The excavation of the site unearthed a series of both megalithic and neolithic construction phases, Almendres I6000 BC, Almendres II5000 BC, Almendres III4000 BC. Located off the roadway from Évora to Montemor-o-Novo, in the civil parish of Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe, it is situated just after the village of Guadalupe. The cromlech is located within the property,1.5 kilometres southwest, the location is a rural area on the southeast flank at a slope facing the sun rise of the Serra de Monfurado, isolated from the local community. A pedestrian trail was defined by the municipal council. The complex, organized in a pattern, is marked by a forest of about 95 granite monoliths. The older are designated by two or three concentric circles of smaller monoliths in the part of the complex, while the mid structures consist of two ellipses and large menhirs. In the Late Neolithic phase both structures suffered modifications, transforming into a site for social or religious rituals, ninety-two of the menhirs form two grounds, which were built and oriented to different directions associated with the Equinox.
Many of the stones were unearthed where they stood/fell, and were rebuilt/erected by Mario Varela Gomes, based on criteria established from research, the complexs latitudinal position is about the same as the maximum moon elongation, another latitude where this occurs is associated with Stonehenge. Although many are large solitary 2.5 to 3.5 metres rounded/elliptical stones, most are predominantly with small, the group is disseminated in an area of 70 by 40 metres, oriented along an axial alignment northwest to southeast. The columns show signs of erosion, especially in those surfaces exposed to the elements. These designs take the form of lines and radials, at least two on each stone, about a dozen monoliths present some form of carved drawings, four of which exhibit only small circular holes. These observations might be made from stone 39, on the focal point of the elliptic layout. Menhir 48, exhibits a schematized anthropomorphic representation, surrounded by circles, a isolated single menhir, approximately 4.5 metres tall and 0.9 metres in diameter is located near the residences, or 1400 metres northeast of the main complex.
A line from the Almendres Cromlech to this menhir points roughly towards the sunrise in the Winter solstice
There are three related types of Neolithic earthwork that are all sometimes loosely called henges. The essential characteristic of all three types is that they feature a bank and ditch, but with the ditch inside the bank rather than outside. Due to the poor defensive utility of an enclosure with an external bank, the three types are as follows, with the figure in brackets being the approximate diameter of the central flat area, Henge. There is typically little if any evidence of occupation in a henge, although they may contain ritual structures such as stone circles, Henge monument is sometimes used as a synonym for henge. Henges sometimes, but by no means always, featured stone or timber circles, the three largest stone circles in Britain are each in a henge. Examples of henges without significant internal monuments are the three henges of Thornborough Henges, although having given its name to the word henge, Stonehenge is an atypical henge in that the ditch is outside the main earthwork bank.
Like an ordinary henge except the central area is between 5 and 20 m in diameter, they comprise a modest earthwork with a fairly wide outer bank. Mini henge or Dorchester henge are sometimes used as synonyms for hengiform monument, an example is the Neolithic site at Wormy Hillock Henge. A Neolithic ring earthwork with the ditch inside the bank, with the flat area having abundant evidence of occupation. Some true henges are as large as this, but lack evidence of domestic occupation, super henge is sometimes used as a synonym for a henge enclosure. The word henge is a backformation from Stonehenge, the monument in Wiltshire. Stonehenge is not a true henge as its ditch runs outside its bank, the term was first coined in 1932 by Thomas Kendrick, who became the Keeper of British Antiquities at the British Museum. Sub groups exist for these two or three internal ditches are present rather than one. Henges are usually associated with the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age, and especially with the pottery of this period, Grooved Ware, Impressed Wares, sites such as Stonehenge provide evidence of activity from the Bronze Age Wessex culture.
Henges often contain evidence of a variety of features, including timber or stone circles, pits, or burials. A henge should not be confused with a circle within it, as henges. At Arbor Low in Derbyshire, all the stones except one are laid flat and do not seem to have been erected, often only the stone holes remain to indicate a former circle. Later monuments added after the henge was built might include Bronze Age cairns as at Arbor Low and their chronological overlap with older structures makes it difficult to classify them as a coherent tradition
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England,2 miles west of Amesbury and 8 miles north of Salisbury. Stonehenge consists of ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 4.1 metres high,2.1 metres wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC, one of the most famous landmarks in the UK, Stonehenge is regarded as a British cultural icon. It has been a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument since 1882 when legislation to protect historic monuments was first successfully introduced in Britain, the site and its surroundings were added to UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites in 1986.
Stonehenge is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage, Stonehenge could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. Deposits containing human bone date from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug, William Stukeley in 1740 notes, Pendulous rocks are now called henges in Yorkshire. I doubt not, Stonehenge in Saxon signifies the hanging stones. Like Stonehenges trilithons, medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them, rather than the inverted L-shape more familiar today, the henge portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as henges. Archaeologists define henges as earthworks consisting of a banked enclosure with an internal ditch. As often happens in archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarian use, Stonehenge evolved in several construction phases spanning at least 1500 years. There is evidence of construction on and around the monument that perhaps extends the landscapes time frame to 6500 years.
The modern phasing most generally agreed to by archaeologists is detailed below, features mentioned in the text are numbered and shown on the plan, right. Archaeologists have found four, or possibly five, large Mesolithic postholes and these held pine posts around 0.75 metres in diameter, which were erected and eventually rotted in situ. Three of the posts were in an east-west alignment which may have had significance, no parallels are known from Britain at the time. A settlement that may have been contemporaneous with the posts has been found at Blick Mead, a reliable year round spring 1 mile from Stonehenge. Salisbury Plain was still wooded but 4,000 years later, during the earlier Neolithic, people built an enclosure at Robin Hoods Ball. In approximately 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus was built 700 metres north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees, a number of other adjacent stone and wooden structures and burial mounds, previously overlooked, may date as far back as 4000 BC
Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric, the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule, cædwalla conquered Sussex and the Isle of Wight. His successor, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes, the throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew and it was during this period that the system of shires was established. Under Egbert, Sussex, Kent and Mercia and he obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830, during the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated.
When Æthelwulfs son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war, Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by his four sons, the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, and Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave and they returned in 876, but were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, during his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfreds son, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Edwards son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, and England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements.
During the Roman occupation numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London. The early 4th century CE was a time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360 that was stopped by Roman forces and they devastated many parts of Britain and laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, and Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368, the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murdered
County Cork is the largest and southernmost county of Ireland. It lies in the province of Munster and is named after the city of Cork, Cork County Council is the local authority for the county. Its largest settlements are Cork City and Carrigaline, in 2016, the countys population was 542,196, making it the third most populous county in Ireland. There are two local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the area of the county and city of Cork. The county, excluding Cork city, is administered by Cork County Council, both city and county are part of the South-West Region. For standardized European statistical purposes both Cork County Council and Cork City Council rank equally as first-level local administrative units of the NUTS3 South-West Region, there are 34 such LAU1 entities in the Republic of Ireland. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is divided into five constituencies—Cork East, Cork North–Central, Cork North–West, Cork South–Central, together they return 19 deputies to the Dáil.
The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections, for purposes other than local government, such as the formation of sporting teams, the term County Cork is often taken to include both city and county. County Cork is located in the province of Munster and it borders four other counties, Kerry to the west, Limerick to the north, Tipperary to the north-east and Waterford to the east. Cork is the largest county in the state by land area and it is the largest of Munsters 6 counties by both population and area. The population of Cork city stood at 125,622 in 2016, the population of the entire county is 542,196 making it the states second most populous county and the third most populous county on the island of Ireland. The remit of Cork County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the area of Cork City Council, there are 24 historic baronies in the county—the most of any county in Ireland. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, there are 253 civil parishes in the county. Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are approximately 5447 townlands in the county, the Shehy Mountains are on the border with Kerry and may be accessed from the area known as Priests Leap, near the village of Coomhola. The Galtee Mountains are located across parts of Tipperary, the upland areas of the Ballyhoura, Boggeragh and the Mullaghareirk Mountain ranges add to the range of habitats found in the county. Important habitats in the uplands include blanket bog, glacial lakes, Cork has the 13th highest county peak in Ireland. The three great rivers, the Bandon, the Blackwater and the Lee, and their valleys dominate central Cork, habitats of the valleys and floodplains include woodlands, marshes and species-rich limestone grasslands
Aberdeenshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the old County of Aberdeen which had different boundaries. Modern Aberdeenshire includes all of what was once Kincardineshire, as well as part of Banffshire, the old boundaries are still officially used for a few purposes, namely land registration and lieutenancy. Aberdeenshire Council is headquartered at Woodhill House, in Aberdeen, making it the only Scottish council whose headquarters are located outside its jurisdiction, Aberdeen itself forms a different council area. Aberdeenshire borders onto Angus and Perth and Kinross to the south and Moray to the west, traditionally, it has been economically dependent upon the primary sector and related processing industries. Its land represents 8% of Scotlands overall territory and it covers an area of 6,313 square kilometres. Aberdeenshire has a prehistoric and historic heritage. It is the locus of a number of Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites, including Longman Hill, Kempstone Hill, Catto Long Barrow.
The area was settled in the Bronze Age by the Beaker culture, in the Iron Age, hill forts were built. Around the 1st century AD, the Taexali people, who have little history, were believed to have resided along the coast. The Picts were the next documented inhabitants of the area, and were no than 800-900 AD, the Romans were in the area during this period, as they left signs at Kintore. Christianity influenced the early on, and there were Celtic monasteries at Old Deer. Since medieval times there have been a number of paths that crossed the Mounth through present-day Aberdeenshire from the Scottish Lowlands to the Highlands. Some of the most well known and historically important trackways are the Causey Mounth, Aberdeenshire played an important role in the fighting between the Scottish clans. Clan MacBeth and the Clan Canmore were two of the larger clans, macbeth fell at Lumphanan in 1057. During the Anglo-Norman penetration, other families such as House of Balliol, Clan Bruce. When the fighting amongst these newcomers resulted in the Scottish Wars of Independence, in 1307, Robert the Bruce was victorious near Inverurie.
Along with his victory came new families, namely the Forbeses and these new families set the stage for the upcoming rivalries during the 14th and 15th centuries
The nearest airport is Aberdeen Airport at Dyce. Inverurie is located in the valley of the River Don at the centre of Aberdeenshire and is known locally as the Heart of the Garioch and it sits between the River Don and the River Ury and is only 10 miles from the imposing hill of Bennachie. The town centre is triangular and is dominated by the grand Town Hall built in 1862, in the middle of the square is the Inverurie and District War Memorial, capped by a lone Gordon Highlander looking out over the town. The main shopping areas include the Market Place and West High Street which branches off from the centre towards the residential part of the town. South of the River Don is the village of Port Elphinstone, the word Inverurie comes from the Scottish Gaelic Inbhir Uraidh meaning Confluence of the Ury after the river which joins the Don just south of the town. In the 19th century, with the use of the postal service, many letters addressed to Inverury were being sent to Inverary in Argyll. The town council ordained that the name to be used for business should be Inverurie which they regarded as being the ancient spelling.
They asked the public to use this spelling in future and said that the Postmaster General had accepted the change, the town clerk made the official announcement on 20 April 1866. On a nearby hillside the Easter Aquhorthies recumbent stone circle dates back to the 3rd millennium BC, on the outskirts of the town the Brandsbutt Stone is a class I Pictish symbol stone with an ogham inscription. The House of Aquahorthies is at Burnhervie on the edge of Inverurie, the house served as a Catholic seminary until 1829 and since has been a private family home. During the Second World War, German planes would have seen several times. Inverurie itself was bombed once, leading to damage to the Inverurie Locoworks, Inverurie is a market town, now with a monthly Farmers Market, with many small shops and services. Its main industries other than service and commerce are agriculture, oil and, until International Paper closed the mill in March 2009, paper manufacture. Coombes, a sweet shop, was famed as being the oldest family-owned business in Scotland until the death of Colin Coombes in 1957 whereupon the business closed.
The Great North of Scotland Railway constructed its locomotive construction and repair works on a 15-acre site at Inverurie, agriculture continues to be a mainstay of Inveruries economy, as it has done since the towns inception. Lying beside Thainstone Mart, the mill was a big employer until the mill was closed in 2009. Following the discovery of North Sea oil in the mid-1970s, several oil service companies appeared in Inverurie, a 98,000 sq ft retail park opened in June 2009 with stores including Homebase, Lidl, Iceland, Home Bargains and Currys trading. The site is located near the centre, is close to the railway station and has 378 car parking spaces
County Kerry is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and is part of the province of Munster. It is named after the Ciarraige who lived in part of the present county, Kerry County Council is the local authority for the county and Tralee serves as the county town. The population of the county was 147,554 in 2016, Kerry is the fifth-largest of the 32 counties of Ireland by area and the 15th-largest by population. It is the second-largest of Munsters six counties by area, uniquely, it is bordered by only two other counties, County Limerick to the east and County Cork to the south-east. The diocesan see is Killarney, which is one of Irelands most famous tourist destinations, the Lakes of Killarney, an area of outstanding natural beauty are located in Killarney National Park. The tip of the Dingle Peninsula is the most westerly point of Ireland, there are nine historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, the county is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and on the north by the River Shannon. Just off the coast are a number of islands, including the Blasket Islands, Valentia Island, skellig Michael is a World Heritage Site, famous for the medieval monastery clinging to the islands cliffs. The county contains the extreme west point of Ireland, Dunmore Head on the Dingle Peninsula, or including islands, Tearaght Island, the most westerly inhabited area of Ireland is Dún Chaoin, on the Dingle Peninsula. The River Feale, the River Laune and the Roughty River flow through Kerry, the North Atlantic Current, part of the Gulf Stream, flows north past Kerry and the west coast of Ireland, resulting in milder temperatures than would otherwise be expected at the 52 North latitude. This means that plants such as the strawberry tree and tree ferns, not normally found in northern Europe. Because of the area and the prevailing southwesterly winds, Kerry is among the regions with the highest rainfall in Ireland.
Owing to its location, there has been a reporting station on Valentia for many centuries. The Irish record for rainfall in one day is 243.5 mm, in 1986 the remnants of Hurricane Charley crossed over Kerry as an extratropical storm causing extensive rainfall and damage. Kerry means the people of Ciar which was the name of the tribe who lived in part of the present county. The legendary founder of the tribe was Ciar, son of Fergus mac Róich, in Old Irish Ciar meant black or dark brown, and the word continues in use in modern Irish as an adjective describing a dark complexion
Little St Bernard Pass
The Little St Bernard Pass is a mountain pass in the Alps on the France–Italy border. Its saddle is at 2188 metres above sea level and it is located between Savoie and Aosta Valley, Italy, to the south of the Mont Blanc Massif, exactly on the main alpine watershed. There is a Great St. Bernard Pass and a San Bernardino Pass and this mountain pass is famous for giving the St Bernard breed its name. The road across this pass is open from May to October. For current road status see Etat des principaux cols routiers francais, at the summit, the road cuts through a stone circle measuring 72 m in diameter. A standing stone once stood in the middle, from coin finds this is believed to date from the Iron Age, possibly being a ceremonial site of the Tarentaisian culture. The stone circle was restored in the 19th century. In the Roman era, a dedicated to Jupiter was erected nearby along with a mansio serving travellers along the pass. For fit cyclists climbing the pass represents an interesting and historic challenge, from Bourg-Saint-Maurice to the south-west, over this distance, the climb is 1,348 m, with the steepest sections at 8. 1% at the start of the climb.
The first 15.5 km to La Rosière forms the Montée dHauteville climb, from Pré-Saint-Didier, the pass is 23.5 km long. Over this distance the climb is 1,184 m, the Little St Bernard Pass was first crossed by the Tour de France in 1949 and has been featured three times since. In 2007, Montée dHauteville was climbed on stage 8 of the Tour de France, the pass was featured in the 2009 Tour de France Stage 16 on 21 July from Martigny to Bourg-Saint-Maurice,160 km, which features the Great St Bernard Pass. The climb was Everested on September 2,2016 by Lee Townend and they made 7 consecutive ascents on bicycles over the course of 1 day,1 hour and 33 minutes. List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes Profile of Little St. Bernard Pass on climbbybike. com Little St. Bernard Pass in Tour de France Photos of Little St. Bernard Pass
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition, although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing, according to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems.
The overall period is characterized by use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques, tin must be mined and smelted separately, added to molten copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of use of metals. The dating of the foil has been disputed, the Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics, the usual tripartite division into an Early and Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people, ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations. The earliest mention of Babylonia appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC, the Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC.
Over 100 years later, it took over the other city-states. Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use, by that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use. Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia, in the Old Elamite period, Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it
Ulster is a province in the north of the island of Ireland. In ancient Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a rí ruirech, the definition of the province was fluid from early to medieval times. It took a shape in the reign of King James I of England when all the counties of Ireland were eventually shired. This process of evolving conquest had been under way since the Norman invasion of Ireland, particularly as advanced by the Cambro-Norman magnates Hugh de Lacy, Ulster was a central topic role in the parliamentary debates that eventually resulted in the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Under the terms of the Act, Ireland was divided into two territories, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland, with the passing through the province. While these six counties and two boroughs were all in the province of Ulster, three other counties of the province – Cavan and Monaghan – were assigned to the Irish Free State. Ulster has no function for local government purposes in either country. However, for the purposes of ISO-3166-2, Ulster is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code IE-U.
It has suggested to have derived from Uladh plus the Norse suffix ster. The Irish name, Cúige Uladh, means the province of the Ulaid, the Ulaidh were a group of tribes who dwelt in the region. Ulaidh has historically been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia, the latter two have yielded the terms Ulidian and Ultonian. Words that have used in English are Ullish and Ulsterman/Ulsterwoman. Northern Ireland is often referred to as Ulster, despite including only six of Ulsters nine counties and this usage is most common amongst people in Northern Ireland who are unionist, although it is used by the media throughout the United Kingdom. Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster in this context, Ulster has a population of just over 2 million people and an area of 21,552 square kilometres. About 62% of the area of Ulster is in the UK while the remaining 38% is in the Republic of Ireland. Ulsters biggest city, has an population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland.
Three Ulster counties – Cavan and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland, about half of Ulsters population lives in counties Antrim and Down. 8% to 42. 7%. While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of government in the Republic of Ireland