click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Steven Levy

Steven Levy is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, cryptography, the internet and privacy. Levy is Editor at Large for Wired, he was chief technology writer and a senior editor for Newsweek. Levy has had articles published in Harper's, The New York Times Magazine, The New Yorker and Rolling Stone, he is regarded as a respected critic of Apple Inc.. In July 2004, Levy wrote a cover story which unveiled the 4th generation of the iPod to the world before Apple had done so. In 1984, he wrote a book called Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, in which he described a "hacker ethic", which became a guideline to understanding how computers have advanced into the machines that we know and use today, he identified this hacker ethic to consist of key points such as that all information is free, that this information should be used to "change life for the better". Levy won the "Computer Press Association Award" for a report he co-wrote in 1998 on the Year 2000 problem.

Levy was a contributor to Stewart Brand's Whole Earth Software Catalog, first published in 1984. In 1978, Steven Levy rediscovered Albert Einstein's brain in the office of the pathologist who removed and preserved it. Levy received his bachelor's degree from Temple University and earned a master's degree in literature from Pennsylvania State University, he lives in New York City with his wife, Pulitzer Prize winner Teresa Carpenter, son. Levy, Steven. Hackers: heroes of the computer revolution. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday; the Unicorn's Secret: Murder in the Age of Aquarius Artificial Life: The Quest for a New Creation Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce and Coolness In The Plex: How Google Thinks and Shapes Our Lives Facebook: The Inside Story Levy, Steven. "Like minds". Wired. 21: 234–244. Steven Levy's website Works by Steven Levy at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Steven Levy at Internet Archive Authors@Google: Steven Levy on YouTube Lebowski Podcast Episode 27 – Steven Levy's Wish List Interview with Steven Levy about The Big Lebowski and his interview with the Coen Brothers.

Lebowski Podcast Episode 27a – Steven Levy on Technology Chalupa and Steven Levy talk about blogging, internet security, etc. Appearances on C-SPAN C-SPAN Q&A interview with Levy on The Perfect Thing, December 24, 2006

Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope is regarded as one of the greatest English poets, the foremost poet of the early eighteenth century. He is best known for his satirical and discursive poetry, including The Rape of the Lock, The Dunciad, An Essay on Criticism, as well as for his translation of Homer. After Shakespeare, Pope is the second-most quoted writer in the English language, as per The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, some of his verses having become popular idioms in common parlance, he is considered a master of the heroic couplet. Pope's poetic career testifies to his indomitable spirit in the face of disadvantages, of health and of circumstance; the poet and his family were Catholics and thus fell subject to the Test Acts, prohibitive measures which hampered the prosperity of their co-religionists after the abdication of James II. For this reason, except for a few spurious Catholic schools, Pope was self-educated, he became a lover of books. He learned French, Italian and Greek by himself, discovered Homer at the age of six.

As a child Pope survived being once trampled by a cow, but when he was 12 began struggling with tuberculosis of the spine, along with fits of crippling headaches which troubled him throughout his life. In the year 1709, Pope showcased his precocious metrical skill with the publication of Pastorals, his first major poems, they earned him instant fame. By the time he was 23 he had written An Essay on Criticism, released in 1711. A kind of poetic manifesto in the vein of Horace's Ars Poetica, the essay was met with enthusiastic attention and won Pope a wider circle of prominent friends, most notably Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, who had started collaborating on the influential The Spectator; the critic John Dennis, having located an ironic and veiled portrait of himself, was outraged by what he considered the impudence of the younger author. Dennis hated Pope for the rest of his life, save for a temporary reconciliation, dedicated his efforts to insulting him in print, to which Pope retaliated in kind, making Dennis the butt of much satire.

The Rape of the Lock the poet's most famous poem, appeared first in 1712, followed by a revised and enlarged version in 1714. When Lord Petre forcibly snipped off a lock from Miss Arabella Fermor's head, the incident gave rise to a high-society quarrel between the families. With the idea of allaying this, Pope treated the subject in witty mock-heroic epic; the narrative poem brings into focus the onset of acquisitive individualism and conspicuous consumption, where purchased goods assume dominance over moral agency. A folio comprising a collection of his poems appeared in 1717, together with two new ones written about the passion of love; these were Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady and the famous proto-romantic poem Eloisa to Abelard. Though Pope never married, about this time he became attached to Lady M. Montagu, whom he indirectly referenced in the popular poem Eloisa to Abelard, to Martha Blount, with whom his friendship continued throughout his life. In his career as a satirist, Pope made his share of enemies as the critics and certain other prominent figures felt the sting of his sharpwitted satires.

Some were so virulent, that Pope carried pistols at one point while walking his dog. After 1738, Pope composed little, he toyed with the idea of writing a patriotic epic called Brutus. He revised and expanded his masterpiece The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, he replaced Lewis Theobald with the Poet Laureate, Colley Cibber, as "king of dunces". However, his real target in the poem is the Whig politician Robert Walpole. By now Pope's health was failing, when told by his physician, on the morning of his death, that he was better, Pope replied: "Here am I, dying of a hundred good symptoms". Alexander Pope was born in London on 21 May 1688, the year of the Glorious Revolution, his father was a successful linen merchant in the Strand. The poet's mother, was the daughter of William Turner, Esquire, of York. Both parents were Catholics. Edith's sister, was the wife of famous miniature painter Samuel Cooper. Pope's education was affected by the enacted Test Acts, which upheld the status of the established Church of England and banned Catholics from teaching, attending a university and holding public office on penalty of perpetual imprisonment.

Pope was taught to read by his aunt and went to Twyford School in about 1698/99. He went on to two Roman Catholic schools in London; such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas. In 1700, his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, close to the royal Windsor Forest; this was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Papists from living within 10 miles of London or Westminster. Pope would describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest. Pope's formal education ended at this time, from on, he educated himself by reading the works of classical writers such as the satirists Horace and Juvenal, the epic poets Homer and Virgil, as well as English authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Dryden, he studied many languages and read works by English, Italian and Greek poets. After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from London literary society such as William Congreve, Samuel Ga

Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium

The Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium is an international not-for-profit, chartered in the United States, whose goal is to facilitate the adoption of cross-domain interoperability standards. Formed in September 2004, the organization is composed of more than 50 members and advisors representing business, government organizations and academic institutions in 12 countries. NCO is the application of the fundamental tenets of network-centric warfare to aspects of national security industry support for the missions of both the United States Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security. NCOIC does not only subscribe to the military use of this theory, but works to apply NCO and interoperability across nations and industries, including emergency response, health care, information technology cyber security & cloud computing and financial services. NCOIC’s technical teams have developed resources to further the use of network-centric systems and interoperability in both the public and private sectors.

These resources – including processes, frameworks, patterns and databases—are available free of charge on the NCOIC website. They are aimed at helping an organization lower engineering costs, speed program implementation, increase capability and reduce risk; the consortium provides training and services such as interoperability demonstrations, acquisition strategies and verification. NCOIC focuses on four interdependent areas in identifying solutions that will enable cross-domain interoperability: business, culture and technical; the interaction and impact of factors—such as financial objectives, business goals and regulations, cultural considerations – are all taken into account when planning and/or implementing technology change. Systems, Operations, Programs, & Enterprises Model • The SCOPE interoperability assessment model is designed to characterize interoperability-relevant aspects or capabilities of a system or set of systems over a network in terms of a set of dimensions and values along those dimensions.

NCOIC Interoperability Framework • The NIF is a development framework that helps system architects and system engineers to embed interoperability elements throughout the life cycle of programs, beginning with requirements. Whenever possible, those resources are based upon standards. Net Centric Patterns • NCOIC Net Centric Patterns contain prescriptive recommendations on approaches and standards in specific interoperability domains. Network Centric Analysis Tool • NCAT is a collaborative, web-enabled questionnaire-based tool developed to assist NCOIC teams and member companies to enhance the likelihood and reduce the time and effort of member companies developing interoperable systems consistent with customers’ policies and guidelines, reference models and architectures, it is available in an excel format. NCOIC QuadTrangle • The QuadTrangle™ developed by the Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium shows the four, interdependent areas that must be considered when developing a reliable and trusted interoperable environment: business, culture and technical

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 411 U. S. 1, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that San Antonio Independent School District's financing system, based on local property taxes, was not an unconstitutional violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause. The majority opinion, reversing the District Court, stated that the appellees did not sufficiently prove a textual basis, within the U. S. Constitution, supporting the principle that education is a fundamental right. Urging that the school financing system led to wealth-based discrimination, the plaintiffs had argued that the fundamental right to education should be applied to the States, through the Fourteenth Amendment; the Court found that there was no such fundamental right and that the unequal school financing system was not subject to strict scrutiny. The lawsuit was brought by members of the Edgewood Concerned Parent Association representing their children and situated students.

The suit was filed on June 1968 in the District Court for the Western District of Texas. In the initial complaint, the parents sued San Antonio ISD, Alamo Heights ISD, five other school districts, they contended that the "Texas method of school financing violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution." The lawsuit alleged that education was a fundamental right and that wealth-based discrimination in the provision of education, created in the poor, or those of lesser wealth, a constitutionally suspect class, who were to be protected from the discrimination. The school districts were dropped from the case, leaving only the State of Texas as the defendant; the case advanced through the courts system, providing victory to the Edgewood parents until it reached the Supreme Court in 1972. The school districts in the San Antonio area, in Texas, had a long history of financial inequity. Rodriguez presented evidence that school districts in the wealthy white, areas of town, most notably the north-side Alamo Heights Independent School District, were able to contribute a much higher amount per child than Edgewood, a poor, minority area.

From the trial brief, Dr. Jose Cardenas, Superintendent of Schools, Edgewood Independent School District testified to the problem in his affidavit, the following information: Edgewood is a poor district with a low tax base; as a result, its ad valorem tax revenue falls far short of the monies available in other Bexar County school districts. With this inequitable financing of its schools, Edgewood cannot hire sufficient qualified personnel, nor provide the physical facilities, library books and supplies afforded by other Bexar County Districts. To illustrate, the Edgewood residents are making a high tax effort, have burdened themselves with one of the highest proportion of bonded indebtedness in the county to pay for capital improvements and, never, in the history of the district have they failed to approve a bond issue. Cardenas cites a study, "A Tale of Two Districts," which makes the following comparisons in 1967-68 between Edgewood and the North East Independent School District: Classroom space: North East had 70.36 square feet per student.

In the Supreme Court, a new group of justices had been appointed since the filing of the case. The most significant new member was Justice Lewis Powell, who proved to be the swing vote in the Rodriguez case. Powell led the narrow majority in deciding that the right to be educated, was neither'explicitly or implicitly' textually found anywhere in the U. S. Constitution, it was not anywhere protected by the Constitution. He found that Texas had not created a suspect class related to poverty; the two findings allowed the state to continue its school financing plan as long as it was "rationally related to a legitimate state interest." Justices Brennan, Douglas and Marshall dissented. In his dissent, Justice Marshall argued that in cases involving unenumerated rights, the Court's "task...should be to determine the extent to which constitutionally guaranteed rights are dependent on interests not mentioned in the Constitution," and "s the nexus between the specific constitutional guarantee and the nonconstitutional interest draws closer, the nonconstitutional interest becomes more fundamental and the degree of judicial scrutiny applied when the interest is infringed on a discriminatory basis must be adjusted accordingly."

In a TIME interview of over 50 legal scholars, California Law School Dean Erwin Chemerinsky and Cornell Law Professor Steven Shiffrin both named Rodriguez the "worst Supreme Court decision since 1960," with Chemerinsky noting that the decision has "played a major role in creating the separate and unequal schools that exist today."Partially in response to the Court's ruling in Rodriguez, Justice William Brennan wrote an article in the Harvard Law Review urging lawyers and litigants to turn to their State Supreme Courts — rathe

Ghanaian smock

A Ghanaian smock is a plaid shirt, similar to the dashiki, worn by men in Ghana. There are female versions of it; the smock is called Bun-nwↃ or Bana by Mamprusis, fugu or a batakari in the northern region,dansika in Frafra,futik in Kusaal both in the upper east region. It is now popular across Ghana; the smock originated in the northern region of Ghana, see external links for photos. The smock is not unlike the national attire of Burkina Faso known as faso dan fadi; the smock and Kente cloth are the national dress of Ghana. Kente cloth originated in the southern region of Ghana; the smock is made of hand-loomed strips popularly called Strip Cloths. They are made of a mixture of dyed and undyed cotton loom, are from the northern part of Ghana and other parts of West Africa; the strips are sewn together by machine giving the smock a plaid appearance. Most smocks have embroidery on the neckline; the smock is worn with a kufi cap. However, chiefs in Ghana wear the smock with a red fez hat; the smock was seen in the West.

As as the 1990s, immigrants from Ghana were the only individuals seen wearing the smock. All of that changed as the popularity of films produced in Ghana increased among Black Americans and Caribbeans. In recent years people of African descent have started wearing smocks to churches, African festivals, Kwanzaa celebrations in major Western cities like New York and Kingston, Jamaica. A man is seen wearing a smock in the opening scene of the Jackie Appiah movie, I Knew Nothing Till You Taught Me. Dashiki Kente cloth Kufi National costume I Knew Nothing Until You Taught Me on DVD. Buying a smock Kente Cloth

Taras Shevchenko Place

Taras Shevchenko Place is a street in New York City named after Taras Shevchenko, considered to be one of the greatest Ukrainian poets. Taras Shevchenko Place connects 6th Street and 7th Street between Second and Third Avenues in the East Village, it abuts the back of 41 Cooper Square to the west. Taras Shevchenko was a Ukrainian writer and political activist whose novels and poems, written in Ukrainian, gave forceful expression to his countrymen's national sentiment at a time when many aspects of their culture the language, were being suppressed by the Russian Empire. In one of his poems, he called for an independent Ukrainian state to be led by a "Ukrainian Washington"; the street was known as Hall Street and as Hall Place, after Charles Henry Hall, a Harlem landowner who sold the property to the city on Dec. 23, 1828. City Council changed the name of Hall Place to Taras Shevchenko Place in 1978. There was an attempt in 2001 by the Cooper Union to rename the street back to Hall Place, by "de-mapping" the Taras Shevchenko name.

A "Hall Place" street sign was re-installed in 2010