Langton continued under Henry's reign to work for the political independence of England. In 1223 he again appeared as the leader and spokesman of the barons, who demanded that King Henry confirm the charter, he went to France on Henry's behalf to call on Louis VIII of France for the restoration of Normandy, he supported Henry against rebellious barons. He obtained a promise from the new pope, Honorius III, that during his lifetime no resident legate should be again sent to England, won other concessions from the same pontiff favourable to the English Church and exalting the see of Canterbury. Of great importance in the ecclesiastical history of England was a council which Stephen opened at Osney on 17 April 1222, he died at Slindon, near Chichester, Sussex, on 9 July 1228. He was buried in some open ground beside the south transept of Canterbury Cathedral. St Michael's Chapel was built over this ground, the head of his tomb projects into the east end of this chapel, under its altar, with the foot outside it.

Stephen was a prolific writer. Glosses, commentaries and treatises by him on all the books of the Old Testament, many sermons, are preserved in manuscript at Lambeth Palace, at Oxford and Cambridge, in France. According to F. J. E. Raby, "There is little reason to doubt that Stephen Langton... was the author" of the famous sequence Veni Sancte Spiritus. The only other of his works, printed, besides a few letters is a Tractatus de translatione Beati Thomae, an expansion of a sermon he preached in 1220, on occasion of the translation of the relics of Thomas Becket, he wrote a life of Richard I, other historical works and poems are attributed to him

Music of Bulgaria

The music of Bulgaria refers to all forms of music associated with the country of Bulgaria, including classical, popular music, other forms. Classical music and ballet are represented by composers Emanuil Manolov, Pancho Vladigerov and Georgi Atanasov and singers Ghena Dimitrova, Mariana Paunova, Boris Hristov, Raina Kabaivanska and Nicolai Ghiaurov. Notable names from the contemporary pop scene are Emil Dimitrov and Vasil Naydenov. Prominent Bulgarian artists living abroad include Sylvie Vartan, Kristian Kostov, Philipp Kirkorov, Lucy Diakovska, Mira Aroyo, Mikhael Paskalev, Nora Nova, Vasko Vassilev and Ivo Papazov; the Bulgarian State Television Female Vocal Choir has received a Grammy Award in 1990. The Philip Kutev Ensemble, the first of the Bulgarian state-sponsored folk ensembles and founded in 1951 is featured on the 1990 Grammy-winning album and has had many well-known Bulgarian folk singers, including, at present, Neli Andreeva and Sorina Bogomilova. Rhodope folk singer Valya Balkanska has recorded the folk song "Izlel ye Delyo Haydutin", included on the Golden Disk sent into space with the Voyager spacecraft in 1977.

Bulgarian music uses a wide range of instruments. Some folk instruments are variants of traditional Asian instruments such as the "Saz", or the kemençe. More modern style instruments are used in the modern dance music, an offshoot of traditional village music. Bulgarian folk bands, called bitovi, use instruments that include: The gaida, a traditional goat-skin bagpipe. There are two common types of gaida; the Thracian gaida is tuned either in D or in A. The Rhodopi gaida, called the kaba gaida, is larger, has a much deeper sound and is tuned in F; the kaval, an end-blown flute is close to the Turkish kaval, as well as the Arabic "Ney." The gadulka, a bowed stringed instrument descended from the rebec, held vertically, with melody and sympathetic strings. The bass gadulka has been replaced by the double bass; the tǔpan, a large drum worn over the shoulder by the player and hit with a beater on one side and a thin stick on the other. The tambura, a long-necked, metal-strung, fretted lute used for rhythmic accompaniment as well as melodic solos.

It is somewhat like the Greek bouzouki and similar to the Tamburica family's "alto" instrument, the brac. The tarabuka or dumbek, an hourglass-shaped finger-drum, it is similar to the Turkish and North African "darbouka" and the Greek "touberleki". Modern professional musicians soon reached new heights of innovation in using traditional Bulgarian instruments, by expanding the capacities of the gaida and kaval. Other instruments arrived in Bulgaria including the accordion and the clarinet. Bulgarian accordion music was defined by Boris Karlov and Roma musicians including Kosta Kolev and Ibro Lolov. In 1965, the Ministry of Culture founded the Koprivshtitsa National Music Festival, which has become an important event in showcasing Bulgarian music and dance, it is held once every five years, the last festival was 7–9 August 2015. Instruments used in wedding music include violin, clarinet, drum set, electric bass, electric guitar and synthesizer. Not to be confused with Chalga's "folk" subgenre Regional styles abound in Bulgaria.

Dobrudzha, the region surrounding Sofia, Macedonia, Thrace and the Danube shore all have distinctive sounds. Some folk music revolves around holidays like Christmas, New Year's Day and the Feast of St. Lazarus, as well as the Strandzha region's unusual Nestinarstvo rites, in which villagers fall into a trance and dance on hot coals as part of the joint feast of Sts Konstantin and Elena on 21 May. Music is a part of more personal celebrations such as weddings. Singing has always been a tradition for both women. Songs were sung by women at work parties such as the sedenka, betrothal ceremonies, just for fun. Women had an extensive repertoire of songs that they sang while working in the fields. Young women eligible for marriage played a important role at the dancing in the village square; the dancing — every Sunday and for three days on major holidays like Easter — began not with instrumental music, but with two groups of young women singing, one leading each end of the dance line. On, instrumentalists might arrive and the singers would no longer lead the dance.

A special form of song, the lament, was sung not only at funerals but when young men departed for military service. Bulgarian folk music is known for its asymmetrical rhythms, where meter is not split in beats, but in combinations of short and long beats, corresponding to the dancers' short and long steps. In European folk music, such asymmetrical rhythms are used in Bulgaria, elsewhere in the Balkans, less in Norway and Sweden; the most important state-supported folk ensemble of the socialist era was the Sofia-based State Ensemble for Folk Songs and Dances, founded in 1951 and led by Philip Koutev. Koutev became the most influential musician of 20th century Bulgaria, arranged rural music with harmonies more "accessible" to audiences in o


AmSan American Sanitary Incorporated, was a janitorial and cleaning products distributor in the United States. It was the largest national distributor that focused on providing janitorial products with revenues over $300 million, it was merged with four brands of Interline Brands forming a new brand called SupplyWorks. In the 1990s AmSan became a conglomerate by buying 44 independent janitor and sanitary distributors; some of AmSan's acquisitions are AmSan Eve, AmSan Vonachen-Elton, AmSan Nogg Chemical & Paper, AmSan West. In 2002 Michael Mulhern became CEO of AmSan. Mulhern moved the headquarters of AmSan from North Carolina to Chicago, Illinois. Under Mulhern AmSan underwent a series of reforms dedicated to increasing profitability. AmSan turned over 40% of its top 35 executives, downsized its office operations and downsized under-performing distribution centers. AmSan created its own line of products with Renown. Renown represented 20% of AmSan's total revenue. By 2005 AmSan had revenues totalling $300 million.

American Capital invested $25 million in the recapitalization of AmSan in 2005. Interline Brands acquired AmSan in May 2006 for $127.5 million. AmSan West, which has operations in Sacramento and Los Angeles, was not acquired by Interline Brands. In 2008 AmSan established a sales and distribution territory in Columbus, Pittsburgh and Nashville. In 2009 a showroom and walk-in store was established in Florida. In December 2013 AmSan established a partnership with a non-profit organization Didlake that provides opportunities for those with disabilities to work on Renown products. AmSan supplies over 40,000 products to over 50,000 customers. Products of AmSan consists of national brands such as 3M, GOJO, Spartan and Georgia-Pacific. Products of AmSan could be purchased through its catalog. AmSan's exclusive brand is Renown that makes up 20% of the total revenue and is distributed through Interline Brands. Renown comes in a variety of products such as latex gloves, paper towels and cleaning chemicals

Theodoros Zagorakis

Theodoros "Theo" Zagorakis is a Greek politician and former professional footballer who played as a midfielder. He was the captain of the Greece national team that won UEFA Euro 2004, was president of PAOK FC, he was elected as a Greek MEP at the May 2014 European Parliament election. Zagorakis was a centre midfielder who could play on the right side of midfield, he started his career with Kavala, the club that produced Zisis Vryzas, with whom he became close friends. He was an important part of helping the team get into the Greek Second Division, he had six goals and 114 appearances for Kavala before being transferred in 1992 to PAOK. In the 1992–93 season, Zagorakis left Kavala as a winter transfer to join PAOK, part of a string of star transfers made that season, he played for PAOK until December 1997, captained the squad in his last two seasons. He missed a league derby and scored important goals in 1994–95 when he struck four, his best-ever tally. Zagorakis left for English club Leicester City the following winter and signed for Martin O'Neill's side in 1998.

While in England, he took part in two consecutive League Cup finals at Wembley Stadium, losing the first against Tottenham Hotspur in 1999 and defeating Tranmere Rovers in the second, though he was an unused substitute in the latter. Zagorakis will always be fondly known by Leicester fans for his sheer determination in midfield and his goalkeeping cameo against Crystal Palace, where he went in goal after Pegguy Arphexad and Tim Flowers went off injured. Zagorakis was disappointed with Leicester manager Martin O'Neill's reluctance to use him and decided to return to Greece in 2000, he moved to AEK Athens, played alongside fellow countrymen such as Michalis Kapsis, Vassilis Lakis, Demis Nikolaidis and Vassilios Tsiartas. With AEK, Zagorakis won the Greek Cup in 2002 against rivals Olympiacos. Zagorakis, during his last season in AEK, has accepted a reduced pay-off, reported to be £220,000."He showed he genuinely has the club's best interests at heart and is free to take up any of the great offers from teams abroad," said a club statement.

On 14 July 2004, he left AEK Athens for Bologna, signing a two-year contract worth €1.5 million per year. The 32-year-old midfielder –, voted player of the tournament in Portugal – was released by debt-ridden AEK Athens and joined Bologna on a Bosman free transfer. "Zagorakis is our Greek Baggio", Bologna owner Giuseppe Gazzoni Frascara told the newspaper. In 2004–05, Zagorakis was a regular feature in the squad, but the team found itself relegated to Serie B after a play-out series against Parma. In the following summer, he was released from the team as they couldn't afford his payroll under the new conditions; the Player of the Tournament at UEFA Euro 2004 will arrive in Thessaloniki to sign the deal with PAOK. The midfielder was released by Bologna following the Italian team's relegation from Serie A, rejoins one of his old clubs. Zagorakis signed a two-year contract with PAOK for €700,000 a year; when Zagorakis landed at Makedonia Airport in Thessaloniki, 7,000 supporters were there to welcome him back.

His return however coincided with a turbulent period, with the club many financial and administrative problems. Zagorakis received his first cap for Greece on 7 September 1994, against the Faroe Islands, he scored his first goal against Denmark in 2006 World Cup qualifying, in Athens, while earning his 101st cap. Numbering 120 caps, Zagorakis was Greece's all-time leader in international games played until 12 October 2012, when Giorgos Karagounis made his 121st appearance for the national team, he earned his 100th against Kazakhstan on 17 November 2004, was the team's longest-serving captain. Zagorakis played an important role in Greece's win in the 2004 European Championships, was named the Player of the Tournament by UEFA and he was in the Team of the Tournament. FIFA named Zagorakis as a contender for the 2004 FIFA World Player of the Year award, as well as UEFA named him for the 2004 Ballon d'Or award, behind the likes of Ronaldinho and Thierry Henry, he holds the record of most consecutive matches of the national team since his first cap in a period of 12 years.

After 14 full playing years as the captain for Greece, Zagorakis announced his retirement from international football on 5 October 2006. More Greece captain was considering retiring after his team's European championship qualifier against Norway in Athens on 2 October 2006, has been called up for the match against Bosnia four days officials said. On 22 August 2007, however, he played for the last time with the national side, in a special friendly match against Spain in Toumba Stadium, Salonica, he played for about 15 minutes and was replaced by Giannis Goumas, receiving an applause by fans singing his name. On 28 May 2007, after the fifth Greek Superleague All-Star Game, Zagorakis announced his retirement from professional football. After many widespread rumours, it was announced that he was to become PAOK's new president, on 18 June; the club had been in dire financial straits for several years. Zagorakis undertook to sort out finances by attracting investors, increasing revenue and mobilising the club's fan base.

In his unifying first statement he said: "The strength of PAOK lies in its supporters, its fans... I would have not made this decision" ``; the situation for PAOK is difficult and I will n

AJ Roach

AJ Roach is an American singer-songwriter from Virginia, but now based in Asheville, NC. Roach was born in Newport News, but his family moved to his parents ancestral home in Duffield, Virginia when Roach was still young; as a teenager, Roach spent a number of months under the tutelage of cult blues guitarist Washboard Williams. After attending college in Virginia, Roach lived in several different cities on the east coast of the United States before moving to San Francisco; the move to San Francisco was a turning point for Roach's musical career. There he met and befriended musicians like Tom Meshishnik, Todd Sickafoose, Sean Hayes and Noe Venable; the musical impact that these relationships had on Roach can be heard on Dogwood Winter, his first studio album. The album was jointly produced by Meshishnik and Sickafoose, features Venable on backing vocals on several tracks. A. J. Roach's writing blurs the line between indie and traditional folk, he has drawn comparisons in the press to Will Oldham, David Eugene Edwards and Vic Chesnutt.

He is considered a troubadour in the tradition of Bob Dylan and Leonard Cohen. Roach's dry and cutting wit has made the stories he sometimes tells between songs as celebrated as the songs themselves. Roach is best known for his vigorous touring schedule in both the United States and in Europe, at times performing as many as 250 dates per year. Roach has had a number of "revolving cast" musicians; some musicians that Roach has performed and or recorded with include Mia Birdsong, Todd Sickafoose, Noe Venable, Alisa Rose, Nels Cline, Brian Williams, Adam Roszkiewicz, Nino Moschella, Tom Meshishnik, Ian Parks, Steve Moore. AJ Roach's first full-length recording is entitled Dogwood Winter and was released in the United States in the summer of 2003 on the New Folkstar recording label. A subsequent UK release followed in January 2005. A follow-up to Dogwood Winter, was released in the UK in late 2006 and had an American release in January 2008 on Waterbug Records. Revelation reached number 1 on the Euro-Americana Chart in December 2006.

In December 2006, the album reached number 5 on the Freeform Americana and Roots Chart. Roach appears in concert with Nels Andrews; the two are close friends and have toured together in both the United States and Europe. They are planning a full-length album together, having recorded a split 7" vinyl entitled Duct Tape & Whiskey. In 2004, Roach was the general category recipient of the 12th Annual Chris Austin Songwriting Award at MerleFest in Wilkesboro, North Carolina. Revelation reached number 1 on the Euro-Americana Chart in December 2006 A. J. Roach was one of the six winners of the 2011 Kerrville Grassy Hill New Folk competition at the 39th Annual Kerrville Folk Festival in Kerrville, TX The second track from Roach's second album was prominently included in both the CW TV series One Tree Hill, seventh season, episode No. 01 and in Showtime's United States of Tara, third season, episode #06) In 2009, Roach and his friend, Nels Andrews began chronicling their hectic touring schedules through the use of hand held video cameras.

Their video blog can be found at and is posted on YouTube under the username cursingkerouac. Appalachia EP Dogwood Winter Live EP Duct Tape & Whiskey – Split 7" vinyl single with Nels Andrews Revelation The Poplar Tree Pleistocene "Black Lung" on Music of Coal: Mining Songs from the Appalachian Coalfields Official website AJ Roach, page at MySpace AJ Roach collection at the Internet Archive's live music archive video blog with Nels Andrews


Eggstone is a Swedish Indie Pop band, formed in 1986. The three members - Per Sunding, Patrik Bartosch and Maurits Carlsson - were raised in the small coastal town of Lomma, outside Malmö. In 1991 they formed Tambourine Studios in Malmö with friends Anders Nordgren and producer Tore Johansson, their debut album Eggstone In San Diego was released in 1992, followed by Somersault two years later. In early 1997, they released Vive La Différence!, their third full-length album, on their own Vibrafon label. Spanish Slalom, a compilation album, was released on Madrid-based Siesta Records in 1998 and a second compilation appeared in 1999 under the Tricatel label, titled Ca Chauffe en Suède!. Eggstone's songs and poppy on the surface, disguise great subtlety in their conception and execution; the trio delights in strange shifts of tempo, harmonic clashes and pseudo-amateurish incidental noises, whilst retaining an easy seductiveness for untrained ears. All three members are accomplished musicians. A fourth album has been in preparation since the late 1990s, with some sessions taking place under the tutelage of Tricatel owner/in-house producer Bertrand Burgalat.

Per Sunding's work as an in-demand producer in his home country and Patrick Bartosch's taste for foreign trips have prevented the band from doing more than teasing fans. Eggstone's lack of large-scale commercial success is all the more surprising since the trio was the inspiration and, to some extent, the template for a number of internationally successful Swedish Indie Pop acts such as Cinnamon and The Cardigans. In April 2016 the band made a surprise comeback when the song "Like So" appeared on various streaming services, their first new music in 19 years. Patrik Bartosch - guitar Maurits Carlsson - drums Per Sunding - bass and vocals Bubblebed Shooting Time At Point Loma In Lemon Grove April And May Eggstone in San Diego Somersault Vive La Différence! Spanish Slalom Ça chauffe en Suède! "Water" "Summer And Looking For A Job" "Never Been A Better Day" "Birds In Cages" "Like So" "The Late" Eggstone facebook Eggstone website Tambourine Studios Eggstone on Gracenote VH1 Eggstone biography