In engineering, a truss is a structure that consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object. A two-force member is a component where force is applied to only two points. In this typical context, external forces and reactions to those forces are considered to act only at the nodes and result in forces in the members that are either tensile or compressive. For straight members, moments are explicitly excluded because, and only because, all the joints in a truss are treated as revolutes, as is necessary for the links to be two-force members. A planar truss is one all members and nodes lie within a two dimensional plane, while a space truss has members and nodes that extend into three dimensions. The top beams in a truss are called top chords and are typically in compression, the beams are called bottom chords. The interior beams are called webs, and the areas inside the webs are called panels, Truss derives from the Old French word trousse, from around 1200, which means collection of things bound together.
The term truss has often used to describe any assembly of members such as a cruck frame or a couple of rafters. One engineering definition is, A truss is a single plane framework of individual structural member connected at their ends of forms a series of triangle to span a large distance, a truss consists of typically straight members connected at joints, traditionally termed panel points. Trusses are typically composed of triangles because of the stability of that shape. A triangle is the simplest geometric figure that will not change shape when the lengths of the sides are fixed, in comparison, both the angles and the lengths of a four-sided figure must be fixed for it to retain its shape. The joint at which a truss is designed to be supported is commonly referred to as the Munter Point, the simplest form of a truss is one single triangle. This type of truss is seen in a roof consisting of rafters and a ceiling joist. Because of the stability of this shape and the methods of used to calculate the forces within it.
The traditional diamond-shape bicycle frame, which utilizes two conjoined triangles, is an example of a simple truss, a planar truss lies in a single plane. Planar trusses are used in parallel to form roofs and bridges. The depth of a truss, or the height between the upper and lower chords, is what makes it an efficient structural form, a solid girder or beam of equal strength would have substantial weight and material cost as compared to a truss. For a given span, a deeper truss will require less material in the chords, an optimum depth of the truss will maximize the efficiency
United States Life-Saving Service
The United States Life-Saving Service was a United States government agency that grew out of private and local humanitarian efforts to save the lives of shipwrecked mariners and passengers. It began in 1848 and ultimately merged with the Revenue Cutter Service to form the United States Coast Guard in 1915, the concept of assistance to shipwrecked mariners from shore based stations began with volunteer lifesaving services, spearheaded by the Massachusetts Humane Society. It was recognized that only small boats stood a chance in assisting those close to the beach, a sailing ship trying to help near to the shore stood a good chance of running aground, especially if there were heavy onshore winds. The Massachusetts Humane Society founded the first lifeboat station at Cohasset, the stations were small shed-like structures, holding rescue equipment that was to be used by volunteers in case of a wreck. The stations, were only near the approaches to ports and, thus. That same year the Massachusetts Humane Society received funds from Congress for life saving stations on the Massachusetts coastline, between 1848 and 1854 other stations were built and loosely managed.
The stations were administered by the United States Revenue Marine and they were run with volunteer crews, much like a volunteer fire department. In September 1854, a Category 4 hurricane, the Great Carolina Hurricane of 1854, swept through the East Coast of the United States, causing the deaths of many sailors. This storm highlighted the poor condition of the equipment in the life saving stations, the training of the crews. Additional funds were appropriated by Congress, including funds to employ a full-time keeper at each station, still not officially recognized as a service, the system of stations languished until 1871 when Sumner Increase Kimball was appointed chief of the Treasury Departments Revenue Marine Division. One of his first acts was to send Captain John Faunce of the Revenue Marine Service on an tour of the life saving stations. Captain Faunces report noted that apparatus was rusty for want of care, Kimball convinced Congress to appropriate $200,000 to operate the stations and to allow the Secretary of the Treasury to employ full-time crews for the stations.
Kimball instituted six-man boat crews at all stations, built new stations, by 1874, stations were added along the coast of Maine, Cape Cod, the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and Port Aransas, Texas. The next year, more stations were added to serve the Great Lakes, in 1878, the network of life saving stations were formally organized as a separate agency of the United States Department of the Treasury, called the Live-Saving Service. The stations of the Service fell into three categories, lifesaving and houses of refuge, lifesaving stations were manned by full-time crews during the period when wrecks were most likely. On the East Coast, this was usually from November to April, by 1900, the active season was year-round. Most stations were in isolated areas and crewmen had to perform open beach launchings and that is, they were required to launch their boats from the beach into the surf. That section gave rise to the rescue crews unofficial motto, You have to go out, before 1900, there were very few recreational boaters and most assistance cases came from ships engaged in commerce
Swampscott is a town in Essex County, United States located 15 miles up the coast from Boston in an area known as the North Shore. The population was 13,787 as of 2010, a former summer resort on Massachusetts Bay, Swampscott is today a fairly affluent residential community and includes the village of Beach Bluff, as well as part of the neighborhood of Clifton. It is known for its suburban character and lovely beaches. The town was home to the ocean front college, Marian Court College until 2015. Swampscott was first settled in 1629 as the part of Lynn. A beach town north of Boston, measuring 3 square miles, while Revere Beach, which lies just several miles down the road, has the honor of technically being Americas first public beach, Swampscott was the de facto first resort town. Lynn was the divider between the beach and the rich resort town. The name Swampscott comes from the language of a local Native American tribe, the following is verbatim from the official Swampscott web page, History of Swampscott.
The Machon elementary school was shuttered in 2008/9, but the property remains on the districts rolls, a new building was completed in 2007 for Swampscott High School. In 2011, The Town of Swampscott is working out the details of installing a massive wind turbine, when installed it is expected to generate a little more than half of the power for the middle school. Swampscott is located at 42°28′27″N 70°54′21″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 6.7 square miles, of which 3.0 square miles is land and 3.7 square miles, or 54. 83%, is water. There are several parks, along with the small Harold King Forest in the northwest corner of town. The town has two ponds, Foster Pond and Palmer Pond. Swampscott is mostly suburban, with most of the land in the northwest corner of town. There are three villages within town, Beach Bluff to the east, Phillips Point to the south, and Phillips Beach inland between the two. The town is centered around Monument Square, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, which is 4 miles south of Salem,12 miles northeast of Boston, the town is 23 miles to the nearest point in New Hampshire, in the town of Salem.
Swampscott is bordered by Marblehead to the northeast, Salem to the northwest, the water rights of the town extend into Massachusetts Bay, bordered by those of Marblehead and Lynn. Swampscott is located along Massachusetts Route 1A and Route 129, there is no highway within town, which lies well south of Massachusetts Route 128 and Interstate 95
Queen Anne style architecture in the United States
In the United States, Queen Anne style architecture was popular from roughly 1880 to 1910. Queen Anne was one of a number of architectural styles to emerge during the Victorian era. Within the Victorian era timeline, Queen Anne style followed the Stick style and preceded the Richardsonian Romanesque, the style bears almost no relationship to the English Baroque architecture produced in the actual reign of Queen Anne from 1702 to 1714. It is loosely used of a range of picturesque buildings with free Renaissance details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right. Queen Anne Style buildings in America came into vogue in the 1880s, the popularity of high Queen Anne Style waned in the early 1900s, but some elements, such as the wraparound front porch, continued to be found on buildings into the 1920s. There are triple windows of Serlian motif and a two-storey oriel that projects asymmetrically, the Astral Apartments, built in Brooklyn in 1885–1886 to house dock workers, provides another similar, and larger, example of red brick and terracotta Queen Anne architecture in New York. E.
Francis Baldwins stations for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, built variously of brick, the most famous American Queen Anne residence is the William Carson Mansion of Eureka, California. Newsom and Newsom, notable builder-architects of 19th Century California homes and public buildings, all styles described below as well as others are present in this example of American Queen Anne Style. Dentils, classical columns, spindle work and bay windows, horizontal bands of leaded windows, monumental chimneys, painted balustrades, front gardens often had wooden fences. Smaller and somewhat plainer houses can be Queen Anne, the William G. Harrison House, built 1904 in rural Nashville, Georgia, is an example. The Shingle Style in America was made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, in the Shingle Style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. This impression of the passage of time was enhanced by the use of shingles.
Some architects, in order to attain a look on a new building, even had the cedar shakes dipped in buttermilk and installed. The Shingle Style conveyed a sense of the house as continuous volume, the most famous Shingle Style house built in America was Kragsyde, the summer home commissioned by Bostonian G. Nixon Black, from Peabody and Stearns. Kragsyde was built atop the rocky shore near Manchester-By-the-Sea, Massachusetts. Many of the concepts of the Shingle Style were adopted by Gustav Stickley, Victorian architectural styles Category, Victorian architecture in the United States
Rodanthe, North Carolina
Rodanthe is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located in Dare County, North Carolina, United States, on Hatteras Island, part of North Carolinas Outer Banks. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 261, along with Waves and Salvo, are part of the settlement of Chicamacomico. Rodanthe includes the original Chicamacomico Life-Saving Station, decommissioned in 1954, Rodanthe is served by North Carolina Highway 12, which runs north/south through town. The Chicamacomico area is bordered to the north by Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge and to the south by Cape Hatteras National Seashore, the town is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and Pamlico Sound to the west. Rodanthe is the easternmost point of North Carolina, a mythical beast, Old Buck—possibly related to Belsnikel or Krampus who are companions of Saint Nicholas in Central European Christmas festivities—is said to appear at the celebration. The residents of Rodanthe are governed by the Dare County Board of Commissioners, Rodanthe is part of District 4, along with Avon, Frisco, Hatteras and Salvo.
The Chicamacomico Life Saving Station and Oregon Inlet Station are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, many of Rodanthes restaurants and markets are seasonal with many closing during the winter months and reopening the following spring. Many of these are family-owned, rather than chain franchises, provisions can still be purchased on the Outer Banks during the winter months, but a short drive south to the town of Avon or north to Nags Head is required. There are only two motels within the settlement of Chicamacomico. There are, three inns or bed and breakfasts on the island of Hatteras There are numerous houses and small. Several smaller campgrounds cater to water sports enthusiasts, local water sports include fishing, swimming and kiteboarding, among others. In 2002, Nicholas Sparks published the book Nights in Rodanthe that was adapted into a movie. George C. Wolfe directed the adaptation, which was partially filmed in the town of Rodanthe and entirely filmed in eastern North Carolina – including Cape Hatteras, Southport.
The movie was released on September 26,2008, several Rodanthe landmarks such as the Rodanthe Pier were used during filming. During film production, one of the houses, Serendipity. This house was damaged and condemned after a storm in November 2009. The house was saved from demolition by a businessman, Ben Huss, a bail bondsman, from Newton, North Carolina
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the system used, which reflects climate, material availability. A gable wall or gable end more commonly refers to the wall, including the gable. A variation of the gable is a gable, which has a stairstep design to accomplish the sloping portion. Gable ends of more recent buildings are often treated in the way as the Classic pediment form. But unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the ends of many buildings are actually bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing can be ambiguous or misleading, gable style is used in the design of fabric structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how much snowfall is expected. Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the Gothic and classical Greek styles of architecture, the opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a V-roof or butterfly roof. While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a building faces it with its cullis.
The terms are used in architecture and city planning to determine a building in its urban situation, front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the medieval gothic period, while Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are often side-gabled. In America, front-gabled houses, such as the Gablefront house, were primarily between the early 19th century and 1920. A wimperg is a German and Dutch word for a Gothic ornamental gable with tracery over windows or portals and it was a typical element in Gothic Architecture especially in cathedral architecture. Wimpergs often had crockets or other elements in the Gothic style. The intention behind the wimperg was the perception of increased height, the gable end roof is a poor design for hurricane regions, as it easily peels off in strong winds. The part of the roof overhangs the triangular wall very often creates a trap that can catch wind like an umbrella. A series of ornamental timber gables, from existing examples in England and France of the 16th Century
Ladd Carriage House
The Ladd Carriage House is a building in downtown Portland, Oregon. It is one of the few surviving pieces of the grand estates which once existed in the downtown core. It was on the National Register of Historic Places from 1980 until 2008 and it was restored to the list in 2010. The building served as an outbuilding to the William S. Ladd mansion, since its decommissioning as a private residential structure, it has been used as offices and retailing space. 1930, converted the open first floor and hayloft into three floors of offices according to architect Van Evera Bailey, who established his office in the carriage house. The future of the building was cast into doubt when the neighboring First Christian Church announced plans to redevelop the entire block, the congregation had bought the Ladd Carriage House in 1971, and sought to expand parking for its members. As part of the redevelopment, a tower, Ladd Tower. A demolition permit had been secured for the lot, but never used, this raised alarm bells in the preservationist community and a grass-roots campaign, the Friends of Ladd Carriage House, sprang into action to either save or move the old building.
One proposal was to move the Carriage House to Lair Hill, a compromise was agreed upon where the Ladd Carriage House would be moved temporarily while a new garage would be dug out, the building would be moved back onto the lot. The plans for the tower were scaled back so that the towers footprint only took up half the block. On June 16,2007, after ground was broken on Ladd Tower and this meant the house wouldnt need to cross the streetcar lines. It was moved back to its site on October 25,2008. Extensive exterior renovations occurred after the Ladd Carriage House moved back to its original site, in April 2009 the house was repainted, going from shades of blue to shades of brown. The house was restored to the National Register of Historic Places in 2010, interior renovations began in spring 2012, and the Raven and Rose restaurant opened in fall 2012. Architecture of Portland, Oregon National Register of Historic Places listings in Southwest Portland, Oregon Friends of the Ladd Carriage House Video of the Ladd Carriage House being moved
It is named after its use of linear stickwork on the outside walls to mimic an exposed half-timbered frame. Stick-style architecture is recognizable by the relatively plain layout, often accented with trusses on the gables or decorative shingles, the stickwork decoration is not structurally significant, being just narrow planks or thin projections applied over the walls clapboards. The planks intersect mostly at right angles, and sometimes diagonally as well, the style was commonly used in houses, train stations, life-saving stations, and other buildings from the era. Highly stylized and decorative versions of the Stick style are referred to as Eastlake. Stick-Eastlake is a term that uses details from the Eastlake Movement, started by Charles Eastlake. It is sometimes referred to as Victorian Stick, a variation of Stick, stick-Eastlake enjoyed modest popularity in the late 19th century, but there are relatively few surviving examples of the style when compared to other more popular styles of Victorian architecture.
Chatham Train Station in Chatham, Massachusetts Delaware and Hudson Railroad Passenger Station in Altamont, american houses, a field guide to the architecture of the home, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,2004
San Pedro, Los Angeles
San Pedro is a community within the city of Los Angeles, California. Formerly a separate city, it consolidated with Los Angeles in 1909, the Port of Los Angeles, a major international seaport, is partially located within San Pedro. The district has grown from being dominated by the industry to become primarily a working class community within the city of Los Angeles. The site, at the end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The peninsula, including all of San Pedro, was the homeland of the Tongva-Gabrieleño Native American people for thousands of years, in other areas of the Los Angeles Basin archeological sites date back 8, 000–15,000 years. The Tongva believe they have been here since the beginning of time, once called the lords of the ocean, due to their mastery of oceangoing canoes, many Tongva villages covered the coastline. Their first contact with Europeans in 1542 with João Cabrilho, the Portuguese explorer who was the first to write of them and Suangna were two Tongva settlements of many in the peninsula area, which was a departure point for their rancherias on the Channel Islands.
Legend has it that the Native Americans blessed the land of Palos Verdes, the Tongva called the San Pedro area Chaaw. San Pedro was named for St. Peter of Alexandria, a bishop in Alexandria. His feast day is November 24 on the ecclesiastical calendar of Spain. Santa Catalina Island, named after Catherine of Alexandria, was claimed for the Spanish Empire the next day, on her feast day, in 1602–1603, Sebastián Vizcaíno officially surveyed and mapped the California coastline, including San Pedro Bay, for New Spain. The anglicized pronunciation, popularized by the English-speaking people of Midwestern America, is san-PEE-dro, european settlement began in 1769 as part of an effort to populate California, although trade restrictions encouraged more smuggling than regular business. Rancho San Pedro is the site of the first Spanish land grant in Alta California, the land was granted in 1784 by King Carlos III to Juan Jose Dominguez, a retired Spanish soldier who came to California with the Gaspar de Portolà expedition.
When New Spain won its independence from the Spanish Empire and Alta California became part of Mexico, the restrictions were lifted. In 1888, the War Department took control of a tract of land next to the bay and this became Fort MacArthur in 1914 and was a coastal defense site for many years. Woodrow Wilson transferred 200 United States Navy ships from the Atlantic to the Pacific in 1919 when tension arose between the United States and Japan over the fate of China. San Diego Bay was considered too shallow for the largest ships, local availability of fuel oil minimized transportation costs, and consistently good weather allowed frequent gunnery exercises off the nearby Channel Islands of California. The heavy cruisers of the Scouting Force were transferred from the Atlantic to San Pedro in response to the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria, by 1934,14 battleships, two aircraft carriers,14 cruisers, and 16 support ships were based at San Pedro
Emlen Physick Estate
The Emlen Physick Estate is a Victorian house museum in Cape May, New Jersey, located at 1048 Washington Street. The mansion is closely related to Furnesss Knowlton Mansion in Northeast Philadelphia, the Physick Mansion is an example of “Stick Style” architecture in America. Many original furnishings are on display throughout the house, the Mid-Atlantic Center for the Arts & Humanities was formed in 1970 to save the Physick Estate from demolition. The city purchased the estate and MAC leases it from the city of Cape May, MAC has restored and operates the estate as a Victorian historic house museum and offers guided tours year-round. The Physick Estate was used as a location in the 1981 slasher film The Prowler, Cape May Historic District Emlen Physick Estate official site Photographs and drawings at the Historic American Buildings Survey Thomas, George E. Carl Doebley, Chris Zelov. Cape May, Queen of the Seaside Resorts, Its History, the Knossus Project, Mid-Atlantic Center for the Arts
Cape May, New Jersey
Cape May is a city at the southern tip of Cape May Peninsula in Cape May County, New Jersey, where the Delaware Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. One of the countrys oldest vacation resort destinations, it is part of the Ocean City Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the summer, Cape Mays population is expanded by as many as 40,000 to 50,000 visitors. The entire city of Cape May is designated the Cape May Historic District, the city was named for 1620 Dutch captain Cornelius Jacobsen Mey who explored and charted the area between 1611–1614, and established a claim for the province of New Netherland. It was settled by New Englanders from the New Haven Colony, what is now Cape May was originally formed as the borough of Cape Island by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 8,1848, from portions of Lower Township. It was reincorporated as Cape Island City on March 10,1851, Cape May began hosting vacationers from Philadelphia in the mid 18th century and is recognized as the countrys oldest seaside resort.
It became increasingly popular in the 18th century and was considered one of the finest resorts in America by the 19th century, in 1878 a five-day-long fire destroyed square blocks of the town center and as part of the reconstruction efforts replacement homes were almost uniformly of Victorian style. That designation is intended to ensure the preservation of these buildings. Cape May Naval facilities, listed below, provided significant help in reducing the number of ships, Cape May is generally low-lying, its highest point, at the intersection of Washington and Jackson Streets, is 14 feet above sea level. Unincorporated communities and place names located partially or completely within the city include Poverty Beach, Cape May borders West Cape May Borough, Lower Township, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Delaware Bay. The Cape May-Lewes Ferry provides transportation across the Delaware Bay to Lewes, Cape May Harbor Fest celebrates life in and around the harbor, with the 2011 event commemorating the 100th anniversary of the harbors creation.
Cape May is the southernmost point in New Jersey, it is at approximately the latitude as Washington. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Cape May has a subtropical climate, typical of coastal New Jersey, with hot, humid summers. Precipitation is distributed evenly throughout the year. Snowfall averages 15.7 inches per season, mostly from December to February. Extremes in temperature have ranged from −2 °F on January 17,1982 up to 106 °F on July 7,1966, since 1894, because of the warmer wintertime temperatures, Hardy Palms including Trachycarpus fortunei and Needle Palms work quite well in the landscape. Wine grapes do well, given the long growing season. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,607 people,1,457 households, the population density was 1,500.6 per square mile. There were 4,155 housing units at a density of 1,728.5 per square mile