The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, an international exhibition, took place in Hyde Park, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, it was a much anticipated event; the Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and by Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria. Famous people of the time attended, including Charles Darwin, Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot, Alfred Tennyson and William Makepeace Thackeray; the Exposition des produits de l'industrie française organized in Paris, from 1798 to 1849 were precursors to the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was organized by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design.
It was arguably a response to the effective French Industrial Exposition of 1844: indeed, its prime motive was for Britain to make "clear to the world its role as industrial leader". Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the self-financing exhibition. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Although the Great Exhibition was a platform on which countries from around the world could display their achievements, Britain sought to prove its own superiority; the British exhibits at the Great Exhibition "held the lead in every field where strength, durability and quality were concerned, whether in iron and steel, machinery or textiles." Britain sought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Britain hoped to show that technology its own, was the key to a better future. Sophie Forgan says of the Exhibition that "Large, piled-up ‘trophy’ exhibits in the central avenue revealed the organisers’ priorities.
Technology and moving machinery were popular working exhibits." She notes that visitors "could watch the entire process of cotton production from spinning to finished cloth. Scientific instruments were found in class X, included electric telegraphs, air pumps and barometers, as well as musical and surgical instruments."A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace, or "The Great Shalimar", was built to house the show. It was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles Fox, the committee overseeing its construction including Isambard Kingdom Brunel, went from its organisation to the grand opening in just nine months; the building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire. It took the form of a massive glass house, 1848 feet long by 454 feet wide and was constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick. From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with statues.
The Crystal Palace was an enormous success, considered an architectural marvel, but an engineering triumph that showed the importance of the Exhibition itself. The building was moved and re-erected in 1854 in enlarged form at Sydenham Hill in south London, an area, renamed Crystal Palace, it was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936. Six million people—equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time—visited the Great Exhibition; the average daily attendance was 42,831 with a peak attendance of 109,915 on 7 October. The event made a surplus of £186,000, used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum, they were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research; the Exhibition caused controversy. Some conservatives feared that the mass of visitors might become a revolutionary mob, whilst radicals such as Karl Marx saw the exhibition as an emblem of a capitalist fetishism of commodities.
King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, shortly before his death, wrote to Lord Strangford about it: The folly and absurdity of the Queen in allowing this trumpery must strike every sensible and well-thinking mind, I am astonished the ministers themselves do not insist on her at least going to Osborne during the Exhibition, as no human being can answer for what may occur on the occasion. The idea... must shock every well-meaning Englishman. But it seems. In modern times, the Great Exhibition is a symbol of the Victorian Age, its thick catalogue, illustrated with steel engravings, is a primary source for High Victorian design. A memorial to the exhibition, crowned with a statue of Prince Albert, is locate
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and the distance of an object. Depth sensation is the corresponding term for animals, since although it is known that animals can sense the distance of an object, it is not known whether they "perceive" it in the same subjective way that humans do. Depth perception arises from a variety of depth cues; these are classified into binocular cues that are based on the receipt of sensory information in three dimensions from both eyes and monocular cues that can be represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eye. Binocular cues include stereopsis, eye convergence and yielding depth from binocular vision through exploitation of parallax. Monocular cues include size: distant objects subtend smaller visual angles than near objects, grain and motion parallax. Monocular cues provide depth information. Motion parallax When an observer moves, the apparent relative motion of several stationary objects against a background gives hints about their relative distance.
If information about the direction and velocity of movement is known, motion parallax can provide absolute depth information. This effect can be seen when driving in a car. Nearby things pass while far off objects appear stationary; some animals that lack binocular vision due to their eyes having little common field-of-view employ motion parallax more explicitly than humans for depth cueing. Depth from motion When an object moves toward the observer, the retinal projection of an object expands over a period of time, which leads to the perception of movement in a line toward the observer. Another name for this phenomenon is depth from optical expansion; the dynamic stimulus change enables the observer not only to see the object as moving, but to perceive the distance of the moving object. Thus, in this context, the changing size serves as a distance cue. A related phenomenon is the visual system’s capacity to calculate time-to-contact of an approaching object from the rate of optical expansion – a useful ability in contexts ranging from driving a car to playing a ball game.
However, calculation of TTC is speaking, perception of velocity rather than depth. Kinetic depth effect If a stationary rigid figure is placed in front of a point source of light so that its shadow falls on a translucent screen, an observer on the other side of the screen will see a two-dimensional pattern of lines, but if the cube rotates, the visual system will extract the necessary information for perception of the third dimension from the movements of the lines, a cube is seen. This is an example of the kinetic depth effect; the effect occurs when the rotating object is solid, provided that the projected shadow consists of lines which have definite corners or end points, that these lines change in both length and orientation during the rotation. Perspective The property of parallel lines converging in the distance, at infinity, allows us to reconstruct the relative distance of two parts of an object, or of landscape features. An example would be standing on a straight road, looking down the road, noticing the road narrows as it goes off in the distance.
Relative size If two objects are known to be the same size but their absolute size is unknown, relative size cues can provide information about the relative depth of the two objects. If one subtends a larger visual angle on the retina than the other, the object which subtends the larger visual angle appears closer. Familiar size Since the visual angle of an object projected onto the retina decreases with distance, this information can be combined with previous knowledge of the object's size to determine the absolute depth of the object. For example, people are familiar with the size of an average automobile; this prior knowledge can be combined with information about the angle it subtends on the retina to determine the absolute depth of an automobile in a scene. Absolute size Even if the actual size of the object is unknown and there is only one object visible, a smaller object seems further away than a large object, presented at the same location Aerial perspective Due to light scattering by the atmosphere, objects that are a great distance away have lower luminance contrast and lower color saturation.
Due to this, images seem hazy the farther they are away from a person's point of view. In computer graphics, this is called "distance fog"; the foreground has high contrast. Objects differing only in their contrast with a background appear to be at different depths; the color of distant objects are shifted toward the blue end of the spectrum. Some painters, notably Cézanne, employ "warm" pigments to bring features forward towards the viewer, "cool" ones to indicate the part of a form that curves away from the picture plane. Accommodation This is an oculomotor cue for depth perception; when we try to focus on far away objects, the ciliary muscles stretch the eye lens, making it thinner, hence changing the focal length. The kinesthetic sensations of the contracting and relaxing ciliary muscles is sent to the visual cortex where it is used for interpreting distance/depth. Accommodation is only effective for distances less than 2 meters. Occultation Occultation (also referred to as interposit
Peripheral vision, or indirect vision, is vision as it occurs outside the point of fixation, i.e. away form the center of gaze. The vast majority of the area in the visual field is included in the notion of peripheral vision. "Far peripheral" vision refers to the area at the edges of the visual field, "mid-peripheral" vision refers to medium eccentricities, "near-peripheral", sometimes referred to as "para-central" vision, exists adjacent to the center of gaze.. The inner boundaries of peripheral vision can be defined in any of several ways depending on the context. In everyday language the term "peripheral vision" is used to refer to what in technical usage would be called "far peripheral vision." This is vision outside of the range of stereoscopic vision. It can be conceived as bounded at the center by a circle 60° in radius or 120° in diameter, centered around the fixation point, i.e. the point at which one's gaze is directed. However, in common usage, peripheral vision may refer to the area outside a circle 30° in radius or 60° in diameter.
In vision-related fields such as physiology, optometry, or vision science in general, the inner boundaries of peripheral vision are defined more narrowly in terms of one of several anatomical regions of the central retina, in particular the fovea and the macula. The fovea is a cone-shaped depression in the central retina measuring 1.5 mm in diameter, corresponding to 5° of the visual field. The outer boundaries of the fovea are visible under a microscope, or with microscopic imaging technology such as OCT or microscopic MRI; when viewed through the pupil, as in an eye exam, only the central portion of the fovea may be visible. Anatomists refer to this as the clinical fovea, say that it corresponds to the anatomical foveola, a structure with a diameter of 0.35 mm corresponding to 1 degree of the visual field. In clinical usage the central part of the fovea is referred to as the fovea. In terms of visual acuity, "foveal vision" may be defined as vision using the part of the retina in which a visual acuity of at least 20/20 is attained.
This corresponds to using the foveal avascular zone with a diameter of 0.5 mm representing 1.5° of the visual field. Although idealized as perfect circles, the central structures of the retina tend to be irregular ovals. Thus, foveal vision may be defined as the central 1.5–2° of the visual field. Vision within the fovea is called central vision, while vision outside of the fovea, or outside the foveola, is called peripheral, or indirect vision. A ring-shaped region surrounding the fovea, known as the parafovea, is sometimes taken to represent an intermediate form of vision called paracentral vision; the parafovea has an outer diameter of 2.5 mm representing 8° of the visual field. The macula, the next larger region of the retina, is defined as having at least two layers of ganglia and is sometimes taken as defining the boundaries of central vs. peripheral vision. The macula has a diameter of corresponding to 17 ° of the visual field; the term is familiar in the general public through the widespread macular degeneration at older age, where central vision is lost.
When viewed from the pupil, as in an eye exam, only the central portion of the macula may be visible. Known to anatomists as the clinical macula this inner region is thought to correspond to the anatomical fovea; the dividing line between near and mid peripheral vision at 30° radius is based on several features of visual performance. Visual acuity declines by about 50% every 2.5° from the center up to 30°, at which point visual acuity declines more steeply. Color perception is strong at 20° but weak at 40°. 30 ° is thus taken as the dividing line between poor color perception. In dark-adapted vision, light sensitivity corresponds to rod density, which peaks just at 18°. From 18° towards the center, rod density declines rapidly. From 18° away from the center, rod density declines more in a curve with distinct inflection points resulting in two humps; the outer edge of the second hump is at about 30°, corresponds to the outer edge of good night vision. The outer boundaries of peripheral vision correspond to the boundaries of the visual field as a whole.
For a single eye, the extent of the visual field can be defined in terms of four angles, each measured from the fixation point, i.e. the point at which one's gaze is directed. These angles, representing four cardinal directions, are 60° upwards, 60° nasally, 70–75° downwards, 100–110° temporally. For both eyes the combined visual field is 130 -- 200 -- 220 ° horizontally; the loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision is known as tunnel vision, the loss of central vision while retaining peripheral vision is known as central scotoma. Peripheral vision is weak in humans at distinguishing detail and shape; this is because the density of receptor and ganglion cells in the retina is greater at the center and lowest at the edges, moreover, the representation in the visual cortex is much smaller than that of the fovea. The distribution of receptor cells across the retina is different between the two main types, rod cells and cone cells. Rod cells are unable to distinguish color and peak in density in the near periphery, while cone cell density is highest in the center, the fovea, from there declines rapidly.
Flicker fusion thresholds decline towards th
View-Master is the trademark name of a line of special-format stereoscopes and corresponding View-Master "reels", which are thin cardboard disks containing seven stereoscopic 3-D pairs of small transparent color photographs on film. It was sold by Sawyer's; the View-Master system was introduced in 1939, four years after the advent of Kodachrome color film made the use of small high-quality photographic color images practical. Tourist attraction and travel views predominated in View-Master's early lists of available reels, most of which were meant to be interesting to users of all ages. Most current View-Master reels are intended for children. Edwin Eugene Mayer worked as a pharmacist at Owl Drug store in downtown Portland, after serving in the U. S. Army in World War I, he built up a photo-finishing business there, bought into Sawyer's Photo Finishing Service in 1919 with the help of his father August Mayer, his fiancée Eva McAnulty, her sister Vi McAnulty. Edwin described how he started the business in a letter dated April 1, 1954: "Suffice to say that in 1919, what little it was, was purchased with borrowed money from Dad, aided by about $1,600 in insurance money Eva got when her father died and, left in permanently, $1,600 borrowed from Vi and repaid, along with Dad's notes, within a few years."As the business grew, Ed Mayer incorporated in about 1926, taking on partners Harold and Beulth F. Graves and Pauline Meyer, Augusta and Raymond F. Kelly, renaming the business Sawyer Service, Inc.
The company relocated to a large two-story building at 181 Ella St. near Morrison Street in Portland, Oregon. The company was producing photographic postcards and album sets as souvenirs by 1926, when Harold Graves joined Sawyer's. Graves handled marketing for the products. Photographic greeting cards were added to the Sawyer's product line, marketed to major department stores. Sawyer's was the nation's largest producer of scenic postcards in the 1920s and the future View-Master viewer became an extension of the two-dimensional cards; the company took the first steps towards developing the View-Master after Edwin Mayer and Graves met with William Gruber, an organ maker of German origin trained by Welte & Sons and an avid photographer living in Portland. Mayer and Gruber had both developed devices for viewing stereo images, but Gruber had made up a stereo imaging rig out of two Kodak Bantam Specials mounted together on a tripod, he designed a machine that mounted the tiny pieces of Kodachrome color transparency film into reels made from heavy paper stock.
A special viewer was designed and produced. He had the idea of updating the old-fashioned stereoscope by using the new Kodachrome 16-mm color film, which had become available. A View-Master reel holds 14 film transparencies in seven pairs, making up the seven stereoscopic images; the components of each pair are viewed one by each eye, thus simulating binocular depth perception. According to a 1960 court document, the Gruber-Sawyer partner venture began from that first meeting in 1938. Thereafter, Ed Mayer negotiated with Gruber while production methods and some marketing were developed. After three years, a formal agreement was entered into on February 24, 1942, between Gruber and Sawyer partners, doing business as Sawyer's. Ed Mayer and people within the Sawyer’s organization were uncertain what to call their new product, but they came up with the name "View-Master." The View-Master brand name came to be recognized by 65 percent of the world’s population, but William Gruber disliked the name which Mayer gave it, thinking that it sounded too much like Toast-Master, Mix-Master, or some other kitchen appliance.
The View-Master was introduced at the 1939 New York World's Fair, marked "Patent Applied For". It was intended as an alternative to the scenic postcard, was sold at photography shops, stationery stores, scenic-attraction gift shops; the main subjects of View-Master reels were the Grand Canyon. The View-Master was marketed through Ed Mayer's photo-finishing and greeting card company Sawyer's Service, Inc. known as Sawyer's, Inc. The partnership led to the retail sales of View-Master reels; the patent on the viewing device was issued on what came to be called the Model A viewer. Within a short time, the View-Master took over the postcard business at Sawyer's. Ed Mayer gave details of the company's expansion in a letter dated April 1, 1954: In 1939, 20 years after starting the business, we had, by dint of hard work and long hours and frugal living, accumulated a business worth about $58,000.00 and Western Photo Supply Co. owning the buildings, worth about $30,000.00. The above figures were for the total business and buildings owned by the Kellys, Graves and Meyers.
In 1946, we had grown a lot from 1939, Sawyer's made a lease with Western Photo Supply Co. they to build and lease two new buildings to Sawyer's, in addition to the two we had. At this point, Sawyer's decided to change its structure from a partnership to a corporation, for various good reasons, one of, to permit our children to participate in the stock ownership. In the 1940s, the United States military recognized the potential for using View-Master products for personnel training, purchasing 100,000 viewers and nearly six million reels from 1942 to the end of World War II in 1945. After the development of the View-Master, Sawyer's, Inc. moved into a new building at 735 S. W. 20th Place in downtown Portland. The company occupied a building next door at 740 S. W. 21st Avenue. Years Edwin Mayer and his Sawyer's partners purchased land in Washington County near Progress, Oregon
A stereopticon is a slide projector or "magic lantern", which has two lenses one above the other. These devices date back to the mid 19th century, were a popular form of entertainment and education before the advent of moving pictures. Americans William and Frederick Langenheim introduced stereopticon slide technology—slide shows of projected images on glass—in 1850. For a usual fee of ten cents, people could view realistic images of nature and science themes; the two lenses are used to dissolve between images. At first, the shows used random images, but over time, lanternists began to place the slides in logical order, creating a narrative; this "visual storytelling" with technology directly preceded the development of the first moving pictures. The term stereopticon has been misused to name a stereoscope. A stereopticon will not display stereoscopic/three-dimensional images on cards. All stereopticons can be classified as magic lanterns. Lev, Peter. Transforming the Screen, 1950–1959. University of California Press.