Saltsjöbaden is a locality in Nacka Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 9,491 inhabitants in 2010. It lies on the Baltic Sea coast. Saltsjöbaden was developed as a resort by Knut Agathon Wallenberg, a member of the wealthy and influential Wallenberg family, from farmland which he bought in 1891 through a newly created railway company. Saltsjöbaden was an independent municipality from 1909 to 1970. In 1971 it was reintegrated into Nacka Municipality; the local railway, built by Wallenberg and completed in 1893, connected Saltsjöbaden with Stockholm, with its terminus at Slussen. The railway was taken over by Storstockholms Lokaltrafik in the late 1960s and integrated in the Stockholm public transport system. Two luxurious hotels and a sanatorium were designed by architect Erik Josephson; the parish church, Uppenbarelsekyrkan, was built in 1910–13 and designed by Ferdinand Boberg with decoration by Olle Hjortzberg and Carl Milles, among others. The remainder of the land bought by the railway company was subdivided into plots.
The Stockholm Observatory was located in Saltsjöbaden from 1931 to 2001. The asteroid 36614 Saltis, discovered there in 2000, was named after a common nickname of the place; the larger of the two hotels, Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden, was the location of the negotiations between the Swedish Employers Association and the Swedish Trade Union Confederation, which led to the Saltsjöbaden Agreement on 20 December 1938. The agreement materialized into the social democratic class compromise, or form of industrial relations in Sweden, the so-called "Saltsjöbaden spirit", marked by willingness to co-operate and a cross-class, collective sense of responsibility for developments in the national labour market and in the Swedish economy generally. In the world of chess, Saltsjöbaden is famous for the 1948 Interzonal tournament won by David Bronstein of the USSR, the 1952 Interzonal won by Alexander Kotov of the USSR. Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden hosted the annual meeting of the Bilderberg Group in 1962, 1973 and 1984.
Kang Youwei, the reformer of Late Imperial China, visited Sweden after the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform. He bought an islet off Saltsjöbaden in 1904 and stayed there until he left Sweden in 1907; the islet is sometimes referred to in Chinese as Kang Youwei Island. Ivar Wickman, physician who discovered the epidemic and contagious character of poliomyelitis in 1907. Alice Habsburg and Polish resistance figure, died in Saltsjöbaden in 1985. John Engelbert, member in the rock duo Johnossi grew up in Saltsjöbaden. Fredrik Kessiakoff, two times Swedish Olympian grew up in Saltsjöbaden. Inger Brattström, author of many books for children, lived in Saltjsöbaden and died there in 2018, 97 years old. 2013 Saltsjöbanan train crash Media related to Saltsjöbaden at Wikimedia Commons
AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm Center for Physics and Biotechnology is a "research and education initiative run jointly by the Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University." Represented subjects include physics, astronomy and bioinformatics. The center hosts the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, as well as the House of Science, which aims to convey modern research to the public
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant or Stonehenge. Astronomical observatories are divided into four categories: space-based, ground-based, underground-based. Ground-based observatories, located on the surface of Earth, are used to make observations in the radio and visible light portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most optical telescopes are housed within a dome or similar structure, to protect the delicate instruments from the elements. Telescope domes have a slit or other opening in the roof that can be opened during observing, closed when the telescope is not in use. In most cases, the entire upper portion of the telescope dome can be rotated to allow the instrument to observe different sections of the night sky. Radio telescopes do not have domes.
For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population, to avoid the effects of light pollution. The ideal locations for modern observatories are sites that have dark skies, a large percentage of clear nights per year, dry air, are at high elevations. At high elevations, the Earth's atmosphere is thinner, thereby minimizing the effects of atmospheric turbulence and resulting in better astronomical "seeing". Sites that meet the above criteria for modern observatories include the southwestern United States, Canary Islands, the Andes, high mountains in Mexico such as Sierra Negra. A newly emerging site which should be added to this list is Mount Gargash. With an elevation of 3600 m above sea level, it is the home to the Iranian National Observatory and its 3.4m INO340 telescope. Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the US, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, Paranal Observatory in Chile.
Specific research study performed in 2009 shows that the best possible location for ground-based observatory on Earth is Ridge A — a place in the central part of Eastern Antarctica. This location provides the least atmospheric disturbances and best visibility. Beginning in 1930s, radio telescopes have been built for use in the field of radio astronomy to observe the Universe in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; such an instrument, or collection of instruments, with supporting facilities such as control centres, visitor housing, data reduction centers, and/or maintenance facilities are called radio observatories. Radio observatories are located far from major population centers to avoid electromagnetic interference from radio, TV, other EMI emitting devices, but unlike optical observatories, radio observatories can be placed in valleys for further EMI shielding; some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales and Chajnantor in Chile.
Since the mid-20th century, a number of astronomical observatories have been constructed at high altitudes, above 4,000–5,000 m. The largest and most notable of these is the Mauna Kea Observatory, located near the summit of a 4,205 m volcano in Hawaiʻi; the Chacaltaya Astrophysical Observatory in Bolivia, at 5,230 m, was the world's highest permanent astronomical observatory from the time of its construction during the 1940s until 2009. It has now been surpassed by the new University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory, an optical-infrared telescope on a remote 5,640 m mountaintop in the Atacama Desert of Chile; the oldest proto-observatories, in the sense of a private observation post, Wurdi Youang, Australia Zorats Karer, Armenia Loughcrew, Ireland Newgrange, Ireland Stonehenge, Great Britain Quito Astronomical Observatory, located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. Chankillo, Peru El Caracol, Mexico Abu Simbel, Egypt Kokino, Republic of Macedonia Observatory at Rhodes, Greece Goseck circle, Germany Ujjain, India Arkaim, Russia Cheomseongdae, South Korea Angkor Wat, CambodiaThe oldest true observatories, in the sense of a specialized research institute, include: 825 AD: Al-Shammisiyyah observatory, Iraq 869: Mahodayapuram Observatory, India 1259: Maragheh observatory, Iran 1276: Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, China 1420: Ulugh Beg Observatory, Uzbekistan 1442: Beijing Ancient Observatory, China 1577: Constantinople Observatory of Taqi ad-Din, Turkey 1580: Uraniborg, Denmark 1581: Stjerneborg, Denmark 1642: Panzano Observatory, Italy 1642: Round Tower, Denmark 1633: Leiden Observatory, Netherlands 1667: Paris Observatory, France 1675: Royal Greenwich Observatory, England 1695: Sukharev Tower, Russia 1711: Berlin Observatory, Germany 1724: Jantar Mantar, India 1753: Stockholm Observatory, Sweden 1753: Vilnius University Observatory, Lithuania 1753: Navy Royal Institute and Observatory, Spain 1759: Trieste Observatory, Italy 1757: Macfarlane Observatory, Scotland 1759: Turin Observatory, Italy 1764: Brera Astronomical Observatory, Italy 1765: Mohr Observatory, Indonesia 1774: Vatican Observatory, Vatican 1785: Dunsink Observatory, Ireland 1786: Madras Observatory, India 1789: Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland 1790: Real Observatorio de Madrid, Spain, 1803: National Astronomical Observatory, Bogotá, Colombia.
1811: Tartu Old Observatory, Estonia 1812: Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Italy 1830/1842: Depot of Charts & Instruments
Observatorielunden is a park in Stockholm's Vasastaden district. It stretches over the steep hill Observatoriekullen, one of the last remnants of Brunkebergsåsen, the esker that once reached across much of Norrmalm but was levelled during the development of that district. Observatorielunden is bordered by the streets Odengatan to the north, Sveavägen to the east, Kungstensgatan to the south, Drottninggatan to the southwest, Norrtullsgatan, Sandåsgatan and Gyldéngatan to the west; the Old Stockholm Observatory sits on top of the hill, Stockholm Public Library and the Stockholm School of Economics' main building lie at its edges. At the Old Stockholm Observatory there's a meteorological station which has measured temperature daily since 1756; this is the oldest continuous record of temperature in the world. The temperature is still measured daily there
Axel Johan Anderberg was a Swedish architect active from the 1880s to the early 1930s. During his early career he built several theatres, working in a mix of neo-baroque and art nouveau, while his work consisted of buildings for scientific and academic institutions in the purer neo-classicist style of the period. Anderberg received his education in the architectural school of the Royal Institute of Technology, the architecture section of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, after which he spent a year traveling to Germany and Italy, his first significant commission was the new Opera House in Stockholm, which replaced the gustavian opera building. After having won the contest for the building he spent additional time abroad for the particular purpose of studying theatre architecture, he designed the city theatres in Karlstad, Linköping and Kristianstad and the Oscarsteatern in Stockholm. Anderberg built the large new complex for the Swedish Museum of Natural History at Frescati outside Stockholm, several other scientific institutions in the same area, including the building for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
He built additional wings to the Royal Library building in Humlegården in Stockholm. For Uppsala University, Anderberg built the Paleontological Museum and an extension to the Carolina Rediviva. In 1931, the new building for the Stockholm Observatory was completed in Saltsjöbaden outside the city. Linköping City Theatre Kristianstad City Theatre Karlstad Theatre Uppsala University Paleontological Museum
Stockholm University is a public university in Stockholm, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960. Stockholm University has two scientific fields: the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. With over 34,000 students at four different faculties: law, social sciences, natural sciences, it is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia; the institution is regarded as one of the top 100 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Stockholm University was granted university status in 1960, making it the fourth oldest Swedish university; as with other public universities in Sweden, Stockholm University's mission includes teaching and research anchored in society at large. The initiative for the formation of Stockholm University was taken by the Stockholm City Council; the process was completed after a decision in December 1865 regarding the establishment of a fund and a committee to "establish a higher education institution in the capital".
The nine members of the Committee were respected and prominent citizens whose work have helped the evolution of science and society. The next important step was taken in October 1869, when the Stockholm University College Association was established. Several members of the committee became members of the association - including Professor Pehr Henrik Malmsten; the association's mission was to establish a university in Stockholm and would "not be dissolved until college came into being and its future could be secured." The memorandum of the Stockholm University College were adopted in May 1877, in the autumn semester of the following year, actual operations began. In 1878, the university college Stockholms högskola started its operations with a series of lectures on natural sciences, open to curious citizens. Notable in the university's early history is the appointment of Sofia Kovalevskaya to hold a chair in mathematics department in 1889, making her the third female professor in Europe. In 1904 the college became an official degree granting institution.
In 1960, the college was granted university status. The university premises were situated in central Stockholm at Observatorielunden but increased enrollment resulted in a lack of space, which required the university campus to be shifted to a bigger facility. Since 1970 most of the university operations are pursued at the main campus at Frescati north of the city center, the former Experimentalfältet used by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. Stockholm University is a state agency and is governed by the decisions coming from the government and parliament; the University has the right, within the limits the government provides, to decide on many issues such as their internal organization, admission of students and other administrative functions of the university. The University Board is the University's highest governing body; the board is responsible for the University as a government agency's mission and for following the requirements of laws and regulations. The board reports to the government.
It consists of eight external members, four business representatives from the university with two group alternates and three student representatives with an alternate. The University board is above the principal, the head of the authority and have operational responsibility for all operations; the principal has a vice president to replace him/her. At the university, there are two area councils, Area board of science and Area board of humanities and social sciences, they are headed by a vice principal. The area boards are responsible for strategic planning of education and research, coordination of faculty teaching and internal and external collaboration. After the district councils, the faculty boards are the highest decision-making bodies at the faculty level; the faculty boards consists of the dean, the assistant dean, other business representatives and student representatives. The deans are appointed by the president after proposal by choice within the faculty. After faculties, decisions are taken on the institutional level, where each department has a department head who manage and make decisions together with the institutional board.
The University administration is the preparation and service organization for the University board and other decision-making bodies, it is led by the executive director. The University administration has a number of administrative units in charge of different parts of the university administration, for example, finance department, IT department, HR department and the student section. There are three staff units: The strategy and communication unit that will help the university management with decision making; the Permanent Secretary is the most senior official at Stockholm University and decide on including university administration's organization and finances. The permanent secretary is titulated University Director. Education and research at Stockholm University is carried out within the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. Within these fields, there are four faculties with 65 departments and centers within the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. Research and training takes place at a number of centers and institutes with a separate governing board, but that organisationally belong to a department.
Stockholm University offers courses at both advanced level. There are 200 Bachelor's programmes, 75 master's programmes taught in English, 1,900 courses to choose from within science, hu