The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of following chewing, it performs a chemical breakdown due to hydrochloric acid. In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine, it secretes gastric acid to aid in food digestion. The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of digested food from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines. In humans, the stomach lies between the duodenum, it is in the left upper part of the abdominal cavity. The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm. Lying behind the stomach is the pancreas. A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach. Two sphincters keep the contents of the stomach contained.
The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic and sympathetic plexuses, which regulate both the secretory activity of the stomach and the motor activity of its muscles. In adult humans, the stomach has a near empty volume of about 75 millilitres; because it is a distensible organ, it expands to hold about one litre of food. The stomach of a newborn human baby will only be able to retain about 30 millilitres; the maximum stomach volume in adults is between 4 litres. In classical anatomy the human stomach is divided into four sections, beginning at the cardia, each of which has different cells and functions; the cardia is. The fundus is formed in the upper curved part; the body is the central region of the stomach. The pylorus is the lower section of the stomach; the cardia is defined as the region following the "z-line" of the gastroesophageal junction, the point at which the epithelium changes from stratified squamous to columnar. Near the cardia is the lower oesophageal sphincter. Recent research has shown that the cardia is not an anatomically distinct region of the stomach but region of the oesophageal lining damaged by reflux.
The stomach bed refers to the structures upon. These include the pancreas, left kidney, left suprarenal gland, transverse colon and its mesocolon, the diaphragm; the term was introduced around 1896 by Philip Polson of the Catholic University School of Medicine, Dublin. However this was brought into disrepute by surgeon anatomist J Massey; the lesser curvature of the human stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly and the left gastric artery superiorly, which supplies the cardiac region. The greater curvature is supplied by the right gastroepiploic artery inferiorly and the left gastroepiploic artery superiorly; the fundus of the stomach, the upper portion of the greater curvature, is supplied by the short gastric arteries, which arise from the splenic artery. Like the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the human stomach walls consist of an innermucosa outer submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa; the inner part of the lining of the stomach, the gastric mucosa, consists of an outer layer of column-shaped cells, a lamina propria, a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosa.
Beneath the mucosa lies the submucosa, consisting of fibrous connective tissue. Meissner's plexus is in this layer. Outside of the submucosa lies another muscular layer, the muscularis externa, it consists with fibres lying at angles to each other. These are the inner oblique, inner circular, outer longitudinal layers; the presence of the inner oblique layer is distinct from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which do not possess this layer. The inner oblique layer: This layer is responsible for creating the motion that churns and physically breaks down the food, it is the only layer of the three, not seen in other parts of the digestive system. The antrum has thicker skin cells in its walls and performs more forceful contractions than the fundus; the middle circular layer: At this layer, the pylorus is surrounded by a thick circular muscular wall, tonically constricted, forming a functional pyloric sphincter, which controls the movement of chyme into the duodenum. This layer is concentric to the longitudinal axis of the stomach.
Auerbach's plexus is found between the outer longitudinal and the middle circular layer and is responsible for the innervation of both The outer longitudinal layer is responsible for moving the bolus towards the pylorus of the stomach through muscular shortening. To the outside of the muscularis externa lies a serosa, consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum; the mucosa lining the stomach is lined with a number of these pits, which receive gastric juice, secreted by between 2 and 7 gastric glands. Gastric juice is an acidic fluid containing the digestive enzyme pepsin. Within the glands contains a number of cells, with the function of the
The First Nighter Program was a long-running radio anthology comedy-drama series broadcast from November 27, 1930, to September 27, 1953. The host was Mr. First Nighter (Charles P. Hughes, Macdonald Carey, Bret Morrison, Marvin Miller, Don Briggs and Rye Billsbury. An article in a 1939 newspaper observed, "First Nighter was the first show to present complete and separate original plays each week."The show's opening recreated the aural atmosphere of a Broadway opening. Before each week's drama began, Mr. First Nighter was first heard walking on Broadway, emerging from the noise of people and street traffic into the crowded lobby of "the Little Theater Off Times Square" and taking his seat in the third row center, where he gave the whispered introduction: The house lights have dimmed, the curtain is about to go up on tonight's production. Romantic comedies were the specialty of the series, the principal roles were played by the teams of Don Ameche and June Meredith and Betty Lou Gerson, Les Tremayne and Barbara Luddy and Olan Soule and Luddy.
Joseph T. Ainley produced and directed the series; the announcers were Vincent Pelletier. Music was provided by "The Famous First Nighter Orchestra", under the direction of Eric Sagerquist, Caesar Petrillo and Frank Worth; the most popular episode may have been the annual Christmas episode, "Little Town of Bethlehem,", first performed in 1937 and every year afterwards at the request of the listening audience. Performing before a studio audience, the actors wore formal attire, with Luddy in a gown and Tremayne clad in evening clothes and top hat. Commercial breaks were signalled with the usher's cry "Smoking downstairs and in the outer lobby only, please!", with the action resuming with a buzzer and the usher's curtain call. The series ran on four radio networks in the following timeline: NBC Blue Network: 11/27/30 to 09/29/33 NBC Red Network: 10/06/33 to 02/12/37 CBS: 02/19/37 to 12/21/37 NBC Red Network: 01/07/38 to 08/26/38 CBS: 09/02/38 to 05/29/42 Mutual: 10/04/42 to 10/25/44 CBS: 10/20/45 to 04/13/46 and 10/04/47 to 10/20/49 NBC: 04/27/52 to 09/27/53The show was sponsored by The Campana Company and featured commercials for their products.
Due in part to this exposure, their Italian Balm became the best-selling hand lotion in the United States in the 1930s. NPR: First Nighter opening in "Radio Legend Les Tremayne Dies" OTR Network Library: The First Nighter Program 16 1944-53 episode An interview with Barbara Luddy and Olan Soule Jerry Haendiges Vintage Radio Logs: The First Nighter Program "They Shall Be Free" -- A First Nighter story from Movie-Radio Guide, April 1943 Scripts of two First Nighter programs from The Generic Radio Workshop Script Library
Paxi or Paxoi and Antipaxoi or Antipaxos is the smallest island group within the Ionian Islands. In Greek it is a plural form; the largest islands are nearby Antipaxos. Antipaxos is famous for two of the finest sand beaches in the Ionian Sea; the main town of Paxoi, the seat of the municipality, is Gaios. The municipality has an area of 30.121 km2.. The area of the island is 76 square kilometers = just under 30 square miles. In Greek mythology, Poseidon created the island by striking Corfu with his trident, so that he and his wife Amphitrite could have some peace and quiet. Although it was inhabited from prehistoric times, the Phoenicians are traditionally held to have been the first settlers on Paxos; the name is believed to be derived from Pax. This island is noted for the Battle of Paxos, fought between the ancient Greek and Illyrian fleets during the First Illyrian War in 229 BC; the battle is recorded by the ancient historian Polybius. The Romans ruled the island from the 2nd century BC, during the Byzantine period and Middle Ages it was attacked by pirates.
After various rulers and Crusaders had passed through, the island was taken by the Venetians at the end of the 14th century. During the Napoleonic wars, the Ionian Islands were taken by the French and the Russo-Turkish alliance. On 13 February 1814, the island of Paxos surrendered to the Royal Navy frigate HMS Apollo and 160 troops from the 2nd Greek Light Infantry from Cephalonia and the 35th Regiment of the Royal Corsican Rangers. In 1815, the United Kingdom established the Ionian Union. In 1864, together with the rest of the Heptanese, Paxos was ceded to Greece; the island is eight miles in length and tipped up towards the west. The west coast is dominated by steep white, chalky cliffs that are eroded at sea level, harbour many'blue caves', which can be explored on launches departing from Gaios. Much of the attractive landscape is still covered in olive groves; these stretch from the harbour community in the north, through Magazia to Gaios, the capital. Olive oil making, soap manufacture and fishing were supplanted by tourism as the main industry in the mid sixties, resulting in a construction boom, which has altered the coastline around Gaios, the capital of the Paxiot demos.
There are jetfoil connections daily with Kerkyra and with the mainland at Igoumenitsa. Excursions via Corfu to Albania can be arranged with the local jetfoil operators; the province of Paxoi was one of the provinces of the Corfu Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Paxoi, it was abolished in 2006. Among well known semi-permanent British inhabitants were Audrey Good, former commander of the UN refugee bases in Epirus following the Greek Civil War, the late actor Peter Bull and actress Susannah York; some members of the Agnelli family have built a palatial holiday home—complete with faux medieval tower—on a small island situated near the southernmost tip of Paxos, close to the popular beach of Mongonissi. The presence of such residents, the development of the coastal area explains why Paxos has now become one of the most expensive pieces of real estate in Greece. One of Loggos's landmarks, the so-called'Manor House' was put on sale for 1.6M€ in 2006. Paxos is part of a European network called Cultural Village of Europe.
It hosts a yearly classical music festival. This festival takes place in late August/early September, however the 2010 festival is in doubt as sponsorship cannot be determined. Concerts are held in the now-disused school of Longos, Paxoi; the island is serviced by ferry boats from the mainland Greece port of Igoumenitsa and ferry boats from Corfu and from Bari and Brindisi. There is no airport but there was a owned seaplane service operated by AirSea Lines; as of late 2009, this service is no-longer operational. A dialect is spoken having a similar prosody, it is influenced by Italian. In his scientific article The Part-Time Parliament, Leslie Lamport presented his Paxos algorithm for distributed voting, inventing a society on a fictional ancient Greek island named Paxos as a whimsical illustration of an otherwise dry subject, he admitted that the allegory was a dismal failure, in that it failed to pique readers' interest in the underlying material. The Paxos Animal Welfare Society is a small Anglo-Greek charity, dating from 2005 and registered in the UK, whose purpose is to improve the plight of animals on this beautiful Greek island.
It has succeeded in making a substantial difference. Working with the municipality, it has established a new permanent surgery at Magazia, opened by the mayor in September 2013. Antipaxos Mogonisi Panagia Agios Nikolaos Katsonisi Apergatika Argyratika Arvanitakeika AronatikaDalietatika Gaios Gramatikeika Lakka Loggos Magazia Makratika Ozias Platanos Velianitatika Vlachopoulatika Zenebissatika Paxos International Music Festival The Prefecture of Corfu official page