Walt Disney Imagineering Research & Development, Inc. referred to as Imagineering, is the research and development arm of The Walt Disney Company, responsible for the creation and construction of Disney theme parks and attractions worldwide. The company manages The Walt Disney Company's properties, from Walt Disney Studios in Burbank to New Amsterdam Theatre and Times Square Studios Ltd. in New York City. Founded by Walt Disney to oversee the production of Disneyland, it was known as Walt Disney, Inc. WED Enterprises, from the initials meaning "Walter Elias Disney", the company co-founder's full name. Headquartered in Glendale, Imagineering is composed of "Imagineers", who are illustrators, engineers, lighting designers, show writers and graphic designers; the term Imagineering, a portmanteau, was introduced in the 1940s by Alcoa to describe its blending of imagination and engineering, used by Union Carbide in an in-house magazine in 1957, with an article by Richard F Sailer called "BRAINSTORMING IS IMAGination engINEERING".
Disney filed for a trademark for the term in 1989, claiming first use of the term in 1962. Imagineering is a registered trademark of Inc.. Walt Disney, Inc. was formed by Walt Disney on December 16, 1952 with an engineering division tasked with designing Disneyland. In light of objections from his brother Roy as well as those of potential stockholders, WDI was renamed WED Enterprises in 1953 based on Walt's initials. In 1961, WED moved into the Grand Central Business Park. WED Enterprises theme park design and architectural group became so integral to the Disney studio's operations that the Disney Productions bought it on February 5, 1965 along with the WED Enterprises name; the unit was renamed as of January 1986 to Walt Disney Imagineering. In 1996, Disney Development Company, the Disney conglomerate's real estate development subsidiary, merged into Imagineering. Imagineering created Disney Fair, a U. S. traveling attraction, which premiered in September 1996. With poor attendance, the fair was pulled after a few stops.
Disney Entertainment Projects, Inc. a new Disney Asian Pacific subsidiary, selected a renamed fair called DisneyFest as its first project taking it to Singapore to open there on October 30, 1997. By 1997, Imagineers were in several buildings in Grand Central Business Park when Disney purchased the park. In September 1999, Disney Imagineering announced the Grand Central Creative Campus redesign of the industrial park with a new office-studio complex anchored by Disney Imagineering; some of the building were demolished to make way for new buildings. The additional space would be for production facilities and offices; as part of The Walt Disney Company’s March 2018 strategic reorganization, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts merged with Disney Consumer Products and Interactive Media segments into Disney Parks and Products, giving Disney Imagineering oversight of merchandise and publishing development. According to former Disney employee Doug Lipp, Imagineering is governed by 15 principles and practices in the construction of attractions and theme parks.
These 15 principles have since been published for individuals wanting to achieve their creative goals. New concepts and improvements are created to fulfill specific needs. For instance, the Soarin' Over California ride system was designed to help guests experience the sensation of flight. During development, Imagineer Mark Sumner found an erector set in his attic, which inspired the solution to create this experience; the ride simulates hang gliding. One of Imagineering's techniques, "blue sky speculation", is a process in which ideas are generated without limitations. Imagineers may develop a bold idea in extreme detail disregarding budgetary or physical constraints, it can take up to five years for an idea to turn into a finished attraction. The company consider this the beginning of a design process, believing, "if it can be dreamt, it can be built."Imagineering strive to perfect their work, in which Walt Disney coined as "plussing". He believed that there is always room for innovation and improvement, stating "Disneyland will never be completed as long as there's imagination left in the world".
Imagineering has returned to abandoned ideas. For example, the Museum of the Weird, was a proposed walk-through wax museum that became The Haunted Mansion. WDI partnered with the Khan Academy to create a series of online video classes called Imagineering in a Box, to allow students to "explore different aspects of theme park design, from characters to ride development..." The classes are organized into three main areas. Disney theme parks are story-telling and visual experiences known as “The Art of the Show.” The use of theming and attention to detail are essential in the Disney experience. Creative director John Hench noted the similarities between theme park design and film making, such as the use of techniques including forced perspective. One notable example of forced perspective is Cinderella Castle in Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World; the scale of architectural elements is much smaller in the upper reaches of the castle compared to the foundation, making it seem taller than its actual height of 189 feet.
The attraction, Pirates of the Caribbean, evokes a “rollicking buccaneer adventure,” according to Hench. In contrast, the Disney Cruise Line ships create an elegant seafaring atmosphere. Minor details in theme park shops and restaurants are crucial.
Sir John Armstrong Spicer was an Australian lawyer and judge. He served two terms as a Senator for Victoria, representing the United Australia Party from 1940 to 1944 and the Liberal Party from 1950 to 1956. Spicer was Attorney-General in the Menzies Government from 1949 to 1956, he left politics to become chief judge of the newly created Commonwealth Industrial Court, a position which he held until 1976. Spicer was born in the Melbourne suburb of Prahran, but was taken to England by his family in 1905 and educated at Chelston School, Torquay, his family returned to Australia in 1911 and he attended Hawksburn State School in the inner Melbourne suburb of South Yarra. In 1913, he started working as an office boy in a legal practice, he studied law at the University of Melbourne from 1916 to 1918, was admitted as a barrister and solicitor in March 1921 establishing a successful legal practice. He married Lavinia May Webster in June 1924. Spicer won a seat in the Senate as a United Australia Party candidate at the 1940 election.
In the Senate, he spoke on tax issues and promoted "sound and honest finance". Spicer was defeated at the 1943 election, he opposed Ben Chifley's bank nationalisation and acted for the English banks in court action on the issue. He took silk in 1948. Spicer returned to the Senate as a Liberal Party candidate in the December 1949 election, was appointed Attorney-General in the Menzies Government though his Senate term did not begin until February 1950, he was the first senator to hold the position since Josiah Symon in 1905. Spicer's first priority was to draft a bill banning the Communist Party of Australia; the Bill was passed by the Parliament and became the Communist Party Dissolution Act 1950, but was declared unconstitutional by the High Court of Australia. In 1952, he drafted an official secrets bill which included a provision permitting the death penalty for spying and wide powers of search and arrest without warrant, but this was rejected by cabinet, he was Minister for Transport for two weeks after George McLeay's death.
In August 1956, Spicer resigned from parliament so that he could be appointed to the Commonwealth Industrial Court. He was made a Knight Bachelor in 1963. Spicer presided over inquiries into aviation accidents: Trans Australia Airlines Flight 538, a Fokker F27 Friendship aircraft that crashed into the sea in 1960 while attempting to land in Mackay, killing all 29 people on board. Ansett-ANA Flight 325, a Vickers Viscount aircraft that crashed into Botany Bay in 1961, killing all 15 people on board. Ansett-ANA Flight 149, a Vickers Viscount aircraft that crashed near Winton, Queensland in 1966, killing all 24 people on board. Spicer chaired a royal commission in 1964 into the sinking of HMAS Voyager, he found that officers in both HMAS Melbourne had been at fault. A second royal commission in 1967-68 attributed blame to Voyager's officers only. Spicer retired in 1976, died in the Melbourne suburb of Armadale two years survived by his wife and son
De Princehofmolen is a hollow post mill in Earnewâld, the Netherlands, built in 1958. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument, number 22934; this mill stood at Fatum, Tzum. In 1958 it was sold by the Massold family of Leeuwarden to Mr Bakker for ƒ2,000; the mill was rebuilt by the Folkerssloot at Earnewâld by millwright De Roos of Leeuwarden at a cost of ƒ2,874.30. A grant of ƒ710 towards the cost was given by the province of Friesland; the mill is maintained as a landmark but is unable to work due to trees growing too close to the mill. De Princehofmolen is what the Dutch describe as a "spinnenkopmolen", it is a small hollow post mill on a single storey roundhouse. There is no stage, the sail reaching to the ground; the body of the mill is covered in vertical boards and the roof is covered in dakleer. The mill is winded by winch; the sails are Common sails. They have a span of 10.20 metres. The sails are carried on a wooden windshaft; the windshaft carries the brake wheel which has 35 cogs. This drives the wallower at the top of the upright shaft.
At the bottom of the upright shaft, the crown wheel, which has 27 cogs drove an Archimedes' screw, not fitted when the mill was re-erected