Blair Drummond is a small rural community 5 miles north-west of the city of Stirling in the Stirling district of Scotland, predominantly located along the A84 road. Lying to the north of the River Forth, the community is within the county of Perthshire. A former resident of Blairdrummond House was enlightenment thinker Lord Kames whose wife inherited the house in 1766, four gold Iron Age torcs, known as the Stirling torcs, were found in Blair Drummond in 2009 and are now in the Museum of Scotland. Blair Drummond has a local authority primary school - Kincardine in Mentieth Primary School, a Church of Scotland church, Blair Drummond is the location of the Blair Drummond Safari Park, and a caravan park housed in the old walled garden of Blair Drummond House. Many of the residents of Blair Drummond are farmers, although others commute to Stirling, Blair Drummond is in the Stirling council area, although in the past it was part of Perthshire. Other communities bordering Blair Drummond are Gargunnock, Deanston, a community council covers both Thornhill and Blair Drummond, and the 2001 census for the area covered by the Thornhill and Blairdrummond Community Council put the population for the areas at 1,109
The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork yet found. It consists of over 3,500 items, amounting to a total of 5.1 kg of gold,1.4 kg of silver, the hoard was most likely deposited in the 7th century, and contains artefacts probably manufactured during the 6th and 7th centuries. It was discovered in 2009 in a field near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, the location was in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia at the time of the hoards deposition. The hoard is of importance in Anglo-Saxon archaeology. The artefacts are nearly all martial in character and contains no objects specific to female uses, the hoard was purchased jointly by the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery for £3.285 million under the Treasure Act 1996. Most of the items in the hoard appear to be military, and there are no objects, such as vessels or eating utensils, or feminine jewellery. Reportedly, the show every sign of being carefully selected. A summary of the contents of the hoard, as of late 2009, is shown in the table below.
This excludes items such as the horses head that were in one of the 33 soil blocks that had not been examined at the time of publication of these figures. The Staffordshire Hoard official press statement notes that the items in the hoard that are obviously non-martial are two crosses. Sharp has shown there are many pieces with a Christian connection. The largest of the three crosses is missing some decorative settings but otherwise remains intact, and it may have been an altar or processional cross and it could have been attached to the front of a book, such as a Gospel. Yet the cross is folded, either prior to burial to make it fit into a space or as a sign that the burial deposit was made by pagans. An alternative view is the sacredness was taken out of this cross, a gold and garnet fitting, made for the corner of a flat rectangular object, may be for the corner of a book-cover, which in this context would almost certainly have been a Gospel. One of the most intriguing items in the hoard is a strip of gold.
The passage is quoted fairly often, notably in the Life of the Mercian Saint Guthlac, the passage occurs in the context of Guthlacs meeting with Æthelbald, the king of Mercia, in which the saint foretells that the kings enemy would flee from your face. The parallel verse from Psalm 67, verse 2, occurs when Guthlac is driving away demons who appeared to him in a vision, sharp has suggested the inscription shows angst in the face of a great threat and this could only have been the Viking invasion. The incised strip appears to be the stem of a cross, the inscription most likely dates to the 8th century, with the late 7th or early 9th not to be ruled out
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British.
Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
There are two notable Ipswich Hoards. The first was a hoard of Anglo-Saxon coins discovered in 1863, the second was a hoard of six Iron Age gold torcs that was discovered in 1968 and 1969. The latter hoard has been described as only to the Snettisham Hoard in importance as a hoard from the Iron Age. It was reported as consisting of 150 coins, although only 75 are known now, the coins were all silver pennies of the reign of Æthelred the Unready, minted in London and Ipswich. It is tempting to associate this find with the ravaging of Ipswich which took place in 991, however clues in the coins indicate that the hoard may have been deposited between 979 and 985. The torcs were manufactured by twisting two strands of large diameter wire around each other and fashioning them into a near circle, the ends of the twisted wire are finished with terminal decorations. They are made from gold as they have a lower proportion of silver in them than finds. However the torcs may have used by many generations before they were hoarded away.
The museum estimates that the neck diameter of the people who wore these torcs was 18.7 centimetres. These would have created in wax around the ends of the wire. The wax is coated, at least once, with a ceramic slurry, the ceramic is heated which allows the wax to leave and gold is poured into the cavity. This lost wax process allows the terminals to include a level of detail that was created on the wax. The terminals created for these torcs were hollow, each of the torcs has a slightly different design for the left and right terminal. The 1968 finds are in room 50 of the British Museum, torc List of hoards in Britain
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982, Scottish and Irish editions of the daily paper were launched in 1947 and 2006 respectively. A survey in 2014 found the age of its reader was 58. It had a daily circulation of 1,510,824 copies in November 2016. Its website has more than 100 million unique visitors per month, the Daily Mail has been accused of racism, and printing sensationalist and inaccurate scare stories of science and medical research. The Mail was originally a broadsheet but switched to a format on 3 May 1971. On this date it absorbed the Daily Sketch, which had been published as a tabloid by the same company. The publisher of the Mail, the Daily Mail and General Trust, is currently a FTSE250 company, the paper has a circulation of around two million, which is the fourth largest circulation of any English-language daily newspaper in the world.
Circulation figures according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations in March 2014 show gross daily sales of 1,708,006 for the Daily Mail. According to a December 2004 survey, 53% of Daily Mail readers voted for the Conservative Party, compared to 21% for Labour, the main concern of Viscount Rothermere, the current chairman and main shareholder, is that the circulation be maintained. The Mail has been edited by Paul Dacre since 1992, the Daily Mail, devised by Alfred Harmsworth and his brother Harold, was first published on 4 May 1896. It cost a halfpenny at a time when other London dailies cost one penny, and was more populist in tone and more concise in its coverage than its rivals. The planned issue was 100,000 copies but the print run on the first day was 397,215, Lord Salisbury, 19th-century Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, dismissed the Daily Mail as a newspaper produced by office boys for office boys. By 1902, at the end of the Boer Wars, the circulation was over a million, from the beginning, the Mail set out to entertain its readers with human interest stories, serials and competitions.
In 1900 the Daily Mail began printing simultaneously in both Manchester and London, the first national newspaper to do so, the same production method was adopted in 1909 by the Daily Sketch, in 1927 by the Daily Express and eventually by virtually all the other national newspapers. Printing of the Scottish Daily Mail was switched from Edinburgh to the Deansgate plant in Manchester in 1968 and, for a while, in 1987, printing at Deansgate ended and the northern editions were thereafter printed at other Associated Newspapers plants. In 1906 the paper offered £1,000 for the first flight across the English Channel, punch magazine thought the idea preposterous and offered £10,000 for the first flight to Mars, but by 1910 both the Mails prizes had been won. Before the outbreak of World War I, the paper was accused of warmongering when it reported that Germany was planning to crush the British Empire
Art Fund is an independent membership-based British charity, which raises funds to aid the acquisition of artworks for the nation. It gives grants and acts as a channel for many gifts and bequests, as well as lobbying on behalf of museums and galleries and it relies on members subscriptions and public donations for funds and does not receive funding from the government or the National Lottery. Art Fund, named National Art Collections Fund, was founded in 1903 in order to help museums, the founders, who included Christiana Herringham, DS MacColl and Roger Fry, were prompted by what they saw as the inadequacy of government funding of museums. He said the Funds inertia and snobbish ineptitude are entirely characteristic of the art-officialdom in England, in 2005 Art Fund was caught up in the controversy surrounding the purchase by the Tate gallery of The Upper Room by Chris Ofili. In 2006 it was out when it was discovered that the Amarna Princess. In 2009 Art Fund led a campaign to save the Staffordshire Hoard.
Over £900,000 was raised through donations, and the campaign received substantial funds from trusts. As a result of the campaign, the £3.3 million treasure was acquired for Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent. In 2010 The Procession to Calvary by Pieter Brueghel the Younger, Art Fund worked with the National Trust to raise the £2.7 million required to purchase the painting for the National Trusts art collection. In 2013 King and McGaw partnered with Art Everywhere, a charitable project putting on the worlds largest art exhibition and this filled 22,000 billboards across the UK with art prints with all the profits going to the Art Fund. The Art Fund sponsors the Museum of the Year award and this is a £100,000 prize awarded annually to the museum or gallery that had the most imaginative, innovative or popular project during the previous year. Since Art Fund has supported a tour of the collection around the UK, by the beginning of 2011 ARTIST ROOMS tours had been seen by approximately 12 million people across Britain.
Art Fund, registered charity no.209174, office of the Scottish Charity Regulator
Roundhouse is a term applied by archaeologists and anthropologists to a type of house with a circular plan, usually with a conical roof. In the part of the 20th century modern designs of roundhouse eco-buildings started to be built using such as cob, cordwood or straw bale walls. Roundhouses were the form of housing built in Britain from the Bronze Age throughout the Iron Age. They used walls made either of stone or of wooden posts joined by wattle-and-daub panels, the Atlantic roundhouse and Wheelhouse styles were used in Scotland. The remains of many Bronze Age roundhouses can still be found scattered across open heathland, such as Dartmoor, most of what is assumed about these structures is derived from the layout of the postholes, although a few timbers have been found preserved in bogs. The rest has been postulated by experimental archaeology, which has shown the most likely form, for example, experiments have shown that a conical roof with a pitch of about 45 degrees would have been the strongest and most efficient design.
Peter J. Instead, smoke would have accumulated harmlessly inside the roof space, many modern simulations of roundhouses have been built, New designs of roundhouse are again being built in Britain and elsewhere. In the UK straw bale construction or cordwood walls with reciprocal frame green roofs are used, there is one manufacturer of contemporary Roundhouses in Cheshire, using modern materials and engineering to bring the circular floorplan back for modern living. It was subject to a lengthy planning battle including an injunction to force its demolition before finally receiving planning approval for 3 years in September 2008. A palloza is a thatched house as found in the Serra dos Ancares in Galicia, Spain. It is circular or oval, and about ten or twenty metres in diameter and is built to withstand winter weather at a typical altitude of 1,200 metres. The main structure is stone, and is divided internally into separate areas for the family and their animals, the roof is conical, made from rye straw on a wooden frame.
There is no chimney, the smoke from the kitchen fire seeps out through the thatch, as well as living space for humans and animals, a palloza has its own bread oven, workshops for wood and leather work, and a loom. Only the eldest couple of a family had their own bedroom. The rest of the family slept in the hay loft, in the roof space, see Castros in Spain Round houses can be found in various countries in Africa. In South Africa they are known by the Afrikaans word rondavel, modern roundhouses are being built such as the one at Dancing Rabbit ecovillage near Rutledge, built of cob. Roundhouses are still in use in Papua New Guinea and are similar to the ones built in western Europe
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, the Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for The Guardian. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders, the Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardians print edition had a daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US, the newspapers online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers, notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowlers phone.
The investigation led to the closure of the UKs biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, in 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the British Prime Minister David Camerons links to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of The Grauniad, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle and they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they better than those that do. When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, the prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty.
Warmly advocate the cause of Reform, endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and. Support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, in 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828. The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian the foul prostitute, the Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labours claims. The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators –, if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. CP Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised and he was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylors son in 1907. Under Scott, the moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
Vale of York Hoard
The Vale of York Hoard, known as the Harrogate Hoard and the Vale of York Viking Hoard, is a 10th-century Viking hoard of 617 silver coins and 65 other items. It was found undisturbed in 2007 near the town of Harrogate in North Yorkshire, the hoard was the largest Viking one discovered in Britain since 1840, when the Cuerdale hoard was found in Lancashire, though the Anglo-Saxon Staffordshire Hoard, found in 2009, is larger. On 6 January 2007, David Whelan, a businessman from Leeds, and his son Andrew. The Whelans told BBC News they have been metal detecting as a hobby for about five years and they found the hoard in an empty field that had not yet been ploughed for spring sowing. Later the field was searched but no evidence of a settlement or structure was found, about 30 cm underneath the soil, after parts of a lead chest that had been discovered were excavated, a silver bowl fell from the side of the dig. When it was examined on the ground and scraps of silver were visible, the Whelans reported the find to Amy Cooper, Finds Liaison Officer of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, this was one of the first finds reported to Cooper.
The pair were commended for displaying exemplary behaviour in not unpacking all the objects from the bowl, the hoard was transferred to the British Museum, where conservators excavated each find to preserve the objects and contextual information. The discovery was announced on 19 July 2007, the find will be valued by the Independent Treasure Valuation Committee for the Department for Culture and Sport. The hoard consists of 617 silver coins and 65 other items, including ornaments and these items were hidden in a gilt silver vessel lined with gold which is thought to possibly be an ecclesiastical vessel from Northern France either plundered or given as tribute. Vines and six running animals decorate the cup, the cup is so closely paralleled by the Halton Moor cup, conserved in the British Museum, that both must be from the same Carolingian workshop and were produced in the mid-ninth century. The vessel was buried in a lead chest, a rare gold arm ring, and hacksilver were found. The hoard had been protected by lead sheeting of some kind, the coins date from the late 9th and early 10th centuries, providing a terminus post quem for dating the hoard.
Another brief period of Viking rule in Northumbria followed Athelstan’s death in 939, it lasted until the expulsion and murder of the Viking king of Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, gareth Williams, curator of early medieval coins at the British Museum, examined the artifacts. The independent Treasure Valuation Committee valued the hoard at £1,082,000, the hoard was purchased jointly by York Museums Trust, and the British Museum with funding from the National Heritage Memorial Fund, The Art Fund and The British Museum Friends. From 17 September 2009 items from the hoard were on display in the Yorkshire Museum, the hoard was taken to the British Museum for further conservation work and was returned to the Yorkshire Museum for its reopening following a major refurbishment on 1 August 2010. The hoard was used in the British Museums Vikings exhibition from 6 March to 22 June 2014, list of hoards in Britain Bedale Hoard Media related to Vale of York Hoard at Wikimedia Commons Viking Hoard. In Pictures, Vale of York Hoard, the Vale of York Hoard on History of York.
The Vale of York Hoard Portable Antiquities Scheme record number SWYOR-AECB53, the Vale of York Hoard on the Portable Antiquities Scheme photostream on Flickr