Walt Disney Imagineering
Disney Imagineering, some times just Imagineering or more Walt Disney Imagineering Research & Development, Inc. is the research and development arm of The Walt Disney Company, responsible for the creation and construction of Disney theme parks and attractions worldwide. Founded by Walt Disney to oversee the production of Disneyland, it was known as Walt Disney, Inc. WED Enterprises, from the initials meaning "Walter Elias Disney", the company co-founder's full name. Headquartered in Glendale, Imagineering was founded by Walt Disney to oversee the production of Disneyland. Imagineering is composed of "Imagineers", who are illustrators, engineers, lighting designers, show writers and graphic designers; the term Imagineering, a portmanteau, was introduced in the 1940s by Alcoa to describe its blending of imagination and engineering, used by Union Carbide in an in-house magazine in 1957, with an article by Richard F Sailer called "BRAINSTORMING IS IMAGination engINEERING". Disney filed for a trademark for the term in 1989, claiming first use of the term in 1962.
Imagineering is a registered trademark of The Walt Disney Company. Walt Disney, Inc. was formed by Walt Disney on December 16, 1952 with an engineering division tasked with designing Disneyland. In light of objections from Roy as well as those of potential stockholders, WDI was renamed WED Enterprises in 1953 based on Walt's initials. In 1961, WED moved into the Grand Central Business Park. WED Enterprises theme park design and architectural group became so integral to the Disney studio's operations that the Disney Productions bought it on February 5, 1965 along with the WED Enterprises name; the unit was renamed as of January 1986 to Walt Disney Imagineering. In 1996, Disney Development Company, the Disney conglomerate's real estate development subsidiary, merged into Imagineering. Imagineering created Disney Fair, a U. S. traveling attraction, which premiered in September 1996. With poor attendance, the fair was pulled after a few stops. Disney Entertainment Projects, Inc. a new Disney Asian Pacific subsidiary, selected a renamed fair called DisneyFest as its first project taking it to Singapore to open there on October 30, 1997.
By 1997, Imagineers were in several buildings in Grand Central Business Park when Disney purchased the park. In September 1999, Disney Imagineering announced the Grand Central Creative Campus redesign of the industrial park with a new office-studio complex anchored by Disney Imagineering; some of the building were demolished to make way for new buildings. The additional space would be for production facilities and offices; as part of The Walt Disney Company’s March 2018 strategic reorganization, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts merged with Disney Consumer Products and Interactive Media segments into Walt Disney Parks and Consumer Products. Imagineering is governed by 15 principles and practices in the construction of attractions and theme parks; these 15 principles have since been published for individuals wanting to achieve their creative goals. New concepts and improvements are created to fulfil specific needs. For instance, the ride vehicle of the attraction Soarin' Over California has been designed to help guests experience the sensation of flight.
During development, Imagineer Mark Sumner found an erector set in his attic, which inspired the solution to create this experience. The ride simulates hang gliding. One of Imagineering's techniques, "blue sky speculation", is a process in which ideas are generated without limitations. Imagineers start with a bold idea in extreme detail, regardless of the budgetary or physical constraints; as a result, it can take up to five years for an idea to turn into a finished attraction. The company consider this the beginning of a design process, believing, "if it can be dreamt, it can be built."Imagineering strive to perfect their work, in which Walt coined as "plussing". He believed that there is always room for innovation and improvement, stating "Disneyland will never be completed as long as there's imagination left in the world". Imagineering has returned to abandoned ideas. For example, the Museum of the Weird, was a proposed walk-through wax museum that became the Haunted Mansion. Disney theme parks are story-telling and visual experiences known as “The Art of the Show.”
The use of theming and attention to detail are essential in the Disney experience. Creative director John Hench noted the similarities between theme park design and film making, such as the use of techniques including forced perspective. One notable example of forced perspective is Cinderella Castle in Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World; the scale of architectural elements is much smaller in the upper reaches of the castle compared to the foundation, making it seem taller than its actual height of 189 feet. The attraction, Pirates of the Caribbean, evokes a “rollicking buccaneer adventure,” according to Hench. In contrast, the Disney Cruise Line ships create an elegant seafaring atmosphere. Minor details in theme park shops and restaurants are crucial; when guests walk down the area of Main Street, U. S. A. they are to notice a bakery fragrance, reminiscent of suburban America in the 1900s. In addition to theme parks, Imagineering has devised retail stores and hotels which have "stories" and create a specific mood.
For instance, the Disney's Contemporary Resort features an A-frame structure, modern décor and futuristic features including a quiet monorail in the lobby. These details reinforce the hotel's contemporary nature. In 2010, Disney Educational Products produced a series of videos
Hughes Aircraft Company
The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Glendale, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company. The company was known for producing, among other products, the Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose aircraft, the atmospheric entry probe carried by the Galileo spacecraft, the AIM-4 Falcon guided missile. Hughes Aircraft was acquired by General Motors from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1985 and was put under the umbrella of Hughes Electronics, now known as DirecTV, until GM sold its assets to Raytheon in 1997. During World War II the company built several prototype aircraft at Hughes Airport; these included the famous Hughes H-4 Hercules, better known by the public's nickname for it, the Spruce Goose, the H-1 racer, D-2, the XF-11. However the plant's hangars at Hughes Airport, location of present-day Playa Vista in the Westside of Los Angeles, were used as a branch plant for the construction of other companies' designs.
At the start of the war Hughes Aircraft had only four full-time employees—by the end the number was 80,000. During the war, the company was awarded contracts to build B-25 struts, centrifugal cannons, machine gun feed chutes. Hughes Aircraft was one of many aerospace and defense companies which flourished in Southern California during and after World War II and was at one time the largest employer in the area. Yet, employment had dropped to 800 by 1947. By the summer of 1947 certain politicians had become concerned about Hughes' alleged mismanagement of the Spruce Goose and the XF-11 photo reconnaissance plane project, they formed a special committee to investigate Hughes which culminated in a much-followed Senate investigation, one of the first to be televised to the public. Despite a critical committee report, Hughes was cleared; the company expanded into the booming electronics field employing 3,300 Ph. D.s. Hughes hired Ira Eaker, Harold L. George, Tex Thornton to run the company. By 1953, the company employed 17,000 had a $600,000,000 in government contracts.
In 1948 Hughes created a new division of the Aerospace Group. Two Hughes engineers, Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge, had new ideas on the packaging of electronics to make complete fire control systems, their MA-1 system combined signals from the aircraft's radar with a digital computer to automatically guide the interceptor aircraft into the proper position for firing missiles. At the same time other teams were working with the newly formed US Air Force on air-to-air missiles, delivering the AIM-4 Falcon known as the F-98; the MA-1/Falcon package, with several upgrades, was the primary interceptor weapon system of the USAF for many years, lasting into the 1980s. Ramo and Wooldridge, having failed to reach an agreement with Howard Hughes regarding management problems, resigned in September 1953 and founded the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation to join Thompson Products to form the Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge based in Canoga Park, with Hughes leasing space for nuclear research programs (present day West Hills.
The company became TRW in another aerospace company and a major competitor to Hughes Aircraft. In 1951 Hughes Aircraft Co. built a missile plant in Arizona. The construction of this plant, wrote David Leighton, in the Arizona Daily Star newspaper, was due to "Howard Hughes’ long-held fear that his plant in Culver City, was vulnerable to enemy attack because it was on the Pacific Coast." By the end of that year, the U. S. Air Force had purchased the property but allowed the company to continue to run day to day operations of the site; this Tucson plant is still in operation under the ownership of Raytheon Co. Howard Hughes donated Hughes Aircraft to the newly formed Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1953 as a way of avoiding taxes on its huge income; the next year, L. A. "Pat" Hyland was hired as general manager of Hughes Aircraft. Under Hyland's guidance, the Aerospace Group continued to diversify and become massively profitable, became a primary focus of the company; the company developed radar systems, electro-optical systems, the first working laser, aircraft computer systems, missile systems, ion-propulsion engines, many other advanced technologies.
The'Electronic Properties Information Center' of the United States was hosted at the Hughes Culver City library in the 1970s. EPIC published the multi-volume Handbook of Electronic Materials as public documents. Nobel Laureates Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann had Hughes connections: Feynman would hold weekly seminars at Hughes Research Laboratories. Greg Jarvis and Ronald McNair, two of the astronauts on the last flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger, were Hughes alumni. Hughes Aircraft Ground Systems Group was located in California; the facility was 3 million square feet and included manufacturing, offices, a Munson road test course. It designed developed and produced the Air Defense Systems that replaced the Semi Automatic Defense Ground Environment in the United States with the Joint Surveillance System AN/FYQ-93 including NORAD with Joint Tactical Information Distribution System and provided defense systems and air traffic control systems around the world; these systems are massive and at its peak Ground Systems Group employed 15,000 people and generated revenue in excess of $1 billion per year.
They were the largest revenue producer and with its massive systems engineering division coordinated the inclusion of
Wonders of Life
The Wonders of Life pavilion was an attraction at Epcot at Walt Disney World in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. It was devoted to body related attractions including Body Wars and Cranium Command, it is located inside a golden colored dome between Mission: the Universe of Energy. It opened on October 19, 1989, closed on January 1, 2007. Since that time, the pavilion has been used for seasonal special events and is now known as the Festival Center; the original attractions within the building have been closed and removed. In February 2019, it was announced that a new interactive pavilion would be built in the dome occupied by Wonders of Life, is scheduled to open in time for Walt Disney World's 50th anniversary in 2021; the idea of a pavilion devoted to health and fitness dates back to the original concept of the EPCOT Center theme park, but no corporate sponsor could be found to cover the costs. It was not until MetLife signed on that the pavilion was constructed, it featured two main attractions: Cranium Command and Body Wars, the first thrill ride located in EPCOT.
Featured was a theater and interactive attractions that evolved around the idea of health and wellness. MetLife ended its sponsorship in 2001. On January 4, 2004, Disney made the decision to make it seasonal operation only, it reopened when the park was projected to hit near capacity during the high spring months and Christmas season. Its most recent operational phase was November 26, 2006, through January 1, 2007. In 2007, the pavilion closed permanently, with no official reason given. While it is not operational to the public, it is still used for private and corporate events. In 2007, temporary walls were placed around the existing attractions when Epcot hosted the Food and Wine festival in the pavilion; the "Body Wars" sign was removed in 2008, replaced by a temporary Garden Town sign while the imprints from the original marquee were painted over. By 2009, significant portions of the Body Wars attraction had been removed; the "Celebrate the Joy of Life" sign was removed following in 2009, while most of the exhibits left were removed.
The pavilion received a paint job inside using mute colors such as white and light green. The pavilion operated seasonally as the center for the Epcot International Flower and Garden Festival and the Epcot International Food & Wine Festival as the Festival Center. For those events, it hosted seminars, videos and more, it was used as a central merchandise location during the two festivals as well. All attractions are shut down and their signs have been removed; as of November 2014, the Body Wars ride simulators have been dismantled. The queue still exists; as of 2017, Cranium Command has had its queue and pre-show dismantled, but the theater - including the animatronics, lighting and staging area - remains intact. The theater, used for The Making of Me is still used for various movies and presentations during the event. On September 11, 2012, Walt Disney Imagineering filed a notice of commencement with the Orange County Comptroller’s office indicating the intentions for a "selective demolition" to take place at the pavilion.
Cranium Command - A theater show with audio-animatronic actors and a movie. The show explained the functions of its interaction with the human body. Frontiers of Medicine - Listen to stories about medicine and the brain on small televisions. Body Wars - A motion simulator ride taking guests on a Fantastic Voyage-like trip through the bloodstream; the film shown was directed by Leonard Nimoy, starred actors Tim Matheson, Elisabeth Shue, Dakin Matthews. Compared to Star Tours at Disney's Hollywood Studios and Disneyland as its counterpart. Coach's Corner - Guests can swing a bat while a professional player gives tips Goofy About Health - A multimedia show about healthy living hosted by Goofy, using clips from his cartoons. Fitness Fairgrounds - Tested guests' athletic abilities Sensory Funhouse - An interactive playground which tested guest's sensory abilities, including an Ames room Audio Antics - A listening skill game which involved regular sounds and sounds that were out of place, which the listener had to figure out.
The Making of Me - A short movie about birth and life starring Martin Short. Wonder Cycles - Stationary bicycles with a television attached; the faster riders pedaled, the faster the video played. The bicycles would take the rider on a short tour, with a selection of: 100th Anniversary Rose Parade Pasadena, California Disneyland in California - The rider could see that day's park patrons watching the camera pass and moving out of the way for the operator. Take a Little Ride: Microworld Bigtown, U. S. A. Anacomical Players - A live show that featured improvisational skits on health and nutrition. Well and Goods Limited Pure & Simple Epcot Epcot attraction and entertainment history Wonders of Life Festival Center Photo Gallery "Erasing" Former Wonders of Life
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, analyze and test machines, systems and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingenium; the foundational qualifications of an engineer include a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline, or in some jurisdictions, a master's degree in an engineering discipline plus four to six years of peer-reviewed professional practice and passage of engineering board examinations. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. In 1961, the Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
He/she is able to assume personal responsibility for the development and application of engineering science and knowledge, notably in research, construction, superintending, managing and in the education of the engineer. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a routine mental or physical character, it requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others. His/her education will have been such as to make him/her capable of and continuously following progress in his/her branch of engineering science by consulting newly published works on a worldwide basis, assimilating such information and applying it independently. He/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. His/her education and training will have been such that he/she will have acquired a broad and general appreciation of the engineering sciences as well as thorough insight into the special features of his/her own branch.
In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice and to assume responsibility for the direction of important tasks in his/her branch. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems and narrowing research, analyzing criteria and analyzing solutions, making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% searching for information. Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements and needs, their crucial and unique task is to identify and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, test output to maintain quality.
They estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, recombining the components, they may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, to control the efficiency of processes. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic and polymer engineering.
Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Several recent studies have investigated. Research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers' work: technical work, social work, computer-based work and information behaviours. Among other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55
Roger Linn is an American designer of electronic musical instruments and equipment. He is the designer of the LM-1, the first drum machine to use samples, the MPC sampler, which had a major influence on the development of hip hop. Roger Linn is a member of the Dead Presidents Society, a group of innovators in the field of electronic music. In 1979, Roger Linn and Alex Moffett founded Linn Moffett Electronics to develop Linn's design for a drum machine that uses digital samples, it would be called LM-1 for Linn/Moffett/1. Moffett would leave the company in 1982. In 1980, Roger Linn revolutionized the world of electronic musical instruments with the release of the world's first drum machine to use digital samples, the LM-1 Drum Computer; the LM-1 was the first drum machine to use samples of a real drum kit, though Roger Linn cannot recall which session drummer played the sounds that he used. To further add to the mystery, an entry in the online museum of the Roger Linn Design company credits L. A. session drummer Art Wood with most of the samples.
Examples of the LM-1 in use can be found on recordings by Prince, Gary Numan, Michael Jackson. In 1982 Linn released the LinnDrum as the successor to the LM-1, it improved on the LM-1 in some ways like the addition of ride cymbal samples. One drawback: on the LinnDrum only the snare and conga samples can be tuned, whereas the LM-1 allows every sound to be individually tuned, its high-quality samples and affordability made the LinnDrum popular. It sold more units than its successor combined; the LinnDrum was used on countless recordings throughout the 1980s, including a-Ha's international hit "Take on Me". In 1984 Linn released the Linn 9000 as the successor to the LinnDrum, it was MIDI sequencer. The 9000 had innovative features, like dynamic sensitive rubber pads, would influence many future drum machine designs, but chronic software bugs led to a reputation for unreliability and contributed to the eventual demise of the company. The 9000 can be heard on Michael Jackson's 1987 album, Bad, on the cuts "Bad", "Man in the Mirror" and "Liberian Girl".
In 1985 Linn released the LinnSequencer, a rack mount 32 track hardware MIDI sequencer. It used the same flawed operating system used in the Linn 9000; as a result, the machine earned a reputation for unreliability. In January 1986, Linn debuted the LinnDrum Midistudio at the Winter NAMM Show as the successor to the Linn 9000; the Midistudio is a rack mount version of the Linn 9000 with some improvements. It used the same flawed operating system used in the Linn 9000, it never went into production. Similarities between the LinnDrum Midistudio and the Akai MPC series lead some to perceive a family resemblance. Most notably, the Midistudio has sixteen dynamic sensitive rubber pads in the distinctive, four by four pattern, that would become the hallmark of the MPCs, starting with the MPC60. Linn Electronics went out of business in February 1986. Forat Electronics purchased their remaining assets and sold the Forat F9000 and LinnSequencer until 1994 and provide service, sounds and upgrades for the entire Linn Electronics line.
The LM-1, LinnDrum and Linn 9000 became synonymous with the music of the 1980s. The Linn 9000 and LinnDrum Midistudio pioneered the concept of the Music Production Center or MPC. After Linn Electronics, Linn collaborated with the Japanese company Akai to design the MPC60, an integrated digital sampling drum machine and MIDI sequencer released in 1988. According to Linn, " was a good fit because Akai needed a creative designer with ideas and I didn't want to do sales, finance or manufacturing, all of which Akai was good at." The MPC60 was followed by the MPC60 MkII and the MPC3000. Linn aimed to design an affordable user-friendly instrument that did not require extensive musical knowledge or studio equipment to use, it had a major influence on the development of electronic music. The 4x4 grid of pads became standard in DJ technology. Linn left Akai after the company went out of business and its assets were purchased by Numark. According to Linn, the new organization was led by "a unscrupulous fellow... he stopped my royalty payments, refused to take my calls and had his lawyer send me threatening letters.
I checked around and learned that he has a reputation of being a real bastard, so given that challenging him would have been long and expensive, I let it go." Akai has continued to produce MPC models without Linn, such as the MPC2000. In 2001 Roger Linn founded Roger Linn Design; the company's first product offering was the AdrenaLinn, with the LinnStrument music performance controller added later. The AdrenaLinn is a digital multi-effects unit with a drum machine and amp modeler all in one, designed by Roger Linn with some help from Dave Smith and Tom Oberheim. Most notably, unlike other guitar pedals, the AdrenaLinn specializes in beat-synced effects, including modulation and delay but a sequencer that provides looped patterns of filtered tones, all moving in sync to its internal drum machine or to midi; the drum section can be affected by the filter section, allowing dance-style beats. Other unusual aspects of this pedal include note-triggered filter effects such as auto-wah, simulated talk box and guitar synthesizer sounds
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well