SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stockholm Bloodbath

The Stockholm Bloodbath was a trial that led to a series of executions in Stockholm between 7 and 9 November 1520. The events were initiated directly after the coronation of Christian II as the new king of Sweden, after the guests on the crowning party were invited to a meeting at the castle. Archbishop Gustav Trolle demanding economic compensation for things such as the demolition of Almarestäket's fortress led to the question whether the former Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger and his supporters had been guilty of heresy. Supported by canon law, nearly 100 persons were executed in the days following the meeting. Among the executed, there were many people from the aristocracy, supporting the Sture Party in the previous years; the Stockholm Bloodbath was a consequence of conflict between Swedish pro-unionists and anti-unionists, between the anti-unionists and the Danish aristocracy, which in other aspects was opposed to King Christian. The anti-unionist party was headed by Sten Sture the Younger, the pro-unionist party by the archbishop Gustavus Trolle.

King Christian, who had taken measures to isolate Sweden politically, intervened to help Archbishop Trolle, under siege in his fortress at Stäket, but he was defeated by Sture and his peasant soldiers at Vedila, forced to return to Denmark. A second attempt to bring Sweden back under his control in 1518 was countered by Sture's victory at Brännkyrka. A third attempt made in 1520 with a large army of French and Scottish mercenaries proved successful. Sture was mortally wounded on 19 January; the Danish army, was approaching Uppsala, where the members of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates had assembled. The senators agreed to render homage to Christian, on condition that he give a full amnesty for past actions and a guarantee that Sweden should be ruled according to Swedish laws and customs. A convention to this effect was confirmed by the Danish Privy Council on 31 March. Sture's widow, Lady Kristina, was still resisting in Stockholm with support from the peasants of central Sweden, defeated the Danes at Balundsås on 19 March.

Her forces were defeated at the Battle of Uppsala on Good Friday, 6 April. In May, the Danish fleet arrived and Stockholm was attacked by land and sea. Lady Kristina resisted for four months longer, in the beginning of autumn the tide of war started to turn in Kristina's favor; the inhabitants of Stockholm had a large supply of food and fared well. Christian realized that his stockpile was dwindling and that it would doom his army to maintain the siege throughout the winter. Through Bishop Mattias, Hemming Gadh and other Swedes of high stature, Christian sent a proposal for retreat, advantageous for the Swedes. During a meeting on what is thought to be Beckholmen outside of Djurgården, Christian swore that all acts against him would be forgotten, gave pardon to several named persons. Lady Kristina would be given Hörningsholm and all Mörkön as a fief, promised Tavestehus in Finland; when this had been written down on paper, the mayor of the city delivered the keys to the city on Södermalm and Christian held his grand entry.

Shortly after, he sailed back to Denmark. On 4 November, Christian was anointed by Gustavus Trolle in Storkyrkan Cathedral and took the usual oath to rule the kingdom through native-born Swedes only. A banquet was held for the next three days. On 7 November, the events of the Stockholm bloodbath began to unfold. On the evening of that day, Christian summoned many Swedish leaders to a private conference at the palace. At dusk on 8 November, Danish soldiers, with lanterns and torches, entered a great hall of the royal palace and took away several noble guests. In the evening, many more of the king's guests were imprisoned. All these people had been marked down on Archbishop Trolle's proscription list; the following day, 9 November, a council, headed by Archbishop Trolle, sentenced the proscribed to death for being heretics. However many of them were leading men of the Sture party and thus potential opponents of the Danish kings. At noon, the anti-unionist bishops of Skara and Strängnäs were led out into the great square and beheaded.

Fourteen noblemen, three burgomasters, fourteen town councillors and about twenty common citizens of Stockholm were hanged or beheaded. The executions continued throughout the following day. According to the chief executioner Jörgen Homuth 82 people were executed, it has been claimed that Christian took revenge on Sten Sture's body, having it dug up and burnt, as well as the body of his child. Sture's widow Lady Kristina, many other noblewomen, were taken as prisoners to Denmark. Christian justified the massacre in a proclamation to the Swedish people as a measure necessary to avoid a papal interdict, when apologising to the Pope for the decapitation of the bishops, he blamed his troops for performing unauthorised acts of vengeance. If the intention behind the executions had been to frighten the anti-unionist party into submission, it proved wholly counterproductive. Gustav Vasa was a son of one of the victims of the executions. Vasa, upon hearing of the massacre, travelled north to the province of Dalarna to seek su

Hellidon

Hellidon is a village and civil parish about 5 miles south-west of Daventry in Northamptonshire, England. The parish area is about 1,600 acres; the village lies 520 feet –590 feet above sea level on the north face of an ironstone ridge. Its highest point is 670 feet above sea level, at Windmill Hill about 0.5 miles south-east of the village. The Leam and several streams feeding it rise in the parish; the 2011 Census recorded a parish population of 256. The Jurassic Way long-distance footpath linking Banbury and Stamford, Lincolnshire passes through; the Domesday Book of 1086 does not record Hellidon. In the 12th century a manor of four hides at "Eliden" was recorded as being of the fee of Berkhamsted. From the 13th century Hellidon had two manors: Giffords; the present manor house at the northwest end of the village is on the site of the former Baskervilles Manor. Giffords Manor was on the northeast side of the village, there are substantial rectilinear earthworks where the house is said to have stood.

The house had been abandoned by the time of Hellidon's 18th-century land surveys. The Church of England parish church of St John the Baptist is Decorated Gothic and hence either late 13th or early 14th century; the west tower survives in its medieval condition but in 1845–47 the nave and chancel were restored for the Rev C. S. Holthouse under the direction of the Gothic Revival architect William Butterfield. 20 years Butterfield designed the north aisle and the parish school, both of which were built in 1867. In 1897 a north aisle was added to the chancel, designed by Matthew Houlding. There is a north transept. St John's is now a Grade II* listed building; the west tower has a ring of five bells. Hugh II Watts, who had foundries at Bedford and Leicester, cast the fourth bell in 1615 and the second and tenor bells in 1635; the Whitechapel Bell Foundry cast the treble bell in 1993. Hellidon had a Nonconformist chapel in Berry Lane; the building is now a private house. Until the 1770s an open field system of farming prevailed in the parish.

There were five open fields, in 1726 they were mapped as Further Field, Lower Field, Middle Field, Upper Field and Short Attle Field. In 1774 Parliament passed an enclosure act for Hellidon and in 1775 the parish was surveyed for enclosure. On this map what had been Middle Field was marked as Hill Field and what had been Short Attle Field was Attle Field. On Windmill Hill a tower mill was built in early 19th century. By 1973 it was derelict but since the tower has been restored, it is no longer a mill, but is an ancillary building for the Windmill Vineyard, planted around it. A friendly society called the Institute was founded in Hellidon in 1805, it still existed in 1905. The earliest known record of a post office in Hellidon is from 1847; the first postmaster was John Wells, who described himself as a shoemaker in the 1841 Census but as a shopkeeper in 1849. By 1854 he was described as "Postmaster and Letter Receiver"; the Grange is a house designed by William Butterfield and built for Rev C. S. Holthouse.

The core is a small older house that Holthouse bought, but Butterfield enlarged for him in 1850 and again in 1861. It is a Grade II* listed building. Hellidon's highest recorded population was 449, in 1861. In August 1904 a fire in Cox's Lane destroyed three thatched cottages; the Great Central Main Line from the north of England to London Marylebone was built in the 1890s. It passed through the eastern edge of the parish in the 2,997-yard Catesby Tunnel, started in 1895 and completed in 1897. One of the tunnel's five air shafts is in Hellidon parish; the line opened for goods traffic in 1898 and its nearest passenger station opened in March 1899 at Charwelton, about 2 miles southeast of Hellidon village. British Railways closed the station in March 1963 and the line in September 1966. From 1917 until 1961 the Park Gate Iron and Steel Company had a quarry about 0.5 miles south of the village, on the southern boundary with Charwelton parish. From there it ran a 1.5-mile mineral railway down the Cherwell valley to take ironstone to the main line at Charwelton station.

A steam locomotive called Charwelton was built for the line in 1917, worked it until 1942, is now preserved on the Kent and East Sussex Railway. George Harry Dury and hydrologist, was born at Hellidon. Hellidon has a public house, the Red Lion and, as of January 2019, it still has a post office. Adkins, W. R. D.. M. eds.. A History of the County of Northampton. Victoria County History. 1. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. p. 370. Boyd-Hope, Gary. Railways and Rural Life: S. W. A. Newton and the Great Central Railway. Swindon: English Heritage and Leicestershire County Council. Pp. 85–89. ISBN 978-185074-959-2. Fell, Jenifer. Three Ells in Hellidon. Self-published. ISBN 0951565311. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Northamptonshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 252. ISBN 0-14-071022-1. RCHME, ed.. "Hellidon". An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the County of Northamptonshire. 3 – Archaeological sites in North-West Northamptonshire. London: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England.

Pp. 102–103. Map sources for Hellidon

Skinemax HD

Not to be confused with the U. S. premium channel Cinemax, colloquially nicknamed "Skinemax" due to its now-declining incorporation of late-night softcore pornographic films. Skinemax HD is a Canadian English language specialty channel that broadcasts pornographic films in high definition, it is owned by Fifth Dimension Properties Inc, a company wholly owned by Stuart Duncan, majority owner of Ten Broadcasting. In October 2012, Fifth Dimension Properties Inc. was granted approval by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to launch "Skinemax TV", a channel described as "a national, English-language specialty Category B service devoted to adult entertainment. The service will feature programming reflecting the latest trends in themes and styles of adult programming."The channel launched in late June 2013 on Shaw Direct, marking the first Canadian pornographic television channel to launch in HD. On March 15, 2019, the CRTC approved Fifth Dimension Properties' request to convert Skinemax TV from a licensed Category B specialty service to an exempted Cat.

B service. Official website