University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
Food science is the science of nature devoted to the study of food. The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the engineering and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, the improvement of foods for the consuming public"; the textbook Food Science defines food science in simpler terms as "the application of basic sciences and engineering to study the physical and biochemical nature of foods and the principles of food processing". Activities of food technologists include the development of new food products, design of processes to produce these foods, choice of packaging materials, shelf-life studies, sensory evaluation of products using survey panels or potential consumers, as well as microbiological and chemical testing. Food scientists may study more fundamental phenomena that are directly linked to the production of food products and its properties. Food science brings together multiple scientific disciplines.
It incorporates concepts from fields such as chemistry, physiology, biochemistry... Food technology incorporates concepts from chemical engineering, for example; some of the subdisciplines of food science are described below. Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods; the biological substances include such items as meat, lettuce and milk as examples. It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates and protein, but it includes areas such as water, minerals, food additives and colors; this discipline encompasses how products change under certain food processing techniques and ways either to enhance or to prevent them from happening. Food physical chemistry is the study of both physical and chemical interactions in foods in terms of physical and chemical principles applied to food systems, as well as the application of physicochemical techniques and instrumentation for the study and analysis of foods.
Food engineering is the industrial processes used to manufacture food. Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage. "Good" bacteria, such as probiotics, are becoming important in food science. In addition, microorganisms are essential for the production of foods such as cheese, bread, wine and, other fermented foods. Food preservation involves the causes and prevention of quality spoilage Food substitution refers to the replacement of fat, sugar, or calories from a product while maintaining similar shape, color, or taste. Food technology is the technological aspects. Early scientific research into food technology concentrated on food preservation. Nicolas Appert’s development in 1810 of the canning process was a decisive event; the process wasn’t called canning and Appert did not know the principle on which his process worked, but canning has had a major impact on food preservation techniques.
Molecular gastronomy is the scientific investigation of processes in cooking and artistic gastronomical phenomena. Molecular gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking, its program includes three axis, as cooking was recognized to have three components, which are social and technical. New product development includes the invention of new food products. Quality control involves the causes and communication dealing with food-borne illness. Quality control ensures that product meets specs to ensure the customer receives what they expect from the packaging to the physical properties of the product itself. Sensory analysis is the study of; the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation is the federal government agency for scientific research in Australia. CSIRO maintains more than 50 sites across Australia and biological control research stations in France and Mexico, it has nearly 6,500 employees.
The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology, or KoSFoST, claims to be the first society in South Korea for food science. In the United States, food science is studied at land-grant universities. Many of the country's pioneering food scientists were women who had attended chemistry programs at land-grant universities, but graduated and had difficulty finding jobs due to widespread sexism in the chemistry industry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Finding conventional career paths blocked, they found alternative employment as instructors in home economics departments and used that as a base to launch the foundation of many modern food science programs; the main US organization regarding food science and food technology is the Institute of Food Technologists, headquartered in Chicago, the US member organisation of the International Union of Food Science and Technology. Popular books on some aspects of food science or kitchen science have been written by Harold McGee and Howard Hillman, among others.
Wanucha, Genevieve. "Two Happy Clams: The Friendship that Forged Food Science". MIT Technology Review. Media related to Food science at Wikimedia Commons Food science at Curlie Learn about Food Science
Stephen Babcock (lawyer)
Stephen Babcock is a Baton Rouge, Louisiana-based trial lawyer. Stephen Babcock was born in Louisiana, he attended Cedar Creek School in Ruston, Louisiana from kindergarten to seventh grade when family financial issues necessitated his transfer to the public Ruston Jr. High and Ruston High School, where he graduated in 1991. Babcock attended Louisiana Tech University where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in marketing, a Juris Doctor from LSU Law School, he was initiated into Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity at Texas A&M University. Babcock's first job as a lawyer was as an in-house trial attorney for Allstate after he passed the Louisiana bar exam in 2000. One year he entered private practice as an associate attorney with McKay Williamson Lutgring & Cochran and soon thereafter opened his own firm, Babcock Law Firm, LLC in March 2003. Babcock Law Firm was re-branded as Babcock Partners in July 2010. Babcock has represented a wide variety of clients including injured individuals, small businesses, Fortune 500 companies, Louisiana State University, foreign countries, the State of Louisiana in civil cases in involving serious personal injuries, contract disputes, insurance coverage disputes, class actions, shareholder disputes, among others.
In July, 2013, over 200 news sources, including the Associated Press, confirmed that Stephen Babcock was hired by Ducks Unlimited to represent the organization in a high-profile million dollar federal lawsuit stemming from a contract dispute over a New Orleans artist's prints. Babcock filed four Motions for summary judgment in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana on behalf of Ducks Unlimited. Three of the four motions were granted; the case resulted in a voluntary dismissal. In early 2013, Babcock secured over a million dollars for a Louisiana company in a dispute over insurance coverage on a contingency fee basis, he is Nationally known for a December 2007 case where he got a state judge to agree to postpone a trial scheduled to start on the same day LSU played Ohio State in the 2008 BCS National Championship Game. He was defending Imperial Casualty Insurance Co. in a lawsuit over a car crash, requested the delay because he had tickets to the Jan. 7, 2008 game at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans.
He and other LSU fans had rented out the second floor of a Bourbon Street bar for a pre-game tailgate party. In court documents requesting the postponement, Babcock famously referred to Ohio State as "Slowhio", he stated that "All counsel to this matter unequivocally agree that the presence of LSU in the aforementioned contest of pigskin skill unquestionably constitutes good grounds" and went on to say that "In fact we have been unable through much imagination and hypothetical scenarios to think of a better reason." The judge granted the postponement. In another high-profile case, Stephen Babcock won an arbitration award of close to $2 million for hotel operator, against the owner of the Hilton hotel they had managed, Baton Rouge Area Foundation's Commercial Properties Realty Trust. In another high-profile case, Babcock represented and defended the Republic of Bulgaria in its high-stakes tobacco litigation with the state of Louisiana. On June 23, 2015, Stephen Babcock posted on Facebook about seeing a young lady rescue an American Flag during a thunderstorm, creating the hashtag #JenaIsAPatriot which went viral.
In January, 2015, Stephen Babcock was named chairman of FuturePAC, the Baton Rouge Area Chamber's political action committee. In August, 2012 Babcock was included and extensively quoted in an The Advocate article that discussed individuals who brought their pets to work and its effect in reducing stress at work. Louisiana State Bar Association's Stephen T. Victory Award2018 Ducks Unlimited State Chairman. Babcock Partners, LLC
Bran known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, is produced as a byproduct of milling in the production of refined grains. Bran is present in cereal grain, including rice, wheat, barley and millet. Bran is not the same as chaff, a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself. Bran is rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein and dietary minerals, it is a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption. The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is separated from the grain before storage or further processing. Bran is heat-treated to increase its longevity. Rice bran is a byproduct of the rice milling process, it contains various antioxidants that impart beneficial effects on human health. A major rice bran fraction contains 12%–13% oil and unsaponifiable components.
This fraction contains tocotrienols, beta-sitosterol. Rice bran contains a high level of dietary fibres, it contains ferulic acid, a component of the structure of nonlignified cell walls. However, some research suggests. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than in drinking water. Bran is used to enrich breads and breakfast cereals for the benefit of those wishing to increase their intake of dietary fiber. Bran may be used for pickling as in the tsukemono of Japan. Rice bran in particular finds many uses in Japan. Besides using it for pickling, Japanese people add it to the water when boiling bamboo shoots, use it for dish washing. In Kitakyushu City, it is used for stewing fish, such as sardine. Rice bran is stuck to the surface of commercial ice blocks to prevent them from melting. Bran oil may be extracted for use by itself for industrial purposes, or as a cooking oil, such as rice bran oil. Wheat bran is useful as feed for poultry and other livestock, as part of a balanced ration with other inputs.
Wheatings, a milling byproduct comprising bran with some pieces of endosperm left over, are included in this category. Bran was found to be the most successful slug deterrent by BBC's TV programme Gardeners' World, it is a common food source used for feeder insects, such as mealworms and waxworms. Wheat bran has been used for tanning leather since at least the 16th century. George Washington had a recipe for small beer involving bran and molasses, it is common practice to heat-treat bran with the intention of slowing undesirable rancidification. However, a detailed 2003 study of heat-treatment of oat bran found a complex pattern whereby intense heat treatment reduced the development of hydrolitic rancidity and bitterness with time, but increased oxidative rancidity; the authors recommended that heat treatment should be sufficient to achieve selective lipase inactivation, but not so much as to render the polar lipids oxidisable upon prolonged storage. Alkylresorcinols Cereal germ Chaff Dietary fiber Phytic acid Rice bran solubles
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification and characterization of bacterial species; because of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa and viruses, there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology. The terms were often used interchangeably. However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science. Bacteriology is their relation to medicine. Bacteriology evolved from physicians needing to apply the germ theory to test the concerns relating to the spoilage of foods and wines in the 19th century. Identification and characterizing of bacteria being associated to diseases led to advances in pathogenic bacteriology. Koch's postulates played a role into identifying the relationships between bacteria and specific diseases. Since bacteriology has had many successful advances like effective vaccines, for example, diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid.
There have been some vaccines that were not as effective and have side effects for example, typhoid vaccine. Bacteriology has provided discovery of antibiotics; the discovery of the connection of microorganisms to disease can be dated back to the nineteenth century, when German physician Robert Koch introduced the science of microorganisms to the medical field. He identified bacteria as process of fermentation in diseases. French Scientist Louis Pasteur developed techniques to produce vaccines. Both Koch and Pasteur played a role in improving antisepsis in medical treatment; this had an enormous positive effect on public health and gave a better understanding of the body and diseases. In 1870-1885 the modern methods of bacteriology technique were introduced by the use of strains and by the method of separating mixtures of organisms on plates of nutrient media. Between 1880 and 1881 Pasteur produced two successful vaccinations for animals against diseases caused by bacteria and it was successful.
The importance of bacteria was recognized as it led to a study of disease prevention and treatment of diseases by vaccines. Bacteriology has developed and can be studied in agriculture, marine biology, water pollution, bacterial genetics and biotechnology. Biology Bacteria Microbiology McGrew, Roderick. Encyclopedia of Medical History, brief history pp 25–30
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, reproduction and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, assimilation, biosynthesis and excretion; the diet of an organism is what it eats, determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, scurvy, preterm birth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Undernutrition can lead to wasting in acute cases, the stunting of marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition; the first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about 2500 BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days. Scurvy found to be a vitamin C deficiency, was first described in 1500 BC in the Ebers Papyrus.
According to Walter Gratzer, the study of nutrition began during the 6th century BC. In China, the concept of qi developed, a spirit or "wind" similar to what Western Europeans called pneuma. Food was classified into "hot" and "cold" in China, India and Persia. Humours developed first in China alongside qi. Ho the Physician concluded that diseases are caused by deficiencies of elements, he classified diseases as well as prescribed diets. About the same time in Italy, Alcmaeon of Croton wrote of the importance of equilibrium between what goes in and what goes out, warned that imbalance would result in disease marked by obesity or emaciation; the first recorded nutritional experiment with human subjects is found in the Bible's Book of Daniel. Daniel and his friends were captured by the king of Babylon during an invasion of Israel. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine, but they objected, preferring vegetables and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions.
The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. Daniel and his friends received their diet for ten days and were compared to the king's men. Appearing healthier, they were allowed to continue with their diet. Around 475 BC, Anaxagoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and, contains "homeomerics", suggesting the existence of nutrients. Around 400 BC, who recognized and was concerned with obesity, which may have been common in southern Europe at the time, said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food." The works that are still attributed to him, Corpus Hippocraticum, called for moderation and emphasized exercise. Salt and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. In the 2nd century BC, Cato the Elder believed that cabbage could cure digestive diseases, ulcers and intoxication. Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsus, an ancient Roman doctor, believed in "strong" and "weak" foods. One mustn't overlook the doctrines of Galen: In use from his life in the 1st century AD until the 17th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for 1500 years.
Galen was physician to gladiators in Pergamon, in Rome, physician to Marcus Aurelius and the three emperors who succeeded him. Most of Galen's teachings were gathered and enhanced in the late 11th century by Benedictine monks at the School of Salerno in Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, which still had users in the 17th century. Galen believed in the bodily humours of Hippocrates, he taught that pneuma is the source of life. Four elements combine into "complexion"; the states are made up of pairs of attributes, which are made of four humours: blood, green bile, black bile. Galen thought that for a person to have gout, kidney stones, or arthritis was scandalous, which Gratzer likens to Samuel Butler's Erehwon where sickness is a crime. In the 1500s, Paracelsus was the first to criticize Galen publicly. In the 16th century and artist Leonardo da Vinci compared metabolism to a burning candle. Leonardo did not publish his works on this subject, but he was not afraid of thinking for himself and he disagreed with Galen.
16th century works of Andreas Vesalius, sometimes called the father of modern human anatomy, overturned Galen's ideas. He was followed by piercing thought amalgamated with the era's mysticism and religion sometimes fueled by the mechanics of Newton and Galileo. Jan Baptist van Helmont, who discovered several gases such as carbon dioxide, performed the first quantitative experiment. Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between muscles. Sometimes forgotten during his life, James Lind, a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in 1747. Lind discovered that lime juice saved sailors, at sea for years from scurvy, a deadly an
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating